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MAR ii 1992 
THE Allen County Public Library 





VOL. 1-No. 1. 

MARCH. 1917. 

Printed for the Society 
Savannah, Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year. 



v rf 


Introduction By Jos. B. Gumming. 3 

The Georgia Historical Society, Its Organization, Evo- 
lution, and Work By the Editor. 6 

The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, Its Founda- 
tion and Activities By Alexander R. Lav/ton. 13 

Remarkable Career of Basil Cowper, Gov. Telfair's 

Partner By William Harden. 24 

The Late Dr. Francis Sorrel, A Picturesque Charac- 
ter By Wm. W. Mackall. 36 

Early Cotton Culture in Georgia. . Newspaper Extracts. 39 

Early Settlers — The Minis Family. . . . . . 

. By the Genealogical Editor. 45 

Extracts From Early Numbers of The Georgia Gazette. 49 

Evan P. Howell By a Georgian. 52 

Roster of Martin's Artillery Company of Confederates, 

Evan P. Howell, Commanding 57 

Wilkes County, Its Place in Georgia History 

.By Otis Ashmore. 59 

Queries and Answers. 69 

Editor's "Notes. 72 


Hodgson Hall. ;.'..._ Frontispiece 

Mary Telfair. 13 

Evan P. Howell . ...C .... 52 






VOL. 1-No. 1. 

MARCH, 1917. 

Printed for the Society 
Savannah, Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year. 






William W. Mackall, President. 

Thomas J. Charlton, First Vice-President. 

Otis Ashmore, Second V.-Pres. and Cor. Sec. 

Charles F. Groves, Recording Secretary and Treasurer. 

William Harden, Librarian and Editor of the Quarterly. 


Otis Ashmore. 

George J. Baldwin. 

R. Preston Brooks. 

Thomas J. Charlton. 

Henry C. Cunningham. 

Wymberley W. DeRenne. 

Charles Ellis. 

Lawton B. Evans. 

William W. Gordon. 

Alexander C. King. 

Alexander R. Lawton. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Mackall. 

J. Florance Minis. 

William W. Williamson. 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman. 

Charles Ellis. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Williamson. 

Mrs. Anna B. Karow. 





Vol L MARCH, 1917. No. 1. 


To the First Number of the Georgia Historical Society's 
Quarterly Magazine. 


Georgia Historical Society was created to "collect, 
preserve and diffuse information in relation to the State of 
Georgia in all its various departments and American history 
generally, and to create an historical library for the use of 
its members and others." Thus, in a commercial, not to say 
sordid, age, absorbed in money making and material pursuits 
generally, there exists here in our midst alongside the great 
stream of business, politics and social riot, more or less 
frivolous and vulgar, a peaceful, placid little realm, seques- 
tered for the resort of quieter and less material pursuits. As 
such a resort its scope has been widened by its alliance with 
The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. So since this 
most suitable marriage, here we have an institution in which 
flourishes the appropriate association of Record and Illus- 

Georgia Historical Society is a venerable and worthy 
citizen of the State, whose name it bears. Its claim to be 
venerable is based on the fact that it has lived among us 
since the year 1839— a period short, it is true, in the history 
of States but long in comparison with human life. Its claim 
of worth it finds in its fairly good performance of two out of 
the three of its prescribed functions. It has done well in 
Collecting information and in preserving it, with the result 
that it has become an institution of profound interest to the 
student of history and of immeasurable value to the writer 
of it. 


But it was created to "collect, preserve and diffuse." 
This last mentioned function it has neglected up to this day 
of grace. Now in its maturity, if we are to apply to the 
stages of its life the measure of experience, or in its youth if 
we may gauge its existence by its hopes and aspirations of 
the future — now it proposes to take up earnestly and to 
prosecute vigorously the hitherto neglected branch of its 
duties — the work of "diffusion." To this end its Curators 
have decided to publish a Magazine, the first number of 
which is issued with these few words of introduction. 
Georgia Historical Society here enters on a new phase. 
Hitherto its work has been collection and preservation. 
Henceforward it will be collection, preservation and diffusion. 

Its Magazine, while primarily for the purpose of diffu- 
sion, it is believed will aid materially in collection. Its 
pages will be open to those, who, knowing generally un- 
known scraps of history and more than willing to communi- 
cate them, have hitherto had no ready way of doing so. To 
such the Magazine will be both a facility and an invitation. 
It is believed that there are lodged in the memory of living 
persons, hitherto unpublished, matters of real historic 
interest, which may be collected in the pages of the Maga- 
zine, but which would otherwise pass away, unrecorded, 
with their silent possessors. Indeed it is a melancholy 
reflection that probably much of such wealth has already 
been irrevocably lost for lack of the facility which is now 
offered for gathering and garnering it. There is past history 
and history in the making, and the Magazine in its role of 
collector will deal with both. 

The Magazine's usefulness in the work of collection is 
obvious, but especially is the Magazine the Society's late 
day response to the duty of "diffusion" — not merely diffusion 
of information, but diffusion of itself — the Society's self — its 
proclamation of the fact that it is not, as in a measure it has 
come to be regarded, a local affair, a Savannah institution. 
There has been no design in any quarter to make it such. 
The impression that such it is is the result of the accident 
of location and because its members and supporters have 
been mainly in Savannah. It is hoped that the Magazine 
will, in this particular, change both the impression itself 
and the fact which created it. The Society's name is 
"Georgia Historical Society." Its name indicates its sphere. 
It should, it will henceforward, live up to its mission. It is 
believed that the publication of the magazine will be a long 
stride in the Society's quickened career. It will remind 
those, into whose hands it comes, that there is such a thing 


as "Georgia Historical Society" — a fact unknown to thou- 
sands, who ought to know it, and known to others — who 
forget it. Its hope is to win members and incidentally to 
increase the subscriptions, on which the Society mainly 
depends for its support and efficiency. But distinctly beyond 
any financial aim of the enterprise, the mission of the Maga- 
zine is to make Georgia Historical Society known to the 
world — its existence, its aspirations, its facilities and its 
opportunities, and to extend these facilities and opportun- 
ities to "all and singular" — to those who feel that they have 
a message to deliver about the history of the State or of the 
Country; and to those who wish to avail themselves of its 
possessions, — it may be said with modesty, of its treasures. 

The Society considers it a fact of most auspicious augury 
that Mr. William Harden is to be the Editor of the Maga- 
zine. For something more than a half century he has been 
the Society's Librarian, and through that long period he 
has given it the service of a cultivated mind and the devotion 
of a loving heart. He is thoroughly familiar with — it may 
be said steeped in — its history and in the history of the 
State. If success for the Magazine can be secured by the 
zealous efforts of an editor of culture, discrimination and 
taste, its success is assured from the start. 

So with this Introduction Georgia Historical Society's 
Magazine is launched. Let cheers and good wishes attend 
it as it slides out on the sea of literature, and accompany it 
in all its voyages. But more than this, let brave efforts be 
made to assure its prosperity and make certain its mission — 
efforts by all its members, present and to be, to extend its 
circulation; and efforts by those, who have messages to 
deliver concerning its work, to fill its pages with matter of 
high quality in form and in substance, so that this visitor 
to the homes of our people, issuing quarterly from the 
bosom of the good old Society, will be welcomed for the 
pleasure and instruction it brings and for the style and tone, 
in which it imparts them. 

Surely to the people of Georgia, to the friends of Georgia, 
everywhere, to students of history, to writers of history, to 
all who are attracted to the intellectual and spiritual side of 
life, not in vain will be the appeal to sustain an institution 
conceived in public spirit and living without taint of selfish- 
ness, or commercialism, or narrow partisanship or weari- 
some politics — a little sunlit island in the more or less dreary 
sea of our material life— Scilicet GEORGIA HISTORICAL 




It may be laid down as a general rule that in the in- 
auguration of any public enterprise there is to be found, in 
some degree at least, the element of self interest on the part 
of the author, or authors, of the project. Selfishness, like 
Truth at the bottom of the well, will be found somewhere 
beneath the surface. This proposition holds good in con- 
sidering the facts attending the founding of the Georgia 
Historical Society. A hint of this is given in a statement 
on the part of one of the organizers, Dr. William Bacon 
Stevens, afterwards Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Pennsylvania, that "The splendid autographical 
collection of I. K. TefTt, Esq., together with the many valu- 
able documents in his possession pertaining to the colonial 
and revolutionary history of Georgia, suggested the import- 
ance of such a society, and it was immediately determined 
by Mr. Tefft and Mr. Wm. B. Stevens to proceed without 
delay to its formation." Evidence is not wanting to show 
that, through the means of his office as Corresponding Sec- 
retary, the former, who really proposed the scheme, added 
considerable material to his collection of autographs ; and 
it was significant, to say the least, that Dr. Stevens had long 
before that expressed his intention to write a history of 
Georgia ; and as soon as the new Society was fairly or- 
ganized he was invited to take up that work under the 
Society's auspices. Pie did accomplish the task, and the 
Society contributed liberally to the fund for printing the 
two volumes, thus acquiring the ownership of a large num- 
ber of copies, many of which are still in its possession. 

Dr. Stevens added : "This measure was first decided on 
towards the close of April, 1839, and, at the suggestion of 
Mr. TefTt, the latter endeavored to prepare the way and 
awaken attention to the subject by two articles on this 
topic, which appeared in the Savannah Georgian of May 
following. These individuals were now joined by a third, 
Richard D. Arnold, M. D., and after many conferences as to 
the best method of procedure, they resolved to address a 
circular to those whom they thought would be interested in 
their design." So it happened that the first step towards the 
organization was taken by three gentlemen, and that of them 
Dr. Arnold alone was apparently entirely disinterested. But, 
notwithstanding the fact that self interest entered largely 
into this matter, we must give them credit for doing a good 


thing, for the exhibition at that time of what we now call 
"public spirit ;" and verily "their works do follow them." 

The first meeting of the invited persons was held in the 
room of the Savannah Library Society, May 24, 1839, at 
which twenty-five were present, and then the names of 
twenty-seven others, who could not be present, were, by 
their consent, added to the list of those desiring to co-oper- 
ate and become members. An adjourned meeting was held 
June 4, at which the organization of the Society was com- 
pleted by the election of officers and the adoption of a con- 
stitution and by-laws, which had been submitted at the 
previous meeting and referred to a committee to be revised. 
The officers elected were: 

President — Hon. John McPherson Berrien. 

First Vice President — Hon. James M. Wayne. 

Second Vice President — Hon. Wm. B. Bulloch. 

Corresponding Secretary — I. K. Tefft, Esq. 

Recording Secretary — Dr. Wm. Bacon Stevens. 

Treasurer — George W. Hunter, Esq. 

Librarian — Henry Kirk Preston, Esq. 

Curators — Wm. Thorne Williams, Chas. S. Henry, John 
C. Nicoll, Wm. Law, Richard D. Arnold, Robert M. Charl- 
ton, Matthew Hall McAllister. 

The society was incorporated by the Legislature in 
December, 1839, and by the terms of the act of incorporation 
the copies of the manuscripts obtained from the State 
Paper office in London, by Rev. C. W. Howard, agent of the 
State of Georgia, in that behalf, were deposited in the 
society's archives. Although the organization was not per- 
fected until the month of June, it was decided to date the 
origin of the institution as the 12th of February — the day 
(new style) of the landing of General Oglethorpe. 

In 1840, the first volume of the Society's Collections, 
was published, and this was followed in 1842 by the second 
volume. The first is now out of print. 

Upon the petition of the society, in 1842, the City Coun- 
cil of Savannah granted to it a city lot on Liberty street for 
the erection of a library building, but as its situation was 
unsuitable, efforts were made in 1847 to purchase from the 
U. S. Government the lot on Bryan street, on which the 
Custom House formerly stood, that building having been 
destroyed in the great fire of 1820. These were successful, 
and to enable the society to pay for its new lot the City 
Council granted it the Liberty street lot in fee simple, with 
permission to sell it and devote the proceeds to the pur- 
chase of the Custom House lot. 


In 1848 the Society issued in pamphlet form "A sketch 
of the Creek Country in the Years 1798 and 1799," by Col. 
Benjamin Hawkins, the earliest agent of the United States 
for Indian affairs, and, as it was then making preparations 
for building a library hall the late Wm. B. Hodgson, Esq., 
kindy offered to superintend and bear the expense of the 
publication of this work. His generous offer was accepted, 
and the pamphlet appeared as the first part of the third 
volume of the "Collections of the Georgia Historical 

Mr. Hodgson joined the Society shortly after his mar- 
riage with Miss Margaret Telfair and his taking up his 
residence in Savannah, and, because of his active interest in 
its affairs, he was elected a Curator on the 12th of February, 
1845, and was annually thereafter re-elected to that office 
until February, 1870. 

Judge Berrien held the presidency until 1841, when he 
was succeeded by the Hon. James M. Wayne who retired 
in 1854, when the former was again made President and 
continued in office until January, 1856. Then, on that occa- 
sion of the Society's anniversary, Judge Wayne resumed 
the position and retained it to the year 1862. 

The society took possession of its new building on 
Bryan street in June, 1849. In the fall of this year the debt 
of the society, incurred by the erection of its hall, amounted 
to $1,400, which sum was advanced by the late Dr. James 
P. Screven, with the understanding that it could be repaid 
at the convenience of the society. This debt was reduced 
by payments until it amounted, in February, 1852, to the sum 
of $800; and at the anniversary meeting of that year Dr. 
Screven sent the following letter to the society: 

Savannah, February 12, 1852. 
"Hon. James M. Wayne, President: 

"Dear Sir — I propose, with the permission of the society 
over which you preside, to cancel the mortgage held by me 
on its lot and improvements on Bryan street. 

"This day being the anniversary of the society presents 
an appropriate occasion for the performance of an act which 
will free it from debt and enable it to extend the sphere of 
its usefulness. I have the honor to be respectfully yours, 

"James P. Screven." 

Besides this generous gift, Dr. Screven had originally 
subscribed $200 towards the erection of the hall. 

During the months of June and July, 1847, negotiations 
were carried on between the Georgia Historical Society and 


the Savannah Library Society, looking to a union of these 
two institutions, which union was speedily effected with- 
out any serious opposition. By it the Georgia Historical 
Society secured for its library about 2,500 volumes. 

From the time of the completion of the Society's hall, 
until the close of the war of secession, very little was done 
in the way of increasing the library, and nothing in the way 
of publishing. Shortly after the war, however, a fresh start 
was taken, more thought and attention were given to the 
wants of the library, and it was deemed advisable for the 
society, in order to place it on a footing with other historical 
societies of the country, to put forth a new volume of col- 
lections, as soon as practicable. 

In saying that nothing was published during the period 
just mentioned, we mean that no volume of Collections had 
been issued. From time to time addresses had been de- 
livered which were printed and distributed in pamphlet 
form, by Wm. Law, Robert M. Charlton, Wm. B. Stevens, 
Mitchell King, John E. Ward, Wm. A. Caruthers, Bishop 
Stephen Elliott, Samuel K. Talmage, Alonzo Church, a 
second lecture by Judge R. M. Charlton, a second by Hon. 
John E. Ward, Charles C. Jones, Jr., and a strong paper by 
Bishop Elliott (in February, 1866, while he was President, 
and less than a year before his death). The last was in the 
nature of a reply to a resolution of the Society asking him 
to suggest a plan to increase the usefulness of the Society. 
Following the death of Bishop Elliott, Mr. Solomon Cohen 
was appointed to deliver a eulogy on his life and character, 
and it was put into print. 

In the meanwhile Dr. Thaddeus Mason Harris pub- 
lished his Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe, 
and dedicated it to the Society; and the two volumes of the 
History of Georgia, 'by Wm. B. Stevens (the first in 1847, 
and the second in 1859), prepared, as already mentioned, 
under the Society's auspices, came from the press and 
brought the institution more conspicuously before the 

In the summer of 1870, when it was found that the 
library had increased to an extent which necessitated the 
procuring additional room in which to place the books, and 
when it was thought that the library should be removed to 
a more convenient and central location, various attempts 
were made to secure a lot for the erection of a building, or 
to lease some large building adapted to the purpose of a 
library. No definite action was taken in this matter until 
the spring of 1871, when an arrangement was made with 


the Chatham Artillery by which the two upper floors of 
Armory Hall were leased by the Society for the term of 
five years, and accordingly, in June of that year, the library 
was removed to that building, where it remained until the 
completion of that elegant structure erected by Mrs. Mar- 
garet Telfair Hodgson for the Society, on the corner of 
Whitaker and Gaston streets, in memory of her husband, 
and called Hodgson Hall. 

The next important incident in the history of the So- 
ciety was the publication in 1871, of that very interesting 
volume by the late Anthony Barclay, Esq., relating the 
history of Hon. Richard Henry Wilde's alleged plagiarism 
in writing the beautiful poem beginning, 

"My life is like the summer rose." 

This history was written as a personal favor to the 
President of the Society, and read by him at one of the 
meetings, when, by a resolution, the work was ordered to 
be printed at the Society's expense, provided the consent of 
the author could be obtained. Permission was kindly given 
by Mr. Barclay, and in a short time afterwards appeared the 
beautiful little brochure entitled, "Wilde's Summer Rose; 
or the Lament of the Captive." 

In 1873 a third volume of collections was published 
composed of the letters of Gen. Oglethorpe to the trustees 
of the colony from 1735 to 1744 ; letters of Sir James Wright, 
Governor of the Province of Georgia, to the English Secre- 
taries of State, from 1773 to 1782 ; and a report on the condi- 
tion of the province by Governor Wright, in reply to in- 
quiries from the Earl of Dartmouth. The manuscript of the 
last named document was kindly given to the Society by 
G. W. J. DeRenne, Esq., who caused it to be copied at his 
own expense from the records in London. All the material 
of which this interesting volume is composed was obtained 
from England through the kindness of Mr. DeRenne, who 
volunteered to superintend the copying of the same for the 
Society during a visit to England, but his kindness and 
generosity did not stop here. In 1878, learning that Col. 
Charles C. Jones, Jr., of Augusta, had ready for the press a 
manuscript entitled "The Dead Towns of Georgia," he 
offered to bear the expense of its publication if the author 
would consent to its appearing as the fourth volume of the 
"Collections of the Georgia Historical Society." This re- 
quest was readily complied with by Col. Jones, and in a 
short time the Society was, through the liberality of Mr. De- 


Renne, presented with a large edition of a fourth volume of 
collections, containing the work on the "Dead Towns," and 
an interesting paper, reprinted from the London Magazine 
for the year 1745, entitled, "Itinerant Observations in 

On the 26th of June 1871, William B. Hodgson, Esq., 
for many years a member of the Society, and for twenty-five 
years one of the curators, died while at the North, and his 
widow, desiring to erect to his memory a building bearing 
his name, proposed to grant it, when completed, to the Geor- 
gia Historical Society unon certain conditions, which, being 
submitted to the Society, were assented to, and the work of 
building commenced in 1873. While the work was in prog- 
ress Mrs. Hodgson died without having made any provi- 
sion for its completion. Her sister, Miss Mary Telfair, de- 
siring to carry out the intentions of Mrs. Hodgson, gave in- 
structions to the workmen to continue their labors until the 
building should be finished, and being her sister's residuary 
legatee, she made a deed in trust to General A. R. Lawton, 
for the use of the Society, of the lot and building thereon, 
"in an unfinished and incomplete state, but to be finished 
and completed at the proper cost and expense of the said 
Mary Telfair who does hereby charge the entire residuum 
of the estate of the said Margaret Telfair Hodgson, in her 
own hands now as residuary legatee, or in the hands of her 
executors, after her death, to such extent as will furnish 
the means and funds necessary to finish and complete said 
structure." Before the completion of the building Miss Tel- 
fair also died, but the work was carried on agreeably with 
the terms of the deed, and in September, 1875, the library 
was placed in Hodgson Hall. The formal dedication did not 
take place until the thirty-seventh anniversary of the So- 
ciety, February 14th, 1876, when formal possession of it was 
delivered to the Society by the trustee, and the dedicatory 
address was delivered by the. President, Hon. Henry R. 

Taking a backward step, we observe that the Hon. 
Charles S. Henry succeeded Judge Wayne as President in 
1862, and served until his death, August 19, 1864. In less 
than a month later Bishop Stephen Elliott became Presi- 
dent and his service came to a close by his sudden death on 
the 21st of December, 1866. Reluctantly Mr. John Stoddard 
consented to accept the office when he was chosen at the 
annual meeting, February 12, 1867, but declined a re-election 
the following year, when Hon. Edward J. Harden succeeded 
him, and held the office until death brought his term to a 


close April 19, 1873. Mr. George W. J. DeRenne was elected 
President at the meeting held June 2, 1873, and, after hesi- 
tating, agreed to accept, but could not be persuaded to allow 
his name to be proposed for another election at the 1874 an- 
nual meeting. At that meeting Hon. Henry R. Jackson was 
the choice of the Society, and was President a little more 
than twenty-four years, his death on the 23rd of May 1898, 
bringing his long and most satisfactory term of service to 
an end. 

In the year 1901 the fifth volume of Collections was 
issued in two parts. Part 1 was printed and paid for by 
the Savannah Chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution who earnestly desired to have the manuscript of 
the Minutes of the Georgia Council of Safety, owned by the 
Society, published. Mr. W. J. DeRenne kindly offered to 
bear the expense of the publishing of the Order Book and 
Letter Book of General and Governor Samuel Elbert, in the 
Society's possession, and his offer was gratefully accepted, 
and the material forms the second part of volume five. 

The sixth volume was published in 1904, and contains 
the Letters of Hon. James Habersham, 1756-1776. 

Col. John Screven was elected President March 6, 1899, 
succeeding General Jackson, but his career was cut short 
after less than a year of useful service by his death January 
9, 1900. Following him, Hon. George Anderson Mercer 
held the offke from February 12, 1900, to April 5, 1907. 

From 1909 to 1913 the seventh volume of Collections 
came from the press in three parts : part 1 being Letters of 
Montiano — Siege of St. Augustine ; part 2, Oglethorpe Mon- 
ument ; and part 3, the Spanish Account of the Attack on the 
Colony of Georgia, etc. 

Again, later in 1913 the eighth volume of Collections, 
containing the Letters of Joseph Clay, 1776-1793, and a list 
of ships and vessels entered at the port of Savannah for May, 
1765, 1766 and 1767, saw the light. 

Mr. Alexander Rudolf Lawton succeeded Hon. G. A. 
Mercer as President, April 5, 1907, and declined re-election 
in 1914, when Mr. William W. Mackall was elected and is 
still serving in a most acceptable way at this time. 

In 1916 the Society published the ninth volume of Col- 
lections, and it is composed of the Letters of Benjamin 
Hawkins, 1796-1806. 

In continuation of the list of addresses and other pam- 
phlets already mentioned, the Society has issued a number 
of others which, for the want of space, are not here named. 



Purposely no mention has been made herein of the 
splendid adjunct to the Georgia Historical Society, namely, 
the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, as a special ar- 
ticle has been prepared on that useful institution, by an able 
writer, for this number of the Quarterly, and it appears 

(Georgia Historical Society, Trustee.) 


The Georgia Historical Society in its seventy-eight 
years of life has rendered service in several separate and 
distinct ways. Primarily, it has collected, preserved, and 
disseminated Georgia History. Many years before the Civil 
War it saved from dissolution through bankruptcy and ab- 
sorbed the Savannah Library Society, and successfully 
maintained in Savannah until about fifteen years ago, in 
addition to the historical library which it still maintains, an 
excellent circulating library of miscellaneous literature. 
When it ceased this function, it turned over its building and 
books to the City of Savannah for the first establishment of 
a municipal public library. This arrangement terminated 
in the autumn of 1916 with the opening of Savannah's new 
Public Library building, where the nucleus of the collection 
consists of books surrendered to it by the Society. 

More foreign to the purposes of a historical society is 
its fourth activity, the inauguration, maintenance, and man- 
agement of the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
Savannah, of which institution it is trustee and administra- 
tor under the will of Mary Telfair, its generous founder. 

Edward Telfair, born in Scotland in 1735, emigrated to 
Virginia at the age of twenty-three. In 1766 he settled in 
Savannah, and was a prominent member of the Sons of 
Liberty, and one of the band who, with James Habersham, 
broke open the magazine at Savannah and removed a quan- 
tity of powder. He was a member of the Council of Safety, 
conspicuous throughout the Revolution, a member of the 
Continental Congress, a signer of the Articles of Confeder- 
ation, and twice Governor of Georgia. 

Margaret, daughter of Edward Telfair, married Wil- 
liam Brown Hodgson, who spent many years of his life in 
his country's service in the East, and is distinguished for 
his studies of 'Oriental life and language and his collection 
of rare books and manuscripts pertaining thereto. During 



her lifetime, as a memorial to her husband, Mrs. Hodgson 
began the erection of Hodgson Hall, the Historical Society's 
handsome home on Gaston and Whitaker streets in Savan- 
nah, but died before it was completed, leaving her sister, 
Mar\' Telfair, as her residuary legatee. Miss Telfair under- 
took to complete the gift by trust deed to General A. R. 
Lawton, as Trustee, on June 10, 1874, charging the residuum 
of Mrs. Hodgson's estate, then in her hands, with the ex- 
pense of completing the building. It was actually com- 
pleted and delivered to the Society after Miss Telfair's 

Mary Telfair, who remained unmarried, died on June 
2, 1875, one hundred years after the Battle of Lexington, 
which opened the Revolution in which her distinguished 
father had participated. She was the last survivor of the 
name, and the conspicuous manifestation of her will is her 
desire to perpetuate it by charitable gifts. She founded and 
endowed in Savannah the Telfair Hospital for Females, the 
Telfair Home for Widows, and the Telfair Academy of Arts 
and Sciences ; and made bequests to the Presbyterian Church 
in Telfairville in Burke County and to the Presbyterian 
Church on Telfair street in Augusta. 

Her estate was valued at about seven hundred thousand 
dollars, a very large sum for those days. Her nearest rela- 
tives were the grandchildren of an aunt and the great grand- 
children of a brother. With none of them was she on terms 
of intimacy, and they were practically excluded from her 
benefactions. Each set claiming to be sole heirs-at-law, both 
sets contested her will, and in the lower court it was set 
aside in favor of the great grandchildren of her brother on 
the ground of monomania. The Supreme Court of Geor- 
gia (Wetter vs. Habersham, 60 Ga. 193) reversed the judg- 
ment, holding the true heirs-at-law to be the grandchildren 
of the aunt. The will was finally admitted to probate in 
solemn form. It was then attacked by the grandchildren of 
the aunt through a bill in equity in the United States Court 
on the ground that many of the legacies and bequests were 
null and -void for various technical reasons, and that they 
should lapse and go to those who had been declared by the 
Supreme Court to be her heirs-at-law. Mr. Justice Bradley 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, distinguished 
as a great judge and also as the fifteenth member of the 
Electoral Commission of 1877, decided the case in all its 
phases against the contestants, and his decree (3 Woods, 
443) was afterwards affirmed by the Supreme Court of the 
United States (Jones vs. Habersham, 107 U. S., 174). 


The item of Miss Telfair's will with reference to the 
Telfair Academy is as follows : 

"Fourteenth, I hereby give, devise and bequeath to 
the Georgia Historical Society and its successors, all that 
lot or parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements 
thereon, fronting on St. James Square, in the City of Savan- 
nah, and running back to Jefferson street, known in the plan 
of said city as lot letter 'N,' Heathcote Ward, the same hav- 
ing been for many years past the residence of my family, to- 
gether with all my books, papers, documents, pictures, statu- 
ary, and works of art, or having relation to art or science, 
and all the furniture of every description in the dwelling 
house and on the premises (except bedding and table service, 
such as china, crockery, glass, cutlery, silver, plate and 
linen), and all fixtures and attachments to the same, to have 
and to hold the said lot and improvements, books, pictures, 
statuary, furniture and fixtures, to the said Georgia His- 
torical Society and its successors, in special trust, to keep 
and preserve the same as a public edifice, for a Library and 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, in which the books, pictures 
and works of art herein bequeathed, and such others as may 
be purchased out of the income, rents and profits of the be- 
quest hereinafter made for that purpose, shall be perma- 
nently kept and cared for, to be open for the use of the public, 
on such terms and under such reasonable regulations as the 
said Georgia Historical Society may from time to time pre- 
scribe ; but this devise and bequest is made upon condition 
that the Georgia Historical Society shall cause to be placed 
and kept over and against the front porch, or entrance of 
the main building on said lot, a marble slab or tablet, on 
which shall be cut or engraved the following words, to-wit : 



the word Telfair' being in larger letters and occupying a 
separate line above the other words, and on the further con- 
dition that no part of the buildings shall ever be occupied 
as a private residence or rented out for money, and none but 
a Janitor and such other persons as may be employed to 
manage and take care of the premises shall occupy or reside 
in or upon the same, and that no part of the same shall be 
used for public meetings or exhibitions, or for eating, drink- 
ing or smoking, and that no part of the lot or improvements 
shall ever be sold, alienated or encumbered, but the same 
shall be preserved for the purposes herein set forth. And it 
is my wish that whenever the walls of the building shall re- 


quire renovating by paint or otherwise, the present color and 
design shall be adhered to as far as practicable. For the 
purpose of providing more effectually for the accomplish- 
ment of the objects contemplated in this item or clause of 
my will, I hereby give, devise and bequeath to the Georgia 
Historical Society and its successors, one thousand shares 
of the capital stock of the Augusta and Savannah Railroad, 
of the State of Georgia, in special trust, to apply the divi- 
dends, income, rents, and profits arising from the same, to 
the repairs and maintenance of said buildings and premises, 
and the payments of all expenses attendant upon the man- 
agement and care of the institution herein provided for, and 
then to apply the remaining income, rents and profits in 
adding to the Library, and such works of art and science as 
the proper officers of the Georgia Historical Society may 
select, and in the preservation and proper use of the same, 
so as to carry into effect in good faith the objects of this 
devise and bequest." 

This legacy was attacked on the ground that the Geor- 
gia Historical Society was without power under its charter 
to accept the trust, and that the legacy must lapse and go 
to the heirs-at-law. It was held that, as no trust could fail 
for want of a trustee, if the charter powers of the Society 
were limited as claimed, it would not help the heirs, as the 
court would appoint new trustees who were qualified. 

Very shortly after Miss Telfair's death the Georgia 
Historical Society had promptly determined to accept the 
Trust, and had entered upon consideration of the best plan 
for the discharge of the duty confided to it ; but its activities 
were necessarily suspended during the period of litigation. 
It was not until May 18, 1883, nearly eight years after Miss 
Telfair's death that the legacy was delivered to the Society. 
It will be a blow to the popular impression of will contests 
to learn that the Society then received not only the residence 
and its contents and all the railroad stock which had been 
devised and bequeathed to it, but the additional sum of 
$47,060.33, income accumulated during the protracted litiga- 

The promptness and efficiency with which the Trustee 
proceeded with its task is shown by the first opening of the 
Academy for private view on the Society's forty-sixth anni- 
versary, February 12th, 1885. It was finally opened to the 
public as a complete gallery of art on May 3, 1886. The Cen- 
tennial of the Chatham Artillery was then being celebrated 
in Savannah with great pomp and ceremony, and Jefferson 
Davis was one of the visitors on that occasion. In this con- 


nection it is interesting- to note that, excluding the contents 
of Miss Telfair's house which she bequeathed to the Acad- 
emy, the first work of art which the Academy acquired was 
through gift on February 12th, 1880, while the litigation was 
still in progress, of a bronze statuette, a replica of the bronze 
Confederate Soldier which tops the Confederate Monument 
in the Park Extension at Savannah, erected in May, 1879. 
The statue and the replica in little were both the gifts of 
Georgia's generous citizen, George Wymberly Jones De- 

The task which confronted the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety was indeed difficult. Not only were there no artists 
among Savannah's citizens, but it is doubtful if they then in- 
cluded any with even the elementary knowledge of a con- 
noisseur. It is natural that they did not include men ex- 
perienced in the inauguration of an academy of art, the 
successful devising of practicable plans, and the selection 
of contents appropriate to the purposes and wishes of the 
testatrix; the artistic cultivation and education of the com- 
munity. It would have been strange indeed if such men 
had been found upon the Board of Curators of a Historical 
Society. The best evidence of the efficiency with which 
they nevertheless proceeded is that in the Telfair Academy 
Savannah now possesses a building and a plant admirably 
adapted for an art gallery and a collection of works of art 
of recognized high merit. 

Necessarily in the beginning there was much uncer- 
tainty and some vacillation. That they were not afraid to 
change 'their minds and to abandon, for those that were 
better, plans formally adopted, shows that Savannah was 
fortunate in the personnel of the men to whom the task was 
confided. The President was General Henry R. Jackson, 
distinguished as a poet, an orator, a lawyer, and a diplomat. 
The two Vice-Presidents had served their country as Brig- 
adier Generals in the Confederate Army ; one of them, Gen- 
eral G. Moxley Sorrel, who had entered the Confederate 
Army as a private, was Chairman of the Telfair Academy 
Committee during the formative period, and for several 
years thereafter. Colonel John Screven, a man of high culti- 
vation, succeeded him. 

Nevertheless there were narrow escapes. Before the 
Society had found its first Director, the Curators seriously 
considered a proposition to begin their work in the establish- 
ment of an Academy of Arts with the "decoration" in leather 
of one of the rooms of the Telfair mansion by a self-styled 
artist who had come to Savannah to "decorate" Savannah's 


old theatre, which is more distinguished for its age (it is said 
to be the oldest in the United States, being built in 1818) 
than for its beauty. After careful consideration they suc- 
cessfully weathered the storm of inexperience, and in sail- 
ing their uncharted sea avoided a course far too ambitious 
and comprehensive for the funds at their disposal, involving 
the establishment and maintenance of an expensive library 
of arts and sciences, a scientific museum, an elaborate 
art school, and a museum of fine arts. All of these are within 
the scope of the Trust, but the narrow resources of the 
Academy have substantially confined the Trustees to the es- 
tablishment of a museum of art, with incidental teaching. 
The first actual purchase, however, in which the funds of 
the Academy were invested, included handsome volumes of 
the works of Hogarth and Gilray, and a valuable work on 

It was in August, 1883, very shortly after the beginning 
of their work that the curators procured the services of the 
late Carl Ludwig Brandt, N. A., as Director of the Academy. 
A German by birth and an American by adoption, Mr. 
Brandt had been for many years a well known and success- 
ful painter. He possessed wonderful energy, ingenuity, and 
versatility. He had been successful in life, and was willing 
to devote his time and energies to the Academy for small 
compensation, correctly believing that it would be his mon- 
ument. He was magnetic, self-confident, and masterful. 
The minutes of the Curators during the formative and con- 
structive period which covered the next five or ten years 
show that he was resourceful, ambitious, full of suggestion, 
and that practically every recommendation of policy or ex- 
penditure which he made was endorsed and carried out, how- 
ever formidable it might appear. 

For twenty-two years Mr. Brandt gave to the work sub- 
stantially his whole time, residing in the Academy or the 
Annex for many months of the year. On January 21st, 1905, 
he died within the institution which he had builded so wisely 
and loved so well. A bronze tablet on the walls of the en- 
trance hall attests the Society's appreciation of the work 
which he did. Without such a guiding hand it would have 
been practically an impossibility to establish the Academy 
on the basis which has permanently fixed its character as a 
gallery of art appropriately housed. It would have been 
difficult, if not impossible, to find another man who would 
have been both qualified and willing to devote such energy, 
time, zeal, and skill to the work for a compensation which 
the Trustee would have been able to pay. All who are in- 


terested in the Telfair Academy will forever hold him in 
loving and grateful memory as its first Director and the 
founder of its artistic excellence. 

With the assistance of an architect of his own selection, 
Mr. Brandt made the plans and superintended the construc- 
tion, rendering from time to time detailed accounts which 
are carefully preserved in the records of the Academy. Im- 
mediately after his induction into office he was sent to 
Europe with a credit of $20,000 for the acquisition of casts 
of the great classical statues of the world, and the purchase 
of paintings. He afterwards made at least three similar 
trips to Europe to acquire other works of art. Each time 
he returned full handed. It soon developed that even with 
the accumulated and the current income the funds of the 
Academy were not sufficient to establish an art gallery 
such as Mr. Brandt and the Curators hoped and intended to 
establish, and it was then that General Jackson advanced 
the necessary monies. The exact cost of the original un- 
dertaking is not easy to ascertain, but the records show 
that in June, 1886, the total expenditures for all purposes 
had exceeded $104,000. 

In adapting the old Telfair mansion to the purposes of 
an art gallery no avoidable alterations were made, it being 
the desire of the Curators to preserve it in its original form 
so far as practicable. The living rooms on the first floor 
and the bedrooms on the second floor remain as they were 
when occupied by Miss Telfair, save only the covering of 
the walls with proper material for the handling of pictures, 
the closing of the windows in the second story, and the plac- 
ing of skylights in order to get the best light for the dis- 
play of the collection. They make admirable picture gal- 
leries. Most of the alterations and additions were com- 
pleted when the Academy was opened in 1883, but some of 
the work has been done within the past ten years as funds 
were available. 

From income alone, accumulated and current, the orig- 
inal fund being still unimpaired, (1) expensive alterations 
were made in the interior of the Telfair mansion; (2) one of 
the handsomest picture galleries in America and an ex- 
cellent sculpture hall (two separate rooms) were con- 
structed as a first annex; (3) a small residence for the 
Director (now occupied by the Custodian), containing two 
suitable studios, was erected as a second annex; and, (4) 
the entire collection of casts, sculpture, paintings, carving, 
porcelains, photographs, etc., was acquired. The Academy 
has been free from debt for more than ten years. 


It would hardly have been possible for the Academy to 
be housed in the buildings which it has occupied since 1883 
but for the accumulations of income during the protracted 
litigation over Miss Telfair's will, and the public spirit and 
generosity of General Jackson, the Society's President, in 
advancing funds necessary for construction of buildings 
and acquisition of contents, and accepting repayment in in- 
stalments from the income produced by Miss Telfair's en- 
dowment. Until 1892 this income was $7,000 per annum, 
and since that date it has been only $5,000 per annum. The 
advances made from time to time by General Jackson ag- 
gregated over $26,000. Protracted litigation and a ready 
willingness to borrow money generally bring disaster. 
Here they clearly contributed in no small degree to the crea- 
tion of an institution which has no rival in any city of its size. 

Just after the death of Mr. Brandt the last instalment 
of all the indebtedness of the Academy was paid. At that 
time the Trustee had succeeded in constructing and equip- 
ping an Academy of Art in accordance with Miss Telfair's 

The abolition of pay days has taken away from the 
Academy the small additional income formerly derived 
from admissions. Its gross income is therefore confined to 
the five thousand dollars of annual dividends from the Tel- 
fair endowment. From this must first be paid all expenses, 
including the salaries of custodian and janitor, heating, 
lighting, repairs and fire insurance, which latter, as the 
value of the collection increases, becomes more burdensome. 
This leaves but a small margin for the purchase of pictures ; 
and yet since the debt incurred in the inauguration of the 
Academy has finally been paid, the Academy has acquired 
fifty-three pictures, every one of which is recognized by 
connoisseurs as a work of superior merit. 

It is regrettable that only twice, and then to a very 
small extent, has the Academy received funds other than 
those bequeathed to it by Miss Telfair. In 1889 it received 
$3,072.90, raised by public subscription in Savannah, and in 
1906, $2,000 presented by four members of the Society, both 
of these sums being expended in the acquisition of paintings 
now in the permanent collection. 

For many years there were no free days, the admission 
fee being twenty-five cents. For many years there were 
two free days in each week. Now all days are free. The 
Curators believe that they can best carry out the purposes 
of the founder by giving to the public the fullest and freest 
opportunity to see and to study the entire collection. They 


try to do even more. The Academy's own collection is sup- 
plemented from time to time by exhibits from elsewhere, 
which also are open to the public without charge. There 
have been several during the past few years, notably 
Boutet de Monvel's charming series of pictures of the life of 
Joan of Arc ; several exhibits of American paintings assem- 
bled by the American Federation of Arts ; etchings assem- 
bled by the Chicago Society of Etchers; paintings by Gari 
Melchers, one of America's most distinguished artists; 
paintings by Alfred Philippe Roll, who, as President of the 
French Salon is the successor of Meissonnier, Carolus 
Duran, and Puvis de Chavannes. In this last were included 
several paintings belonging to the French Government and 
sent to this country with the sanction of the Premier, not- 
withstanding the pendency of the Great European War. 
There have also been many other exhibits, including paint- 
ings by distinguished artists of all nationalities. 

The activities of the current season are unusual in their 
scope, including an exhibition of the paintings of William 
P. Silva, a native of Savannah ; an exhibition of etchings, 
with a lecture ; an exhibition of water colors gathered by the 
American Water Color Society; a selection of sixty paint- 
ings from the well known biennial exhibit in the Corcoran 
Gallery of the works of contemporary American artists, 
supplemented by twenty-one specimens of the paintings 
of foreign artists of high distinction; and a series of three 
lectures by Henry Turner Bailey. As this paper is written 
the Board of Curators has authorized the necessary ex- 
penditure for the establishment of an art school for both 
elementary and advanced pupils, to be affiliated with and 
located in the Academy, and aided from its funds. 

One of the attractive features of the Academy is the old 
Telfair family dining room, now called "The Telfair Room," 
containing many specimens of furniture, ornaments, fam- 
ily portraits, even rich silk damask curtains, all from the 
contents of the Telfair residence, many paintings purchased 
by Miss Telfair abroad, and the fine old books constituting 
the library. Here, over one of the two quaint and hand- 
some old mantels, hangs the fine portrait of Miss Telfair 
which Mr. Brandt painted on the order of the Trustee. 

It would take a connoisseur to describe the Telfair 
Collection. The limits of this paper do not permit even a 
listing. There is an excellent catalog compiled in 1914, with 
supplemental lists of later acquisitions. The collection of 
casts is fully up to the standard. It includes the frieze of 
the Parthenon placed in the cornice of the smaller cast 



room and the entrance hall, the east pediment of the Parthe- 
non, consisting of six pieces, and seventy-nine casts of the 
classical sculptures of the world, among them the massive 
Tauro Farnese from the Naples Museum. All of these were 
specially made for the Telfair Academy through the agency 
of Director Brandt on his first trip to Europe. 

The walls of the main cast room are adorned with five 
mural paintings representing the Roman Campagna, the 
Acropolis at Athens, the Pyramids and Sphinx, the Temples 
of Paestum, and Modern Paris, as the principal sources of 
valued works of art. Four of these are by Director Brandt, 
from studies made on the spot. The frieze of the main pic- 
ture gallery contains four paintings by him, representing 
Appelles, Iktinos, Praxiteles, and Durer, and also eight 
paintings in the style of German Renaissance tapestry, pic- 
turing Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Graphic Art. 

Of paintings classed as works of Art the Academy owns 
eighty-one, and through the generosity of friends displays 
seven others, which are loaned. Seventy-five paintings are 
now displayed as a part of its collection. 

Sixty-nine artists, most of them men of distinction, are 
represented in these paintings, of whom sixteen are Ameri- 
can, sixteen French, twenty German, five Italian, five Eng- 
lish, three Dutch, two Austrian, one Belgian, and one 
Spanish. This last, the only picture exhibited which is 
not an original, is an excellent copy of Murillo's Immaculate 

The names of some of the artists represented will suffi- 
ciently attest the merits of the collection. They include, 
among Americans, George Bellows, Henry Golden Dearth, 
Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Hawthorne, George Hitchcock, 
Ernest Lawson, MacEwen, Gari Melchers, Redfield, and 
Shannon; among Frenchmen, Aman-Jean, Besnard, Fran- 
cois Bonvin, Caro-Delvaille, II Borgognone, du Gardier, La 
Touche, Henri Martin, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaelli, and 
Roll ; among Germans, Braith, Dticker, von Gebhardt, 
Hagen, Hans Herrmann, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Ktihl, Szy- 
manowski, and Ztigel ; among Englishmen, Boughton, Bran- 
gwyn, and Arthur Hacker; and among other nationalities, 
Franz Snyders, Cornells de Vos, Bonifazio, Zucchero, 
Stevens, and Laurenti. 

In sculpture, casts excluded, the collection is not rich. 
In the spring of 1914 the Academy succeeded in contracting 
with the great Auguste Rodin for a replica in bronze of one 
of his famous group of Bourgeois de Calais ; but the Euro- 
pean War has thus far indefinitely suspended its making. It 


was a great opportunity, but there is grave danger that it 
is irretrievably lost. 

Shortly after the death of Mr. Brandt the Curators were 
so fortunate as to enlist the interest of Gari Melchers, who 
for several years gave advice on the artistic merit of all 
acquisitions. He did not succeed Mr. Brandt, who advised, 
directed, managed and controlled. His service was abso- 
lutely confined to giving us the advice of an expert on 
questions of art. The collection now represents the 
judgment and taste of but two connoisseurs. There is a 
great difference between their schools and their taste. Mr. 
Brandt was distinctly an Academician, belonging to the old 
school, and withheld his sanction from the modern tendency 
to depart from it. When he died there was but one Ameri- 
can painter represented in the collection, and this picture 
was a gift. There was not a single French picture. The 
main pictures of the collection were German. There was 
no representation of even the more moderate of those once 
called impressionists, but whom the more radical impres- 
sionists of today would indignantly repudiate as out of date. 

Fortunately the taste and judgment of Mr. Melchers 
gave approval to substantially all of the schools, and dur- 
ing the period of his advice the Academy has acquired speci- 
mens of the academic school as well as those of the more 
modern and less conservative school, represented, for ex- 
ample, by Hassam, Lawson, Brangwyn, Besnard, Martin, 
Raffaelli, Herrmann, and Bellows. 

From this variation of opinion and advice has resulted 
one of the points of excellence of the Academy. While of 
old masters we have none, except for a few pictures loaned 
to us, and on account of the prohibitive cost cannot hope to 
acquire them until some generous donor appears, yet of 
modern art, omitting the latest extremists, we have all 
schools represented, from the conventional conservative 
academic school to the much admired impressionistic school 
of the present day, of which the Bellows and Besnard are 
conspicuous and meritorious examples. The Curators have 
suffered an irreparable loss in that they can no longer secure 
the advice of Mr. Melchers, and their activities in adding to 
the collection are necessarily suspended until they can find 
an adviser on whose taste and judgment they can confidently 
rely, and who is willing to make sacrifices for the public 
weal. Can they find him ? Who will he be? How can they 
hope with their limited resources to enlist the sympathy 
and helpful advice of one who will reach the standard of 
excellence to which they are accustomed? The task is in- 


deed a difficult one. Let us pray that wisdom and fortune 
may go hand in hand in its accomplishment. 

From the beginning the Curators, recognizing that they 
did not themselves possess the necessary technical skill or 
knowledge, have adopted and rigidly enforced the rule that 
nothing should be displayed in the art collection that was 
not accepted on the expert advice of a connoisseur. The re- 
sult is that the Academy has not only a collection of sculp- 
ture casts and a collection of paintings, but a collection of 
works of art. The purpose is not only to delight the eye, but 
to cultivate the artistic sense, and this purpose it is hoped is 
being carried out. Without such a rule, rigidly adhered to, 
no art gallery can successfully fulfill its mission. 




The narration of the following story was prompted by 
the frequent observation of a striking inscription on a tomb- 
stone located in a prominent spot in our old burial-ground, 
originally the Cemetery of Christ Church Parish, but now 
known as Colonial Park. And just here the writer asks 
pardon for venturing to remark that he thinks a mistake 
was made in ever changing the name from that of The 
Old Cemetery to Colonial Park. The place is not a park, 
and the old name suggested the actual use for which it was in 
the beginning set apart. The people of Boston would in- 
dignantly protest against any proposition to call their Old 
Granary Burial-Ground by any other name save the one 
it has always borne, and so should the people of Savannah 
have seen to it that our old landmark never gave up its 
proper title. But, returning to our subject, the inscription 
referred to is, in part, as follows : 

To the dear memory of 

an Excellent and most beloved Mother 


widow of 


Daughter of John and Elizabeth Smith 

Born in South Carolina 

Died the 10th April, 1821, 

aged 69 years. 


The good lady in whose honor this memorial tablet was 
erected, married at the early age of seventeen years, as the 
notice printed in the issue of the Georgia Gazette for Wed- 
nesday, February 22, 1769 testifies : 

MARRIED. Mn Basil Cowper, merchant, to Miss 
Polly Smith, daughter of John Smith, Esq., an accomplished 
young lady. 

As this paper is to deal almost entirely with the acts of 
the husband, we will now turn our attention to the facts in 
our possession relating to his first appearence on Georgia 

The first newspaper established in the Province was the 
Georgia Gazette, in 1763. At that time, as its columns re- 
veal, there was in Savannah a mercantile firm known as 
Morel and Telfair, composed of John Morel and (presum- 
ably) William Telfair. When it began we do not know; but 
from a statement in an advertisement it is gathered that 
Morel left the Province, appointing an attorney to settle his 
affairs, about the summer of 1766, and thenceforth, begin- 
ning on the 8th of October, in that year, the firm of Cow- 
per and Telfairs, composed of Basil Cowper, William Tel- 
fair and Edward Telfair, began to advertise. 

From the time last mentioned the name of Mr. Cowper 
never but twice in a long while appears alone, but always in 
connection with his partners. One exception is when, in 
May, 1767, he advertised the loss of a bay gelding. This 
fact of the joining of the three names in all transactions, 
even those outside of the business of the mercantile estab- 
lishment, is evidence of some apparently closer relations 
than are shown on the surface. The other exception re- 
ferred' to is when, in June, 1768, Mr. Cowper and two others, 
not his partners, were appointed by the Governor and his 
Council to adjust the salvage of two boxes of silk saved 
from the ship Hawk, lately cast away on the southern coast 
of this Province. 

From 1768 to 1770 the three gentlemen, always jointly, 
made applications for the grant of lands in several of the 
Parishes which were usually acted on favorably, on cer- 
tain conditions. They applied in 1768 for 500 acres on the 
north side of the Ogeechee river, near or adjoining lands of 
James Bulloch, and still later, in 1769 and 1770, they asked 
for tracts in the Parishes of St. Paul and St. George. As 
early as May, 1768, a lot of 500 acres was granted them in 
St. Matthews. They also obtained land in St. John's Parish. 

When the act, known as the Tax Act, granting to his 
Majesty money for the support of the government for 1768, 


was passed, it contained an item calling for payment "To 
Cowper & Telfairs, their account for colors for the use of 
Fort George, Five Pounds, Three Shillings and Six Pence." 

The next item to be recorded is one of much interest, 
as it shows the important fact that at an early period the 
cultivation of hemp was carried on in Georgia, and it was 
apparently a money-making business. In the tax act for 
1773, for the support of government that year, this account 
was provided for: "To Cowper & Telfairs for bounty on 
4,500 lib. Hemp raised in this Province by Mr. William 
Telfair and Inspected by Andrew Elton Wells @ 10/ p. lib. 
Twenty-two Pounds Ten Shillings." 

When the trouble between Great Britain and the Amer- 
ican Colonies started, the position of Basil Cowper, who 
seems to have been ranked as one of the leading citizens of 
Georgia, was that of one commonly described as "on the 
fence." He did not attend the meeting of inhabitants of the 
Province, held in Savannah, August 10, 1774, at which eight 
resolutions of protest were adopted, beginning "That his 
Majesty's subjects in America owe the same allegiance, and 
are entitled to the same rights, privileges, and immunities 
with their fellow subjects in Great Britain;" nor was he one 
of the signers to the dissent to the said resolutions. He was, 
however, present at a meeting of "several of the inhabitants 
of the town of Savannah, at Mrs. Cuyler's, on Friday, the 
13th of Tune, 1775," which, while mild in the expression of 
feeling of resentment towards the mother country, resolved 
"That the interests of this Province is inseparable from the 
mother country, and all the sister Colonies, and that to 
separate ourselves from the latter would only be throwing 
difficulties in the way of its own relief and that of the other 
Colonies, and justly increasing the resentment of all those 
to whose distress our disunion might be an addition," and 
determined to lay its proceedings before the Provincial Con- 
gress called to meet on the 4th of July following. Mr. Cow- 
per was a delegate to that Congress, representing, with 
David Zubly and William Gibbons, the District of Acton, 
and was the second one of a committee of five appointed to 
draw up and present to his Excellency the Governor 
(Wright) an address in the name of the Congress. The ad- 
dress was prepared, and the report of the committee was 
presented to Congress by Mr. Joseph Clay who also de- 
livered it to the President, Archibald Bulloch. 

The Provincial Congress, on the 13th of July, unani- 
mously entered into an "Association" which declared that 
they "being greatly alarmed by the bloody scene now acting 


in the Massachusetts Bay, do, in the most solemn manner, 
resolve never to become slaves; and do associate, under all 
the ties of religion, and honor, and love to our country, to 
adopt and endeavor to carry into execution whatever may 
be recommended by the Continental Congress, or resolved 
upon by our Provincial Convention, appointed for preserv- 
ing our constitution and opposing the execution of the 
several arbitrary and oppressive acts of the British Parlia- 
ment," &c. Again, Mr. Cowper was the second on a commit- 
tee of fourteen "to present the Association to all the in- 
habitants of the Town and District of Savannah to be 
signed." John Smith, probably the father-in-law of Basil 
Cowper, was chairman of the committee, a delegate repre- 
senting the town and district of Savannah. 

In June, 1775, the Georgia patriots, following the ex- 
ample of other* colonies, appointed a Council of Safety, of 
which the royal Governor, writing to the Earl of Dartmouth, 
said ""The Council of Safety seems to be the Executive 
Branch in each Colony, subject to the Provincial Congress." 
At that time Mr. Cowper was apparently in full sympathy 
with the party opposed to British interference with the 
rights of American freemen. He was one of the first ap- 
pointees on the Council, but the records of that body show 
that he did not meet with his colleagues before the 16th of 
December, and that he attended thirteen meetings between 
that date and January 19, 1776, the time of his last appear- 
ance. In addition to the record already given of his ser- 
vices in the Provincial Congress, he was on the committee 
appointed to thank the Rev. Dr. John Joachim Zubly for 
""the excellent sermon he preached that day (July 12, 1775) 
to the members." Dr. Zubly, like Mr. Cowper, afterwards, 
as we shall see, deserted the American cause. 

No positive information can be gathered from the 
records which have been handed down to us as to the exact 
time when Mr. Cowper came to the conclusion that he was 
on the wrong side in that momentous period of American 
history. We have no knowledge of any activity on either 
side from the time he last appeared at the meetings of the 
Council of Safety until just after the disastrous conclusion 
of the siege of Savannah by the combined American and 
French forces in October, 1779. It seems likely that the 
failure of the Americans at that time caused him to con- 
clude that all hope of independence of the colonies was lost, 
and that he would do well to desert what he considered to be 
a sinking ship. He went over to the enemy of the liberty 
seeking people, and so, as we shall see, like the dog in the 


fable, lost what he actually possessed in the attempt to take 
hold of a shadow. He joined the loyalists, and the first re- 
ward for his services was the appointment by the Governor 
(Wright) and Council of Justice of the Peace for Christ 
Church Parish, November 15, 1779. 

-He was evidently a man well thought of by the party to 
which he now gave his allegiance ; for we find him, the next 
year, 1780, elected member of the Loyalist Commons House 
of Assembly. The manuscript Journal of that body, is in a 
mutilated condition, and the first four pages are missing. 
The session began on the 9th of May, but the loss of that 
portion of the record leaves us without knowledge of what 
happened before the 11th. Whether Mr. Cowper answered 
to the roll-call on the first day we know not. The first time 
he is found to be present is on the day last mentioned, when 
he was appointed on several committees. On the 14th he 
applied for leave of absence for two weeks, but never re- 
turned, as the minutes state of the 29th of June "George 
Baillie took his seat, having been elected to represent the 
Parish of St. Matthew in Mr. Basil Cowper's place." 

On the 20th of May, 1780, Sir James Wright wrote a 
letter to Lord George Germaine, his Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State for America, in which he enclosed a paper 
whose title is "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty The 
Humble Address of the Judges, Grand Jury, and several 
other Inhabitants of the Province of Georgia," signed by all 
the loyalist officers and grand jurors and men of promi- 
nence in Georgia adhering to the British cause, calling them- 
selves "most dutiful and loyal subjects," thanking the king 
"for declaring this Province to be at your peace and for re-es- 
tablishing a civil government here, by which means we enjoy 
the blessings of law and liberty, whilst the colonies in rebel- 
lion against your Majesty groan under tyranny and oppres- 
sion," exulting over "the deliverance afforded this Province 
by the interposition of Almighty God when it was invaded 
by a force of French and Rebels much superior to that which 
this garrison consisted of," citing "the bloody menaces that 
were uttered by the enemy, as well as French rebels, when 
they thought themselves sure of taking the Town of Savan- 
nah," and ending with the assurance "that we shall always 
use our utmost endeavors to promote an attachment to your 
person and government and the welfare of the British Em- 
pire ; and that we shall not fail to put up our prayers to 
Almighty God that He will pour down His blessings upon 
your Majesty, your royal Consort, and your numerous off- 
spring that He will give you a long and happy reign, and 


that your posterity may sway the sceptre of the British Em- 
pire till time is no more." Among the signers to this most 
loyal address was the subject of this paper, Basil Cowper. 

The Legislature of Georgia, represented by the republi- 
can, or colonial, party, assured of the final issue of the war in 
their favor, on the 1st of March, 1778, passed an act attaint- 
ing of high treason a large number of persons who at that 
time were known as adherents to the British government, 
and Mr. Cowper's name was on that list. The property of 
those men, both real and personal, was confiscated. Another 
act of the same sort was passed oh the 4th of May, 1782, in 
which appeared many additional names of parties who in 
the meanwhile had deserted the American cause, believing 
it to be hopeless. For various reasons, some of these were 
afterwards relieved from the penalties imposed by such laws, 
but Basil Cowper never was so relieved. 

Of the three members of the firm of Cowper & Telfairs, 
Edward Telfair, the youngest, was the only one to espouse 
and loyally support to the end the cause of independence of 
the Colonies, and when the success of that cause was es- 
tablished he had trouble with both of the others, one of 
whom being his elder brother. 

It is a matter of regret that we have no particulars con- 
cerning the claims set up by Cowper and William Telfair 
against their former partner. The only light on the subject 
that we have is contained in two documents which have 
been preserved without a thought of the possibility of their 
ever being put to use in this manner ; but they will serve to 
show the feeling that existed between the losers in the bitter 
contest which had just ended, between brother and brother 
and partner and partner, as well as to add some interest to 
the matter under review. 

Some ten or twelve years before the death of the late 
Mr. William Neyle Habersham, he placed in the hands of 
this writer a packet of old papers, with the statement that 
he had selected them from a mass of stuff found in the 
basement of the counting house of the late firm of Robert 
Habersham & Son, of which he was the junior member, and 
which stuff he was about to destroy. He added that he 
willingly surrendered them, thinking that they might at 
some time prove of interest to this writer. The time has 
come to make use of two of those papers, and all of them are 
now deposited in the collection of the Georgia Historical 

The first paper bearing on our subject is enclosed in a 
wrapper which alone tells what is its subject matter, the 


inscription being in these words : "A letter to J. Y. Noel 
relative to William Telfair's Claim." Mr. Noel was a prom- 
inent lawyer of Savannah, and was her Mayor for four 
periods, beginning in 1796, and ending in 1807. He was an 
alderman two terms, first from 1798-1799, and again from 
1801-1802. The paper is a statement from Edward Telfair, 
and is in his writing, though without signature. Why it 
was written to Mr. Noel we do not know. Perhaps Mr. 
Noel was his attorney, and represented him in fighting the 
claim. Efforts have been made to find other documents re- 
lating to this matter, without success. The reason for 
giving this paper in connection with a sketch of Mr. Cow- 
per will appear in the reading of it. It is without date, and 
is as follows: 


In obedience to the letter you did me the honor to write 
me of the 14th of Febr'y last, I make known to you a true 
statement of the late commercial connection that did exist 
between Basil Cowper, William Telfair and myself, in doing 
which I shall first take into view the memorial transmitted 
on the part of four of the Trustees, viz : David Milligan, John 
Whitlock, Thomas Littler, & David Weldred, to the Com- 
missioners, &c. In this instance it is readily admitted that 
the late copartners aforesaid did carry on Trade and inter- 
course under the firms set forth, and also under the firm 
B. C. & Co., and under the firms of Cowper & Telfairs in 
Savannah and a branch under the firm of William & Edward 
Telfair & Co., at Savannah aforesaid. Of the latter House 
Mr. Cowper was not a copartner. The change of firms did 
not operate to the prejudice or exclusion of any of the parties 
from the benefits that might have resulted therefrom. In 
support of this the evidence of Books will clearly evince, for 
where changes in copartnerships take place it is pretty evi- 
dent that there must be statements to the day with balance 
sheets and due entries made together with assignments the 
needful forms, and the copartner so thus circumstanced 
withdraw and thereafter not known to the House. Far from 
this being the case that the conducting of the business under 
the two firms at Savannah in a great measure devolved on 
the underwritten, and his exertions were continued, as the 
memorial sets forth, "until the late revolution put a stop to 
all intercourse between Great Britain and America," which 
I find by Letter Book of the late C. & Trs. to T. C. & T. So 
this mode of procedure on my part will have continued until 
the 28th Decem'r, 1775, evidently demonstrates that that 


part of the memorial that sets forth my having assigned co- 
partnership stock "sometime in the year 1774" is without 
foundation, and must contemplate objects not readily under- 
stood by me. So far from this being surmised the case, the 
Trustees hold me up as a Partner & late Partner and deeply 
engaged in the greater part of what is owing, and all this, 
too, after having discharged the other copartners, which 
they likeways communicate. Again I am to recur to the first 
clause of the said memorial where I find words equally ex- 
ceptionable. It there states that the discharge of two of the 
copartners were under the bankrupt Laws of Great Britain. 
To refute this part of the memorial it will be best to recur to 
the discharge dated the 13th of May, 1784; in it there is not 

a single act of Great Britain — marked No — or the 

Treaty with that Nation, drawn forth. It was the act of the 
creditors without any procedure at Law or even a plea to 
that effect until the memorial was exhibited. It never did 
admit of a doubt in my mind but that the liberality the late 
creditors exercised on the part of my late copartners had 
for its object a contrary tendency towards myself. If the 
design had been mutual, why not, in a case of such import- 
ance, have given me notice of their designs and to have 
held out just and honorable propositions so as to have en- 
abled me to come forward. Could they presume that at that 
period, where revolution men in this state were deprived 
of their all that was within the reach of their enemies that 
payments were attainable? 

I shall now comment on what respects myself. First, 
the burning of houses, negroes, books, and papers, with 
merchandise and other property to the amount of many 
thousands. It may be here remarked at one and for a small 
time only their power extended over the State. Second, 
attachments under the usurped authority.' And thirdly, to 
secure the remaining property, an Act of Confiscation, in 
which my name was inserted, did pass under the said pre- 
tended authority, and for all of which depredations I have 
not received one farthing, or any acknowledgment for the 
said depredations. 

It must be admitted that in the year 1774 the under- 
written and his late copartners, together with the people of 
America, were all subjects of the King of Great Britain, 
and under National principles might have been considered 
as such until the 4th of July, 1776, when every political com- 
pact was dissolved. Under this impression it will be diffi- 
cult to draw any conclusion whereby individuals taking op- 
posite sides in a revolution, and after some of them becom- 


ing turbulent & disaffected citizens, and where creditors 
of their own free motion discharge two of the copartners of 
mercy and protection from that nation can or ought there- 
after to come forward and claim of the American citizen or 
of the Government payment of copartnership debts with 
principle and interest. And while the 6th Article of the 

Treaty is drawn into view, the 2d and Articles must also 

obtain in my humble opinion on the part of the American 
Gover't & her citizens. To draw a few conclusions, even 
admitting that the parties were all subjects or citizens of 
the same Nation, and where the common law of England 
forms a part of the American Constitution, it may be neces- 
sary to make a few quotations touching the discharge of 
one or more copartners and what its operation on any one 
or more after such discharge. So far as respects the sev- 
eral balances stated in the said memorial, I cannot decide 
upon or give any true information respecting any of them 
saving the claim against Sam'l Stiles & Co. The claim did 
originate under a copartnership adventure with Sam'l 
Stiles and the late Cowper & Telfairs, by the purchase of 

slaves which were sold every short period prior to 

the Revolution, and what trifling payments were made on 
the sale were chiefly to the late house of Cowper & Telfairs, 
and upon a settlement of the said adventure the said late 
house were indebted to the said Sam'l Stiles in the sum of 

I conceive it necessary to state this transaction 

specially in order that justice be had in the premises. 

Notwithstanding the recited cases, some time in the 
year 1792 Mr. Wm. Telfair arrived in Georgia and presented 
a power of att'y from the Trustees, and requesting of me 
to consider on the mode of liquidation and payment. 

I observed that my case was a singular one; that by 
means of Mr. Cowper and himself withdrawing themselves 
and their negro property, together with great efforts that 
must have become necessary on the part of all, and other 
legal impediments resulting from their conduct during the 
Revolutionary War, together with the removal of books and 
papers of the house of the late C. & Trs. & Wm. & E. T & 
Co., and only sending a part of the said books and papers 
again to this country, and from the nature of our laws, no 
recovery could be effected under either the one or the other 
of the late firms. It was not presumable that I was by any 
means adequate to undertake the payment of copartnership 
debts, or did I consider myself as any ways bound for them. 
I requested of him a sight of the discharge, which was not 
granted. I replied that it was not material, as it was well 


understood by letters from the Trustees now of record in 
this country, marked C. & D. Notwithstanding that it re- 
quires little penetration to discover that the discharge of 
one copartner, or joint obligor, is the discharge of all. The 
books & papers, or evidences of debts, of the late firms are 
ready for a general assignment. To this I will add one-half 
of my property real and personal ; to this proposition I re- 
ceived for answer that I must surrender the whole of my 
property — my answer was quick and, perhaps, a little 
abrupt : "Now, Sir, all negotiations from this day hence 
shall ever cease. I now avail of every benefit the laws of 
America and the common law of England afford me. Let 
it not be said that I shrink from justice. I am ready to 
enter appearance at Westminster before your Lord Chan- 
cellor, and if he decides against me I do pledge myself that 
every shilling of property shall be subject to it and sur- 
render to you— or do you bring your action in the Courts 
of the United States." Neither the one or the other he 
would undertake or agree to. It appeared to me that the 
Trustees had ended every pursuit, as it was the 3rd July, 
1798, before the discharge was proven and recorded before 
Brook Watson, Mayor of the City of London, and there- 
after recorded in Georgia on the 20th of August, 1800. 
It was only a few days previous to the last record that I had 
the reading of it. It was on the letter of 16th Septem'r, 
1784, from John Rogers, John Whitelock, & David Mildred, 
Trustees, that afforded me a knowledge of the steps taken 
by the late creditors, which clearly indicated a design to 
draw some matter from me that in its operation might tend 
to re-establish me as a debtor; from this consideration I 
made no reply, viewing the transaction as designed to mili- 
tate against me only. 

From the foregoing we can reach the conclusion that 
both of the partners of Edward Telfair made strong efforts 
to make him pay to them a large sum of money claimed to 
have been their share in the profits of the firm before they 
abandoned the cause of the patriots of Georgia to take part 
with the British. Mr. Cowper, under the law by which his 
property was confiscated, was also banished from the state, 
and it would seem from various references as to his affairs 
that he never returned to Georgia. This may not be true, 
but we have no record of his having lived here after the 
war of the Revolution. He did, however, make a claim to 
property of Edward Telfair separate from that of William 
Telfair. In what court the claim was sued does not appear. 



Probably it was in the United States Court. All the in- 
formation we have at present is the second paper given to 
this writer by Mr. Habersham, already mentioned. This 
paper is the remarkable verdict of the jury before whom the 
case Was tried, and is as follows : 

Basil Cowper 

vs. Debt. 

Edward Telfair. 

We, the jury, find that Basil Cowper, the plaintiff, was 
born in Scotland, in the Kingdom of Great Britain. That 
he came to America about the year seventeen hundred and 
sixty, from which time he resided generally in Georgia, ex- 
cept two years in the City of London, and that some years 
prior to the commencement of the revolution of the United 
States. That on the fourth day of July, seventeen hundred 
and seventy-six, and for some time antecedent thereto, the 
said Basil Cowper resided at Savannah, in Georgia, & in its 
vicinity, & was active in the opposition of the United States 
to the British government. That from and after the said 
fourth day of July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six the 
said Basil Cowper continued to be attached to the American 
revolution, and took up and bore arms on the side and de- 
fense of the United States, in opposition to the armies of the 
British government ; was considered to be a citizen of the 
State of Georgia and of the United States and remained 
under the protection of the government of the State 
of Georgia and the United States until some time in the 
year seventeen hundred and seventy-nine, when he left 
the army of the United States and joined the British army 
who were then in possession of Savannah aforesaid ; and he, 
the said Basil Cowper, after leaving the army of the United 
States as aforesaid, took up and bore arms on the side of 
the British government in opposition to the American peo- 
ple and armies, and to the government of the State of Geor- 
gia, and of the United States, and continued in arms against 
the United States until the month of July, seventeen. hun- 
dred and eighty-two, when he left the United States and 
went into the dominions of his Britannick Majesty where 
he has ever since continued to reside. We further find that 
the said Basil Cowper is the same person who is named in 
the act of banishment and confiscation set forth in the plea 
of the said Edward Telfair, and that his estate and all debts 
due to him are confiscated as therein mentioned. 


That if, upon the whole matter, the court is of 
opinion that the plaintiff ought to recover the debt declared 
on, then we find for the plaintiff; if not, then we find for the 
24th April, 1800. R. MITCHELL, Foreman. 

The so-called verdict was really no verdict at all, but 
simply left the decision to the court where the matter could 
have been settled without the intervention of a jury. 

It is clearly seen by the paper just quoted that Mr. 
Cowper had not returned to the United States before April 
24, 1800, and, as he died in 1802, it is almost certain that he 
never came back to Georgia after his banishment under the 
act of confiscation, &c. 

We learn of the time and place of his death from a no- 
tice in the Georgia Gazette of Thursday, August 12, 1802, in 
these words: 

"Died on the 28th of June last, in the island of Jamaica, 
Basil Cowper, Esq., formerly a respectable merchant of 
this place, and a worthy man." 

A daughter of the Cowpers married a McQueen, and 
their descendants are among us at this present age. 

Edward Telfair, of the firm of Cowper and Telfairs, was 
an earnest supporter of Georgia's stand in the Revolutionary 
period. As one writer has it, "When the storm of the Ameri- 
can Revolution began to lower, Mr. Telfair was found 
among the Sons of Liberty." He was a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and was Governor of Georgia two terms. 
When General Washington visited Georgia in 1791, he was 
entertained by Governor Telfair at his home near Augusta. 
He died at the age of seventy-one, at Savannah, September 
17, 1807. 



A Picturesque Character. 

To the Editor of the Georgia Historical Quarterly : 

Some eight or nine months ago there died in the city of 
Washington, in the 87th year of his age, Dr. Francis Sorrel, 
a native of Savannah, who, though almost unknown to Sa- 
vannahians of the present day, was perhaps one of the most 
picturesque characters in private life ever born on Savannah 

Dr. Sorrel was the son of the late Mr. Francis Sorrel 
of this city, a prominent and highly esteemed citizen de- 
scended from an old French family. He was also an elder 
brother of that dashing soldier, General G. Moxley Sorrel, 
who illustrated the manhood of Savannah on many blooded 
battlefields during the war between the states. 

Dr. Sorrel's early education was acquired at one of the 
private schools of his native town. After completing his 
High School course, he entered the University of Princeton 
and graduated in the academic department, and at the time 
of his death was one of the oldest graduates of that vener- 
able institution of learning. 

From Princeton he went to the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, where he received his degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
His education completed, he made a tour of Europe to im- 
prove himself by travel and observation. Owing to his 
family connections he had exceptional opportunities for 
meeting with the aristocracy of the countries he visited, and 
the stories of his experiences in Paris and Vienna would 
make an entertaining and instructive booklet. 

Returning to America he located in Savannah for the 
purpose of practicing his profession, and occupied as his 
office rooms in the basement of the old Sorrel (now Weed) 
mansion on the corner of Bull and Harris Streets, the en- 
trance to which was by a gateway in the brick wall on Bull 
street, which encloses the premises, since bricked up, but 
the outlines of which are still discernible. 

It was during this period of his career that Doctor Sor- 
rel served as second to Stuart Elliott, half uncle of Theodore 
Roosevelt, who fought the famous duel with Captain Daniels 
— resulting in the death of the latter. The Doctor's dramatic 


account of this unfortunate affair, of which he never spoke 
until the actors themselves and their friends had long since 
crossed the "bourn from which no traveler returns," was 
intensely interesting; particularly his graphic description 
of the home-coming of Elliott and himself from the scene of 
the fatal encounter. How at Screven's Ferry they boarded 
a large canoe propelled by negro oarsmen and proceeded up 
the river to a landing; and how the city docks were thronged 
with excited people, many of them society ladies and gentle- 
men with whom Elliott was very popular, and having 
heard rumors of the duel were anxious to learn the fate of 
their favorite; and what cheers rent the air, and how hats 
and handkerchiefs were waved when the crowd recognized 
Elliott and realized that he was safe — a stirring scene it 
must have been. 

Being of a roving disposition, the routine of the prac- 
tice of his profession in a small city did not appeal to him, 
and after a few years he gave up his practice and residence 
in Savannah and accepted a commission as surgeon in the 
United States Army, serving with distinction in the Indian 
disturbances which were then agitating Florida. It was 
about this time that the country was stirred by the mar- 
vellous tales of the wealth and wonders of the State of 
California, and adventurous spirits from all sections of the 
East were rushing to the new El Dorado. Inocculated with 
the virus of wonderlust and by nature bold and venture- 
some and well fitted for frontier life, Dr. Sorrel resigned his 
commission in the army and joining with the hosts of kin- 
dred spirits sailed for San Francisco by way of Panama. 
Arriving there, he located immediately at one of the largest 
mining camps and resumed the practice of his profession 
and soon established a lucrative practice — his fees ranging 
in those days from $10 and upwards for a visit, payable 
in gold dust. 

Owing to his skill as a surgeon and the urbanity of his 
manners he soon became very popular with the miners and 
in 1860-1861 was elected a member of the Legislature of Cal- 
ifornia, and was one of the minority members of that body 
who voted for secession. Convinced that the Southern cause 
on the Pacific Slope was irretrievably lost, he resigned from 
the Legislature and determined to cast his fortunes with 
his own people. Fearing arrest if he attempted to return by 
sea, he started on the long and then perilous journey by 


pony express back across the western half of the American 
continent. After weeks of travel replete with dangers, 
privations and thrilling experiences, equalling almost the 
tribulations of St. Paul himself, he succeeded in reaching 
Kentucky and entering the Confederate lines. He pro- 
ceeded at once to Richmond and offered his services to the 
Confederate Government and was commissioned a sur- 
geon in the Southern Army. His ability was speedily recog- 
nized and his promotion rapid and at the close of the 
war he was one of the medical Directors and in line of pro- 
motion to the position of Surgeon General. 

After the war closed he married an estimable and in- 
tellectual lady, Mrs. Rives, nee Watts, and settled on her 
estate near Roanoke, Virginia — and the "Barrens" (the 
name by which their country home was designated), be- 
came the hospitable meeting ground for the gentry ol the 
neighborhood. Later he united with the Episcopal Church, 
of which denomination he was a consistent member up to 
the time of his death. His married life was exceptionally 
happy and lasted for some twenty years, when his wife died 
— a blow from which he never fully recovered. 

A few years after the death of Mrs. Sorrel, the Doctor 
disposed of his Virginia estate and moved to Washington 
City where he had a number of relatives and old friends. 

Springing from a noble family, Dr. Sorrel showed his 
descent in his personal appearance, his little mannerisms 
and kindly wit. Of medium height, but strongly knit, with 
black hair and eyes and finely chiseled features, he was an 
unusually handsome man. His charming manners and 
graceful gestures were fitting companions of his softly 
modulated voice, making captives of all who came in con- 
tact with him. He was chivalrous and deferential in his 
treatment of women and brave but considerate in his inter- 
course with men. In the drawing room "a squire of dames/' 
in the field "a splendid spur." With all his accomplishments, 
he was modest to a fault — the surest test of gentle birth. 

The writer will always cherish with delight the mem- 
ory of the several occasions during the latter years of the 
old Doctor's life, on which he enjoyed the privilege of sitting 
down with him in his commodious apartment at The Brigh- 
ton in Washington City, and, over a good cigar or a glass 
of old wine, listening to his charming reminiscences of the 
days of long ago. 


It may be that the modern doctrines of total abstinence, 
of the dethronement of woman from her high state to the 
level of man, and of intolerance towards all weaknesses 
which flesh is heir to, but which are indulged in, in one way 
or another, by those who profess to despise them, will make 
more efficient men than the gentlemen of the Old School, 
but I seriously doubt if they will make more lovable men. 

For my part, give me as my companion in life a man of 
the type of Dr. Francis Sorrel, rather than one after the 
order of the Apostles and Disciples of the new Faith. 


NOTE: As the information on which the above narrative 
was based was almost entirely derived from the writer's recollec- 
tions of conversations with Dr. Sorrel, his old friends and mem- 
bers of his family, it may contain some inaccuracies, particularly 
in the sequence of events, but in the main it is correct. 



In the year 1828 the Savannah Georgian published a 
communication written by Mr. Thomas Spalding, of Sapelo 
Island, giving an account of the introduction of cotton into 
Georgia and Carolina. Some of the facts stated by him 
have been since then reprinted in various publications, all of 
them quoting the following passage substantially : 

"The winter of '86 brought several parcels of cotton 
seed from the Bahamas to Georgia. Among them, (in dis- 
tinct remembrance in my mind,) was a parcel to the late 
Governor Tattnall, of Georgia, from a near relation of his, 
then Surveyor General of the Bahamas, and another parcel 
at the same time was transmitted to Col. Roger Kelsall of 
Exuma, (who was arnon^ the first, if not the very first, suc- 
cessful grower of cotton) to my father, Mr. James Spalding, 
then residing on St. Simon's Island, Georgia, who had been 
connected in business with Col. Kelsall before the Revolu- 
tion. I have heard that Gov. Tattnall, then a young man, 
gave his seed to Mr. Nicholas Turnbull, lately deceased, 
who cultivated it from that period successfully." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that credit was given 
to Mr. Nichol (not Nicholas) Turnbull for his part in the 
growing of cotton at an early period. It is highly probable 
that Mr. Spalding was not acquainted with the discussion 



of this important matter as early as the year 1799, in two 
of the Savannah newspapers, in which Mr. Turnbull gave 
his side of the story, in a severe criticism of an anonymous 
writer who had shortly before written his account of the 
subject. This correspondence has never, we believe, been 
given in full anywhere since it was first printed in the news- 
papers referred to, and we deem it to be of so much interest 
that we gladly give it space in this first issue of the Quarterly. 

From the Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser, 
Tuesday, October 15, 1799 : 
Messrs. Printers, 

By publishing the following you will oblige an Inhab- 
itant of Chatham county. 

COTTON planting in this country is of early date; 
the same kind of cotton as is now cultivated on the Sea 
Islands, called the black seed cotton, was, in the year 1767, 
planted as a crop by Mr. John Earle, on the Island of Skid- 
away. That plantation is owned and now under cotton by 
Col. Wylly. The old inhabitants on the island always 
raised it to perfection, and there was hardly a family 
but what planted it for domestic use. The late Col. De- 
veaux, during the Revolution, on the same island, made 
more than he had occasion for in that way, which was after- 
wards sold by his son, Major Deveaux, about the year 1783, 
to Mr. Cecil, merchant in Savannah, at 15d per lb., who 
sent it to England, which yielded him a handsome profit. Old 
Mr. Patrick M'Kay, on the Island of Sapelo, planted cot- 
ton as a crop. These are facts well known. It is seen in the 
recollection of some that previous to 1767 cotton was an 
article at market, and purchased by the ancient mercantile 
house of Smith and Gordon, and remitted to England. But 
it may be asked, why was it not more generally cultivated? 
The answer is easy ; because rice and indigo commanded a 
better price. Cotton was not in such demand. The manu- 
facture of that article in Britain had not advanced to the 
perfection it now is at. Lawns were then in use, and not 
muslins. Another reason may be assigned : the principal 
planters at that time were from South Carolina. They were 
in the habit of cultivating rice and indigo, and opening 
fresh grounds. Their industry was well rewarded by the 
cultivation of those articles, without resorting to others. 
Further, the great example set by the provincial Gov. 
Wright in the cultivation of rice stimulated the planters' ex- 
ertions in that article. On the higher grounds indigo was 


cultivated until the Revolution. After the restoration of 
peace, it was still continued ; but the merchant, as well as 
planter, having suffered by remitting from the immense 
quantities introduced from India (for immediately after the 
British government acknowledged our independence, know- 
ing that indigo was an article and its immense value could 
be comprised in a small bulk, and that it suited well the 
East India trade), gave the cultivation of it in their do- 
minions in that quarter every encouragement, the East 
India Company went so far as to employ a gentleman by the 
name of Gray, who owned before the war a plantation on 
Skidaway, now belonging to John Bowman, Esq., and on 
that place he cultivated weed, and was reported an excellent 
make of indigo. The public have had information as to 
that person's errand, and the views of those who sent him 
had the desired effect. It gave them at once a supply of 
that article from their own territory, and completely foiled 
the making of indigo in the United States ; but thanks to our 
climate, tho' the planters were compelled to turn their atten- 
tion to something else, they recollected that cotton could be 
cultivated on lands that produced indigo, and inclined their 
thoughts to that article, and to this most were encouraged 
by a crop of black seed cotton from seed procured from Major 
Barnard on Wilmington Island which was raised on the 
Island of Skidaway, 10,000 lbs. of which crop was shipped 
to England in the spring of 1791 by Messrs. Johnston and 
Robertson on account of Francis Levett, Esq., which estab- 
lished the character of Georgia sea island cotton ; being the 
first shipment of any consequence; and to him the state 
stands indebted for having it entered as an article of com- 
merce in the British prices current; the whole of the crop 
being ginned out by the common bridle gin, and neatly 
packed for market added to the sale, hence the propriety of 
fairly preserving the staple by the roller gin— cotton having 
now become so important an article of export from the state, 
independent of its excellent quality aided by the fortuitous 
circumstances of the wretched state of things in the West 
Indies, as the interruption of commerce in the Mediter- 
ranean that whatever hints may be thrown out, either as to 
the culture of the plant, or bringing the cotton wool of 
different staples to market without injury or deceiving the 
manufactures, ought to be well received and generally bene- 


From the Georgia Gazette — Thursday, November 28, 
Messrs. Nicholas Johnson and Co. 

I observe a publication in Messrs. Seymour & Wool- 
hopter's paper of the 15th October last, by an inhabitant of 
Chatham county, respecting the origin of cotton planting in 
this state, without attempting to give the public any useful 
information at this late period either with respect to any 
improvement on the culture, ginning, or packing, which 
seems to me to be perfectly ridiculous. I cannot conceive the 
intention of such a publication unless it was to immortalize a 
family connexion, or give credit to those who are not to this 
day in the least entitled to any, in regard to the introduc- 
tion of cotton as a staple commodity, either before or after 
the Revolution. My attention in general is too much en- 
gaged in business to be fond of troubling the public with the 
observations I shall make, and which I should have made 
sooner, had I not been ill at the time the publication of 
the inhabitant of Chatham county appeared, and continued 
so, it is well known for two or three weeks after, by which 
unfortunate circumstances, added to other calamities which 
have occurred since, my mind and affairs have been em- 
barrassed, however, at this late period, my friends have ad- 
vised me to reply, as it may appear to those who do not know 
me that I have acted ever since 1787 as an imposter, by de- 
claring myself the first founder and introducer of cotton 
planting since the Revolution ; I think it therefore a duty 
I owe myself and to a few of my friends who were encour- 
aged by my experiments, and followed my example, to show 
where I conceive the merit is justly due. 

Two years after I removed into this state, making the 
necessary observations on the climate, added to an estimate 
then in my possession on the culture of cotton, made by the 
John Earle mentioned from his five years experiments on 
the Island of Skidaway, which was given by him to my 
father in Florida, when the same John Earle was in his 
employ, first induced me in being anxious to make the at- 
tempt. Being at the time a stranger in the country, and 
little known, I consequently requested my friend Josiah 
Tattnall, Junr., to procure me some cotton seed which with 
difficulty he got from Mr. John Smith of So. Carolina, but 
only one quart. In the spring of 1789 I planted a small patch 
on Whitemarsh Island, and made my observations ; finding 
it produced beyond my expectation, and those who exam- 
ined at the time, encouraged me to plant it as a part of my 


crop the year following, sparing part of the seed I had 
raised to Josiah Tattnall, John Milledge, and James Seagrove, 
also to some others I do not at present recollect, but none to 
Mr. Levett, as not being then I believe in the state. These 
three gentlemen were most strenuous to follow my ex- 
ample, it being then generally observed by most that my 
crop could never be gathered in or prepared for market ; such 
was the general opinion till some of these gentlemen and 
myself convinced our neighboring planters to the contrary. 
Finding my second year's experiment amply rewarded my 
industry, I planted the following year 40 acres, and the 
year after nearly a hundred acres, by which time the staple 
was fully established, and became an object of attention 
and general culture. I do not mean by this production to 
reflect on the author who gave rise to the present publica- 
tion, as probably I may be mistaken with respect to the per- 
son ; but still I must confess he must know me, and further 
he is a cotton planter, and knew at the time I was entitled 
to the greatest merit ; if so, I say he has acted with the ut- 
most ingratitude, done me an injury without provocation, 
and exposed me, I conceive, as an imposter to the whole 
community. Such illegal and ungenerous behavior I despise, 
and shall ever resent, as I have been taught never to take 
merit unjustly from any one, or injure my fellows in com- 
munity, but at the same time not to permit to be wrested 
from myself, or those gentlemen who are jointly entitled 
to it. 

To be my own trumpeter I considered fulsome, cannot 
reflect honor, but discovers a despicable weakness, and such 
as must retort on the author of the production, I now answer 
provided he is acquainted with me, and my conjectures are 
well founded ; but as I have been brought to the test, I now 
declare myself to be the first producer of cotton planting 
since the Revolution, and the three gentlemen before men- 
tioned deserve attention for aiding and assisting the intro- 
duction of so valuable an article of commerce which without 
our exertions I question whether the offspring of those who 
planted before and during the Revolution would have ob- 
tained to themselves by their industry the same credit even 
to this day. 

Having gone thus far, I shall further add by observing, 
that I admit John Earle planted in 1767, and it is probable 
Col. Deveaux did the same during the Revolution; 
but the former is more deserving of public attention than the 
latter; the former probably planted of his own accord, or 
under the direction of his employer, and persevered for five 


years, but the latter was unfortunately compelled, like many 
others, to fall on some method to clothe his family of 
negroes, as was customary at the time in all the Southern 
States, but if his son Major Deveaux, found cotton so pro- 
ductive, why did he not, or some of the family, follow the 
culture; they then possessed lands suitable for the purpose, 
and would have saved me the trouble of this reply. 

As for the other parts of the author's piece I cannot 
take upon me to contradict them, being a stranger to the 
circumstances, excepting what relates to Mr. Frazer Levett. 
The author after taking, as he supposed, to himself a family 
entailment of cotton planting, gives the dregs to Mr. Levett, 
by telling you "that this gentleman shipped 10,000 lbs. of 
cotton to England in 1791, which established the character 
of Georgia Sea Island Cotton, being the first shipment of 
any consequence, and to him the state stands indebted for 
having it entered as an article of commerce in the British 
prices current." In answer I assert, that I conceive Mr. 
Levett is not entitled to any merit, as previous to that time 
five times the quantity was made in this state and shipped 
by the Savannah merchants, and the character firmly es- 
tablished ; besides I do not suppose the trouble was great 
to Mr. Levett, or cost him anything, and which any one could 
have done as well as himself. As early as June, 1789, I sold 
of the growth of 1788 to the house of May & Hills, also to 
Abraham Legget ; I likewise shipped part of my crop to 
England, the same I believe was done by the house of Speirs, 
McLeod & Co., part of which was sold by Josiah Tattnall 
and myself. In November, 1790, I purchased in Charleston 
15,673 lbs. gross weight of sea island cotton of Isaac Peace, 
said to have been raised that year on Col. Gairdner's planta- 
tion in Carolina. The same year the culture was general in 
the upper and lower parts of this state and Carolina. I men- 
tion these circumstances to prove that this state is not in 
the least indebted to Mr. Levett for the author's supposed 
extraordinary shipments or establishment of the staple ; I 
believe the work was completed before Mr. Levett came to 
the state. I could relate many other circumstances too 
tedious to mention ; therefore to whom the merit ought to be 
given, I trust, from what I have already written, is sufficient 
for the present to determine the public mind. At an early 
period, also lately, I wrote instructions for the culture of cot- 
ton; should I in future make any useful discoveries I shall 


think it a duty I owe to my fellow citizens to give them every 
information, till then I shall remain silent, and leave the 
inhabitant of Chatham county to his own reflections. 

Deptford Hill, 19th Nov., 1799. 



When the trustees for establishing the Colony of Geor- 
gia in America made known their willingness to receive 
pecuniary assistance in the effort to accomplish their design, 
subscription lists were opened at a number of places in 
England, and the people of all classes opened their purses 
in behalf of the worthy cause. Among them, the Hebrews 
established a commission of their own class to receive money 
from such as sympathized with the object. Notwithstanding 
this, the Trustees had let it be known that people of that 
religion would not be accepted as settlers in the new Colony. 
Some of them, however, seriously thought of joining the ex- 
pedition, but none offered themselves. 

The first party of the Georgia settlers, headed by Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe, arrived at Savannah, February 12, (new 
style), 1733; and soon after, that is to say, on the 11th of 
July, a vessel arrived with a party of about forty Hebrew 
colonists. In it was Mr. Abraham Minis, with his wife 
Abigail and two daughters, Esther and Leah. Oglethorpe 
made known to them the fact that their presence on the soil 
reserved for his colonists was contrary to the wishes and 
order of the Trustees ; but, considering the difficulties in the 
case, he permitted them to remain, subject to any require- 
ments of the governing body after he had set before them the 
facts in the premises. Suffice it to say that, while no definite 
conclusion was ever reached, and no consent ever given, 
those people were not disturbed, and they became active par- 
ticipants in all the affairs of the Colony. 

From that time the Minis and other families have be- 
come so closely identified with the history and develop- 
ment of Georgia that they are rightfully leaders in all 
matters of public importance. We are now concerned only 
with the one family and will leave the consideration of 
others to another time. 



Shortly after their arrival a son was born to Abraham 
and Abigail, to whom the name of Philip was given, and 
he was the first male white child born in Georgia. His 
career was a notable one, and much could be said of him 
which would be worthy of the careful attention of the 
reader. He was an ardent supporter of the cause of independ- 
ence, and, through the ample means at his command, ren- 
dered most material aid towards the maintenance of the 
Continental Armies. His boldness in supporting the ene- 
mies of Great Britain and assisting with his fortune the 
troops engaged in resisting the oppression of his people, 
brought upon him the extreme hatred of the Royalist Gen- 
eral Assembly under Sir James Wright, and he was named 
in the notorious act passed by that body, known as "The 
Disqualifying Act," declaring all persons named in it ever 
afterwards incapable of holding or exercising any office of 
trust, honor, or profit within the limits of Georgia. In that 
list of one hundred and fifty-one names Philip Minis stands 
as number eighty-four. 

Time and space forbid the recording of all the facts 
known as to his providing for the keeping up of the military 
forces within the territory occupied by American soldiers 
in the Southern Department, but it is eminently proper to 
insert at this point the following document, recently recov- 
ered from a mass of old papers in which it had for many 
years been hidden, and its existence unsuspected. It is now, 
therefore, for the first time, given publicity : 


A notarial copy of the certificate signed by Col. Wm. 
Kennon, Commissary Gen'l and Brig'r Gen'l Robert Howe 
to Mr. Philip Minis of the monies due him from the Conti- 
nental chest. Dated 17th May, 1777. 

17th Feb'y, 1777, Chs Town, So. Carolina. 

Whereas in November last there was neither Commis- 
sary Gen'l or pay master Gen'l in the State of Georgia, and 
I acted as such, by order of Gen'l Howe, and having no fund 
established for such purposes, was obliged to take up such 
money as was necessary on the credit of the publick, and 
accordingly Mr. Philip Minis advanced for the pay of the 
third North Carolina Regiment the sum of Two Hundred 
and Twenty two pounds fifteen shillings and six pence ; for 
White's Volunteers Sixty two pounds Six shillings and six 
pence; and for the Virginia 8th Regiment Six Hundred and 
fifty three pounds two shillings and two pence; and Seven 


Hundred and Ninety one pounds twelve shillings and Six 
pence for the purchase of provisions for the whole of the 
Continental Troops then in the said State — The whole 
amounting to Seventeen Hundred and Twenty Nine pounds 
Eighteen Shillings Georgia Currency, or Ten Thousand 
Nine hundred and Ninteen and a half dollars, which said 
sum is now due to the said Minis from the Continent of 

(Signed) WILL KENNON. 

The above sums were advanced by Mr. Minis as set 
forth in this Certificate. 

(Signed) ROBERT HOWE. 

I, John Troup, Notary Public, duly admitted and sworn, 
dwelling in Broad Street in Charles Town, in the State of 
South Carolina, do hereby certify to all whom these presents 
concern that the before written Certificate signed by Will 
Kennon with the thereunder written Certificate signed by 
Robert Howe are true and full copies of the original Certifi- 
cates produced and shewn to me by Mr. Jacob Read, Attor- 
ney for Mr. Philip Minis, on this Seventeenth day of May, 
in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and 
Seventy Seven, with which said original Certificates I have 
carefully compared the same. Thus done and certified by 
me the said Notary at Charles Town this Seventeenth day of 
May in the presence of Thomas Radclifle, Jun'r, and Jacob 
Read — witnesses. In Faith and Testimony whereof I have 
hereunto affixed my seal and subscribed my name, 

JOHN TROUP, Not. (Seal) 

Oct. 31st, 1778, give a receipt to Michael Helligar, Esq., 
Treasurer, for Six Thousand Nine Hundred & Nineteen & a 
Half Dollars. 

Memorandum that this 24th Decem'r, 1778, Edw'd 
Telfair settled the sum of Six Thousand Nine Hundred & 
Nineteen Dollars & One Half, being the sum he received of 
the Treasury of the United States on my account. 
6919 Dollars. 


Mr. Philip Minis died on Friday, the 6th of March, 1789, 
and six days after the Gazette published this obituary of 

"On Friday, March 6th, 1789, departed this life Mr. 
Philip Minis, merchant, aged 55 years. He was the first 


white male child born in this state. His remains were 
buried in the Jews' burial ground on Sunday morning, 
attended by a large number of respectable citizens who, by 
their solemn attention, evinced how sensibly they felt the 
loss the community has sustained in so valuable a man. He 
has left a disconsolate widow and five children, together 
with an aged and venerable mother, and five sisters, to 
deplore their loss. He was an affectionate husband, a dutiful 
son, tender father and kind brother ; in short, he was in 
every sense of the word a truly honest man." 

The father of the man of whom we have just written, 
Abraham Minis, soon after his landing in Georgia, entered 
into mercantile life, and associated with him after a while a 
Mr. Salomons, using the firm name of Minis & Salomons. 
The copartnership existed, as shown by the Colonial records, 
as early as 1737, and transacted a large business. Their 
dealings with the Trustees of the Colony in relation to the 
issuing of what were known as "Sola Bills," &c, are men- 
tioned even as far back as April 27, of that year, and in 
1738 we find that they did a considerable amount of business 
in the shipping line, having a number of vessels consigned 
to them. It is hardly worth while to quote the items which 
show the various business transactions of the firm ; but it is 
well to make note of the fact that such items prove that the 
house of Minis & Salomons was well established in business 
some time before the date of the founding of the firm of 
Harris & Habersham, heretofore considered the first mer- 
chants to do business in Georgia. The year of the found- 
ing of the latter is universally conceded to be 1749. 

Philip Minis and his wife Judith (Pollock) had a son 
Isaac who married Dinah Cohen. A son was born to the 
latter couple named Philip, and he studied to be a physican, 
and was commissioned as an assistant surgeon in the United 
States Army April 12, 1826, and promoted with the rank of 
major in the year 1836. He resigned in 1837. 

The Hon. Wilson Lumpkin, twice governor of Georgia, 
and United States Senator, was, on the 17th of July, 1836, 
appointed Commissioner to execute the Cherokee Treaty of 
1835, and at that time Dr. Minis was the Disbursing Agent of 
the Indian Department U. S. A. Mr. Lumpkin entertained 
a high regard for the doctor, and in his correspondence 
mentioned him for the first time in a letter to C. A. Harris, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated November 22, 1836, 
in these words : "I had the good fortune to meet with Doctor 
Minis on the 8th inst., at Gainesville, in Georgia, on his way 
to New Echota, when and where I communicated to him 


verbally my views in connection with his official duties;" 
and his name occurs frequently in the correspondence on 
the subject of the Cherokee Indians until July, 1837, the date 
of his resignation from the army. 

A younger son of Isaac and Dinah Minis was Abram, 
born in 1820, and he married Miss Lavinia Florance. He was 
one of Savannah's leading merchants and a citizen of the 
highest integrity and social influence. He was an alderman 
of the city in 1859-1860. He continued in active business life 
as long as he lived. In his latest years he took into partner- 
ship two of his sons, J. Florance and Isaac, the name of the 
firm being A. Minis and Sons. Another son, Abram, studied 
law, was admitted to the Savannah Bar, and is one of our best 
known lawyers, with considerable practice. The business of 
A. Minis & Sons was continued after the death of the father 
until the youngest member followed him to the tomb, and 
then Mr. J. F. Minis retired and closed out the business. 

The last named married Miss Louisa Porter Gilmer, 
daughter of General J. F. Gilmer. Isaac married Miss 
Eugenia P. Myers and died leaving two sons. Abram mar- 
ried first Miss Anna M. Cohen, of Baltimore, who died a few 
months after marriage, and his second wife's name was 
Mabel A. Henry. A daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Abram Minis, 
Miss Lavinia Florance Minis, married Charles I. Henry, of 
New York. Another daughter is Miss Maria Minis. 


The first newspaper printed in Georgia was issued from 
Savannah and the first number was dated Thursday, April 
7th, 1763. The publisher, Mr. James Johnston, had nothing 
to say by way of prospectus or announcement of the course 
he proposed to take in the management of the paper. All 
he had to say was in the following brief sentence : 

Savannah: Printed by James Johnston, at the Print- 
ing Office, on Broughton Street where Advertisements, Let- 
ters of Intelligence, and Subscriptions for this Paper are 
taken in. 

The paper was called the Georgia Gazette. 

The foreign news was not of great importance. Of 
American news the most important was from Philadelphia 
dated January 27, to this effect : 

Yesterday his Honour the Governor proclaimed at the 
Court House the cessation of hostilities (ending with the 


treaty of Paris, whereby England gained possession of 
Canada) in the presence of a vast concourse of people who 
showed great joy on the happy occasion. 

On the page devoted to local affairs this same event 
is thus noticed : 

On Tuesday, the 15th of March, his Majesty's procla- 
mation for a cessation of arms was proclaimed here with the 
usual formalities. 

More purely local is the item that Monday the 28th ult. 
John Mullryne, Esq., was chosen member of the Assembly, 
for the district of Goshen, in St. Matthew's parish, in the 
room of William Francis, Esq., deceased. 

We also have the information : 

We hear from good authority that by the last accounts 
from the Creek nation, that every thing remains quiet 
amongst those Indians. 

Sir James Wright made his first appearance in Georgia 
at a meeting of the Governor and Council in Savannah, Oct. 
31st, 1760, when he took the oath of office. It is singular 
that the journals of the upper and lower houses of the as- 
sembly do not contain in full these proceedings. After a 
lengthy session, on the 7th April, 1763, Sir James prorogued 
the Assembly to the 5th of" July, but only the prefatory 
words of his speech are given in those records, while the 
speech in full is printed in the Gazette of April 14, as 
follows : 

Thursday last his Excellency, after delivering the 
following speech was pleased to prorogue the General 
Assembly of this province to the 5th day of July next. 

Gentlemen of the Council, 

Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the Commons House of As- 
sembly : 

I return you thanks for preserving that degree of unan- 
imity and temper which has subsisted during this very long 
session; such conduct, Gentlemen, you will generally find to 
answer the best purposes for the good of the community. 
But I hope, at our next meeting, that business will have 
quicker dispatch, and the tax act will be passed earlier. 
I am certain the one will be more convenient to yourselves, 
and think the other would be so to your constituents in 

Savannah, Council Chamber 

April 7th, 1763. 


The Union Society which, for many years, has had the 
management of the Bethesda Orphan House, is supposed 
to have been founded about the year 1750. It was not char- 
tered until Aug. 14, 1786 ; but the first printed notice of 
its existence is found in the 2d number of the Gazette, April 
14,1763. Here it is: 

The members of the Union Society are desired to meet 
at the house of Mrs. Smith in Savannah, on Monday next, 
being the 18th instant, at six o'clock in the evening, on par- 
ticular business; and also at the same place on Saturday, 
the 23d instant, at eight o'clock in the morning, being the 
anniversary feast of the said society. 

By order of the stewards, 

The culture of silk was an industry which received great 
attention on the part of the trustees of Georgia, and others, 
from the beginning of the Colony until after the year 1774. 
when it was finally abandoned. It has ever since been a 
matter of wonder that the business was not more closely at- 
tended to, but all that question has been largely and fre- 
quently written up. The following, taken from the Gazette 
of April 21, 1763, shows that at that time the people still con- 
sidered it possible to make it a paying investment. 

To Be Sold. 

A tract of Land, pleasantly situated and healthy, in New- 
ington village, Christ Church parish, containing five hun- 
dred and fifty acres inferior to none in the province, suitable 
for rice, corn, or indico, with a great reserve of back water, 
has a good dwelling house, barn and out houses, with many 
other conveniences; and a large quantity of mulberry trees 
sufficient to raise four or five hundred weight of cocoons ; 
fifty acres of land already cleared and under good fence 
fit for planting, and a good pasture; likewise good sawing 
timber, plenty of cypress, white oak, etc., etc., a very con- 
venient carriage to town being upon the broad road, and 
only five miles distance; said land joins Messrs. Joseph 
and William Gibbons. For further particulars apply to 





Of those rendering conspicuous service to the state dur- 
ing the Civil War, in the stormy reconstruction days, and in 
the development period following, the late Evan P. Howell, 
of Atlanta, occupies a notable position in Georgia history. 

He was born December 10, 1839, at Warsaw in that 
part of Forsyth county which has since become Milton, 
being the son of Clark Howell, who as a boy of ten years 
was brought by his father, Evan Howell, from their North 
Carolina home to settle on what was then — 1821 — the Chat- 
tahoochee River frontier marking the line between the 
white civilization of Georgia and the Indian settlement be- 
yond. The pioneer, Evan Howell, with many other North 
"Carolinians, settled in Georgia to take advantage of the 
opportunities then offered in the opening of the lands in that 
part of the state. The first few years of Evan P. Howell 
were spent in the mountain surroundings of his father's 
home with the family of several younger brothers and one 

When young Howell was about nine years of age his 
father wishing to secure better educational advantages for 
his family of young children was attracted by the activity 
of the thriving young town of Marthasville about twenty 
miles away. He accordingly purchased a lot adjoining what 
is now the site of the Piedmont Hotel in Atlanta, removing 
his family to their new home, the name of which was 
changed from Marthasville to Atlanta the year of their com- 
ing. "The call of the country," however, to the father of 
the family proved irresistible after a year or two in the 
village of Atlanta. The father, Clark Howell, purchased a 
large tract of land on the Chattahoochee river near Atlanta, 
built a handsome home there and sold his Atlanta home to the 
famous Dr. Crawford W. Long, the discoverer of anaesthesia, 
and who at that time lived in Athens. 

Evan P. Howell after attending one of the few private 
schools in the young Atlanta, was large enough shortly after 
the removal of his father to their country home to enter the 
Georgia Military Institute at Marietta; after a course in 
which he entered the Lumpkin Law School in Athens — now 
the law school of the University of Georgia. He graduated 
at law in 1859 and went at once to Sandersville, Ga., Judge 
James S. Hook a prominent member of the bar of that circuit, 
having offered the young graduate a position in his office. 




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The storm of the Civil War was then gathering and he 
had not long been practicing law in Sandersville before the 
Confederacy made its call for volunteers. He enlisted 
in the First Georgia Regiment as orderly sergeant, becom- 
ing lieutenant within a month. At the end of a year he 
joined Captain Robert Martin in the organization of a bat- 
tery of artillery. Most of the enlistments were from among 
his comrades who, as citizens of Washington county of which 
Sandersville is the county seat, had entered the First Geor- 
gia Regiment with him. Within a few months after the or- 
ganization of this battery Captain Martin obtained his ma- 
jority and his first lieutenant, Evan P. Howell, became cap- 
tain. This battery served with distinction through the Civil 
War being known as Howell's Battery of Artillery. It served 
under Jackson in Virginia after which it was transferred to 
the Western Army being engaged in some of its most notable 
battles, and at the historic three day fight at Chickamauga 
this battery rendered particularly brilliant service. 

After Chickamauga, Howell's Battery fell back to Atlan- 
ta with General Joseph E. Johnston participating in the sev- 
eral engagements between Johnston and Sherman in the 
famous march from Chickamauga to Atlanta. 

Howell's Battery was entrenched on one of the hills 
overlooking the battlefield of Peachtree Creek which marked 
the first assault on Atlanta, and two days later it was in the 
very center of the storm of the Battle of Atlanta in which 
Captain Howell under orders to take his battery across 
the field under full fire to silence the guns of a particular 
Federal battery which was doing great damage to the Con- 
federate line, had his horse shot from under him and lost 
almost half of his company. The Federal battery, however, 
was silenced and captured. 

Captain Howell remained in the war until its close and 
then became as active a factor in the work of rebuilding the 
city and state as he had been in war. 

Immediately after the war Atlanta, having been burned 
by General Sherman, offered rare opportunity for those in 
search of business activity. The town had to be practically 
rebuilt. Captain Howell, who during the war had married 
Miss Julia A. Erwin of South Carolina, located with his wife 
and infant sons Clark and Albert upon a tract of land near 
the Chattahoochee river belonging to his father, and for 
nearly two years engaged in cutting and sawing timbers 
from the virgin forest for use as material in the upbuilding 
of Atlanta. He cut and sawed with his own hands sending 
the product of his sawmill to Atlanta where there was in- 


sistent demand at high prices for all such material. Return- 
ing from the war in his ragged uniform, the first pair of 
trousers Captain Howell obtained to replenish his exhausted 
supply was made by his wife from one of her old calico 
dresses. At the end of two years, desiring to re-enter the 
practice of law in Atlanta, he located in the city accepting a 
position as reporter with the Atlanta Intelligencer with the 
idea of establishing himself before returning to his profes- 
sion. Serving a year as city editor of the Intelligencer, he 
resumed in 1869 the practice of his profession. He was 
exceedingly active for several years in supporting and 
strengthening the municipal government as a member of 
the city council. He then became solicitor general of the 
Atlanta circuit, serving under the eminent John L. Hopkins 
as judge, and the administration of this court with Judge 
Hopkins and Captain Howell as solicitor general, became 
notable throughout the state for its work of suppression of 
the reign of lawlessness and murder which had character- 
ized the period immediately following the days of recon- 

In 1873 Captain Howell was elected to the state senate 
and then re-elected for the second term. He was a delegate- 
at-large from the state to the St. Louis, Cincinnati and 
Chicago Democratic National Conventions, serving in each 
on the committee on Platform and Resolutions. 

The General Assembly of the State of Georgia having 
appropriated one million dollars for the purpose of erecting 
a new capitol building in Atlanta, Governor McDaniel ap- 
pointed Captain Howell in 1888 as a member of the Capitol 
Commission of five charged with plenary power in the con- 
struction of this building. The commission accomplished 
the unique feat of completing the building within the appro- 
priation and turning back into the state treasury the unused 
part of the fund. 

Prior to the erection of the new capitol building the 
City of Atlanta had undergone a heated campaign against 
the old capital, the City of Milledgeville, for the honor of 
becoming the permanent capital of the state, subject only to 
change by a vote of the people authorized by a two-third 
vote of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Captain Howell was one of Atlanta's executive com- 
mittee of three which had charge of the direction of this 
notable campaign, the contest resulting in Atlanta's over- 
whelming victory. 

In 1876 Captain Howell, having retired from official 
service as solicitor general to devote himself to the active 


practice of his profession in which he engaged with pro- 
nounced success, took advantage of an opportunity to buy 
a half interest in the Atlanta Constitution. He was then the 
attorney of the paper and through that connection received 
an offer of sale from the ownership of half of the stock. 
Captain Howell purchased this and became associated with 
William A. Hemphill who owned the other half. Captain 
Howell became editor of the Constitution, Mr. Hemphill, also 
a gallant Confederate veteran, business manager, and soon 
afterwards Henry W. Grady became associated with the Con- 
stitution through an offer of Captain Howell who recognized 
his marked ability. These three men formed a historic tri- 
umvirate participating in every development of the city. 

Captain Howell who, upon his return to Atlanta after 
the war as a member of the city council, joined in laying 
the foundation of the city's new public schools system and 
the construction of the municipal water works, had been 
prominently identified with every movement looking to the 
development of the city, was at the head of the citizens or- 
ganization formed to rebuild the Kimball House upon the 
burning of the famous hotel of that name which, at that 
time, was the most notable hotel structure in the South. As 
president of the company he led the movement which con- 
structed the new Kimball House. 

Long before and then while a member of council, im- 
pressed with the idea that Atlanta's growth must come 
through its railroad development, he took an active interest 
in the movement to have the city subscribe $300,000 to the 
building of the Atlanta & Charlotte Air Line railroad giving 
the city this direct connection with New York and the East 
with which all railroad connection prior to that time was 
by way of Augusta on the one side and Chattanooga and 
Knoxville on the other. Captain Howell was named as one 
of Atlanta's two directors in the new company and rendered 
active service in pushing the road as far northward as Gaines- 
ville where it connected with the extension from Charlotte 
completing the through direct route from New York to 
Atlanta. Later on, he was active in the building of the 
Georgia Western from Atlanta to Birmingham, now a 
part of the Southern system. 

For a period of nearly a quarter of a century Captain 
Howell was prominently identified with the politics of the 
State of Georgia, recognized everywhere as a political 
"Warwick" whose force in the shaping of any public ques- 
tion perhaps exceeded that of any other individual in the 
state. He was a man of remarkable personality, his name 


being synonymous for good humor, for sound wisdom, 
probity and progress. He had a remarkable faculty for 
going straight to the meat of any proposition and of im- 
pressing his views upon any audience. 

Captain Howell remained at the head of the Atlanta 
Constitution until he voluntarily retired in 1897, being suc- 
ceeded by his son, Clark Howell. He had intended to retire 
to the quiet of a well earned rest, but President William 
McKinley requested him to serve on a special commission 
to investigate the conduct of certain phases of the Spanish- 
American War, and in pursuance of this duty he spent sev- 
eral months in Washington shortly after the close of that 
war. While absent from Atlanta in this service something 
of special interest to the city made it desirable to secure a 
specially strong representation in the General Assembly 
and he was nominated and elected for service in the house. 
Whenever a city emergency arose his services were always 
drafted, and so after his legislative service the citizens of 
his ward insisted on his entering council to obtain some 
special recognition to which the ward thought it was en- 
titled, and which it had been unable to get. 

Captain Howell rendered the service and took such an 
active interest in city affairs that a general call went up from 
all parts of the city for him to permit the use of his name as 
mayor, to which position he was elected in 1902. 

After retiring from the mayoralty Captain Howell took 
life easily at his suburban home in W T est End, Atlanta, where 
he died August 6, 1905, survived by his wife and seven 
children, Clark Howell, Albert Howell, Mrs. Robert L. 
Foreman, Mrs. Ida Howell Cramer, Mrs. Byron Bower, 
Miss Rosalie Howell and Evan P. Howell, Jr. 

No Atlantan ever wrought the impress of his per- 
sonality more deeply upon the city than he did for almost 
half a century. He was closely identified with every civic 
development in Atlanta and was particularly active in the 
affairs of the first Cotton Exposition held in Atlanta in 
1881, of which he was a director and which contributed 
wonderfully to the development of the textile industries of 
the South. 

Captain Howell was closely identified for many years 
with the broad field of American Journalism, having been 
president of the Southern Associated Press from its organi- 
zation until it was merged into the national association. He 
numbered his friends by the thousands among newspaper 
and public men the country over, and the news of his death 
was received everywhere with expression of universal regret. 


He was a man of remarkable force of character, vigorous, 
determined and strong, and one of his essential characteris- 
tics was his unswerving loyalty to his friends and his tire- 
less fidelity to any cause that he espoused. He never under- 
took to do a thing by half way methods and whenever he 
got into a contest he pushed his leadership with boundless 
energy. If a loser, he accepted defeat most gracefully and 
always without a scar — if a victor, as he generally was, he 
was more than generous to the vanquished. 

At the close of the Civil War during which he had 
fought for nearly five years to dismember the Union, he 
became intensely interested in the effort to bring about 
National reconciliation, and perhaps the greatest work of 
his newspaper, The Constitution, was the service it rendered 
under Captain Howell and Henry W. Grady in the broad 
influence it exerted in strengthening the bonds of fraternity 
between the North and the South and in wiping out the last 
vestige oi sectional animosity. 


We present herewith a list of soldiers serving in an 
independent artillery company in the Confederate States 
Army. We have a large number of these rolls of Confed- 
erate soldiers in the Library of the Georgia Historical 
Society, and it is our purpose to print one of them in each 
number of the Quarterly, believing that they will prove of 
sufficient interest to warrant this action 

Muster Roll of Capt. R. Martin's Company, Light Artillery, 

Army of The Confederate States of America, From 

the 28th Day of Feb. 1863, When Last Mustered, 

to the 30th Day of April, 1863. 

R. Martin, Captain, on detached duty. 
Evan P. Howell, 1st Lieut., commanding the company. 
W. G. Robson, Lieut., on twenty days leave. 
R. H. Bland, 2nd Lieut. W. H. Dudley, 7th Sergt. 

W. A. Martin, Ord. Sergt. W. K. Hall, 1st Corpl. 
H. B. Ainsworth, Q. M. Sergt. W. M. Cox, 2nd Corpl. 
E. W. Ervin, 1st Sergt. W. B. Oquin, 3rd Corpl. 

H. K. Newsome, 2nd Sergt. W. F. Webster, 4th Corpl. 
R. T. Gibson, 3rd Sergt. J. E. Cullens, 5th Corpl. 

S. D. Fulford, 4th Sergt. J. H. L. Cox, Bugle. 

J. B. Warthen, 5th Sergt. I. Hermann, Bugle. 

W. H. Hines, 6th Sergt. 




J. H. Allen. 
J. F. Bailey. 
J. M. Barnwell. 
W. T. C. Barnwell. 
W. B. Barwick. 
W. J. Bell. 
J. N. Bentley. 

F. S. Bland. 

C. Blizzard. 

D. W. Bodiford. 
W. H. Bodiford. 
L. S. Braswell. 
J. J. Braswell. 

J. F. Brooks. 
W. J. Brooks. 
T. J. Brooks. 
U. A. Brown. 
B. L. Bynum. 
R. L. Campbell. 
A. E. Candell. 

D. F. Chambers. 
J. H. Coleman. 
H. A. Cord. 

M. B. Cox. 
S. B. Cox. 
R. W. Cullins. 

E. W. Cullins. 
I. D. Cullens. 
J. Curry. 

I. A. Curry. 

A. Dixon. 
R. Dixon. 

W. E. Doolittle. 
T. C. Doolittle. 
J. E. Q. Dudley. 
T. C. Durham. 
J. Ellis. 
H. Field. 
H. Ford. 
E. T. Ford. 

G. T. Franklin. 

B. O. Franklin. 
B. Garner. 

T. J. Gilmore. 
W. Gilmore. 

S. M. Gilmore. 

E. T. Gilmore. 
J. A. Goodown. 
S. A. Goodown. 
W. A. Grimes. 
J. J. Haddon. 
J. F. Haddon. 
R. H. Hall. 

J. D. Hardedge. 
W. N. Harman. 
A. P. Heath. 
A. C. Hines. 
W. H. Horton. 
V. A. S. Horton. 
J. W. Horton. 
W. C. Howard. 
J. T. Howard. 

A. Hulsey. 
J. Jackson. 

R. E. Jackson. 
J. E. Johnson. 
K. Jones. 

B. Jones. 
G. Kittrell. 

J. S. Langmade. 
I. N. Lockman. 

F. M. Loden. 

E. K. Lord. 

F. M. Lord. 
N. A. Lord. 
H. C. Lord. 
D. G. McCoy. 
J. P. McCoy. 
F. A. McCoy. 
W. J. Massey. 
J. W. Mathews. 
J. E. Mulling. 

J. J. Oquin. 
J. R. Oxford. 
J. H. Pittman. 
B. F. Pool. 
F. Posey. 
J. B. Ragan. 
N. Rayfield. 
J. F. Rogers. 


J. T. Salter. R. Tompkins. 

J. F. Sheppard. J. F. Tompkins. 

W. F. Sheppard. W. H. Toulson. 

W. D. Sheppard. J. H. Veal. 

H. Skelly. J. W. Veal. 

W. A. Smith. J. M. Walden. 

J. P. Smith. W. Waller. 

A. L. Stevens. J.A.Waller. 

D. B. Tanner. J.J.Waller. 

L. Taylor. R. T. Waller. 

J. B. Thomas. G. W. Webster. 

W. C. Thomas. J. W. Webster. 

H. S. Thompson. J. Wood. 
S. F. Tompkins. 

The company was afterwards known as Howell's Battery of 
Artillery. At this time it was stationed at Stave Landing, in Bryan 



No county in the state of Georgia is richer in natural 
resources and in the achievements of her citizens than 
Wilkes. Her contributions of material wealth and of dis- 
tinguished men and women in the upbuilding of the state is 
remarkable. She has furnished eleven Governors of Geor- 
gia, who were either born in Wilkes, or who were at some 
times residents of that county, and seventeen counties in 
the state have been named in honor of her eminent sons. 

Wilkes county originally embraced a very large terri- 
tory, including Lincoln, Elbert, Oglethorpe, and in part 
Hart, Warren, McDuffie, Talliaferro, Madison and Greene 
counties. This territory was acquired from the Indians in 
payment of debts due the early traders, and in 1773 it was 
opened to settlement. In 1777 it was created into a county 
by the State Constitution of that year. It was named in 
honor of John Wilkes, a distinguished member of the British 
Parliament, who strenuously opposed those harsh and un- 
just measures towards America which finally led to the 



The earliest settlers of Wilkes county were from North 
Carolina, but these were soon followed by a large number 
of Virginia families of greater wealth, education and in- 
fluence. The differences of feeling and social status be- 
tween these two groups gave rise to political antagonisms 
which were at times state-wide. The political strife between 
Crawford and Clark is an instance. William H. Crawford 
was a Virginian, while John Clark was a North Carolinian, 
and for many years Georgia politics was divided into two 
great factions, whose members espoused the cause of one 
or the other of these two great leaders. 

It is worthy of note that the early settlers of Wilkes 
county were a totally different group from that which was 
planted in Savannah by Oglethorpe in 1733. The Wilkes 
county settlers came in a steady migratory stream from 
Virginia, North Carolina, and Maryland, and they were of 
the best English and Scotch-Irish stock. Behind these 
people in ancestral lines lay habits of thrift and industry, 
hardihood and courage, and honor and high purpose. It is 
therefore not strange that from such ancestral stock so 
many men of mark should be produced. Among these early 
settlers were the following: 

Gen. Elijah Clarke and his son John Clark, who 
afterwards became Governor, Colonel John Dooly, Colonel 
Thomas Dooly, Stephen Heard, Barnard Heard, Jesse 
Heard, George Mathews (Governor), Colonel Benjamin 
Taliaferro, Francis Meriwether, Thomas Meriwether, David 
Meriwether, John Heard, Benjamin Wilkinson, John Talbot 
and his son Matthew Talbot (Governor), Colonel Micah 
Williamson, William Barnett, John Gilmer, Thomas M. Gil- 
mer, the father of Governor George R. Gilmer, John Marks, 
John Callaway, Nathaniel Edge, Wiley Hill, John Myrick, 
Colonel John Freeman, Colonel Holman Freeman, Dr. W. 
W. Bibb, General Samuel Blackburn, Nathaniel Barnett, 
Micajah McGehee, Daniel Harvie, Reuben Jordan, John 
Davenport, John Bradley, James Bradley, George Lump- 
kin, John Rutherford, John Hill, Thomas Ansley, Nathaniel 
Howell, Thomas Wooten, Burwell Pope, John Lindsey, 
Frederick Sims, William Pollard, Benjamin Jackson, Walter 
Jackson, William Morgan, Thomas Branham, John Wing- 
field, John Nail, Nathaniel Christmas, Job Callaway, Jacob 
Early, Henry Mounger, William Glenn, Walker Richard- 
son, Benjamin Joyney, Reuben Saffold, James Findley, 
Curtace Wellborn, Samuel Cresswell, James Anthony, Wil- 
liam Terrell, Joel Terrell, Daniel Grant, Thomas Grant, 


William Bowen, John Armstrong, Sanders Walker, Colonel 
Nicholas Long, Thomas Wellborn, Thomas Carter, Spencer 
Crane, Mr. Pharr, James Jack, Garland Wingfield, Mr. 
Cuthbert, Thomas Napier, William Moss, Captain Lipham, 
Horatio Marbury, John Barksdale, Henry Pope, Charles 
Tate, Henry Gibson, John Pope, David Lowery, Thomas 
Wingfield, William Stokes, William Gilbert, Daniel Mills, 
Edward Butler, David Hillhouse, Micajah Anthony, John 
Candler, John Cain, Elijah Darden, Gabriel Toombs, Wil- 
liam Toombs, John Stephens, Williamson Bird, George 
Willis, Humphrey Burdett, Joel Hurt, Pressly Rucker, 
William Sanson, James Sanson, William Head, Alexander 
Cummins, John Collier, Joseph Wilson, Sampson Harris, 
Anthony Poullain, John Colley, Philip Combs, Jacob 
Shorter, William Ogletree, Joseph Callaway, William 
Rabun, Henry Colquitt, James Shepard, Colonel John 
Graves, Captain Abram Simons, Rev. Silas Mercer, Rev. 
T. J. Beck, Henry Jossey, and Matthew Sikes. 

In 1773 Stephen Heard of Virginia planted a colony 
upon the present site of the town of Washington, and there 
he built a stockade fort. His two brothers, Barnard and 
Jesse, and probably his father John Heard, came with him. 
During the Revolution Heard's Fort became the temporary 
seat of the state government after Augusta fell into the 
hands of the British, and Stephen Heard acted as Governor. 
The traditional site of the old fort is that upon which the 
new court house now stands, where also stood the old 
Heard House in which the last meeting of the Confederate 
Cabinet was held. 

The first court held north of Augusta was at Heard's 
Fort on April 25, 1779, where Absalom Bedell, Benjamin 
Catchings, and William Down were the Justices. Zacha- 
riah Lamar and James Gorman were added later. Colonel 
John Dooly was the attorney for the state. At this court 
nine persons were sentenced to be hanged, principally for 
treason, "under indictments," says Judge Andrews in the 
Bench and Bar of Georgia, "about as long as your finger." 

The name of Heard's Fort was changed in 1780 to 
Washington in honor of "The Father of his Country," it 
being the first town in the United States so named. 


During the Revolution, Wilkes county, which then in- 
cluded Lincoln and the other parts cut off since, was called 
by the Tories "the Hornet's Nest," on account of the pa- 
triotic activity and bravery of her people. About eight 


miles west of Washington was fought on February 14, 1779, 
the battle of Kettle Creek, where the American forces under 
Pickens, Clarke and Dooly almost annihilated the British 
troops under Colonel Boyd. The British leader with 
about eight hundred men had crossed the Savannah near 
its junction with Broad River, and was shaping his course 
westward to a point on Little River, where he had agreed 
upon a union with the notorious McGirth. The Ameri- 
cans with about four hundred men closely followed them, 
and on the morning of the 14th of February they came upon 
the enemy who had halted for breakfast upon the north 
side of Kettle Creek. The British had taken no precau- 
tion against a surprise attack, and the Americans suddenly 
fell upon them in a desperate battle which lasted' one hour 
and forty-five minutes. The result was a complete victory 
for the patriots. The British loss was seventy killed, and 
seventy-five wounded and captured. The American loss was 
nine killed and twenty-three wounded. The brave Colonel 
Boyd fell mortally wounded, three musket balls having 
pierced his body. Colonel Pickens waited upon him and 
tendered him every relief in his power. The British leader 
fully realized his hopeless condition, and he gave Colonel 
Pickens certain articles of value to be forwarded to his 
wife with a letter explaining the manner of his death. This 
request was faithfully complied with. Two men were de- 
tailed to wait upon him and to bury his body after death. 
He died the following night. 

Those of the enemy who escaped scattered in every di- 
rection. This battle was a decisive one, for it completely 
foiled the British plans of invasion, and it greatly heartened 
the patriots throughout the state. A partial list of names of 
the American patriots who took part in this memorable 
struggle has been recently prepared after much investiga- 
tion and research by Mrs. T. M. Green of Washington. 
This list, taken from Knight's Landmarks, Memorials, and 
Legends of Georgia is as follows : 

Elijah Clarke Holman Freeman 

John Dooly James Freeman 

Thomas Dooly William Freeman 

Micajah Williamson Stephen Heard 

Hugh McCall Barnard Heard 

George Dooly John Heard 

John Freeman Jesse Heard 

Daniel Freeman Austin Dabney 

Coldrop Freeman James Williams 



Samuel Whatley 
Benjamin Wilkinson 
Benjamin Hart 
Morgan Hart 
Nancy Hart 
Nancy Darker 
Elisha Wilkinson 
John Nelson 


Joe Phillips 
Zachariah Phillips 
James Little 
Andrew Pickens 
Dionysius Oliver 
Daniel Coleman 
John Coleman 
Thomas Stroud 
James McLean 
Jacob Ferrington 
William Bailey 
John Glass 
Thomas Glass 
Charles Beddingfield 
William Harper 
Robert Harper 
John Crutchfield 
Francis Triplett 
James Alexander 
John Candler 



Captain Anderson 
Ambrose Beasley 
Jeter Stubblefield 
John Lamar 
James Lamar 
Joseph Pickens 
John Clark 
Owen Fluker 
Will Fluker 
R. Sutton 
Wiley Pope 
William Pope 
Henry Pope 
Burwell Pope 
Richard Tyner 

Absalom Bedell 
Benjamin Catchings 
William Downs 
Henry Manadne 
Scott Redden 
Joseph Scott Redden 
George Redden 
Jacob McLendon 
George Walton 
Jesse Walton 
John Walton 
Nathaniel Walton 
Robert Walton 
Daniel Burnett 
Ichabod Burnett 
John Burnett 
Richard Aycock 
Robert Day 
Joseph Day 
John Gorham 
Zachariah Lamar 
Basil Lamar 
L. Williamson 



John Hill 

John Lindsey 
William Morgan 
William Terrell 
John Colley 
Nathan Smith 




Stephen Evans 
William Evans 
John Evans 




James White 



John Candler 



It is an interesting fact that one of the first, if not the 
very first, cotton gins ever operated in Georgia, or in the 
world, was the one operated by Eli Whitney, the famous 
inventor, in Wilkes county near Smyrna church. The orig- 
inal building, though removed a short distance from the 
site upon which it was erected, is still standing on the Bur- 
dett place near Smyrna. One of the first cotton gins con- 
structed by Whitney was for many years in the possession 
of Judge Garnett Andrews of Washington, to whom it was 
given by Governor Matthew Talbot, on whose plantation 
the first gin house was located. This old relic was lost many 
years ago at an agricultural fair in Augusta. Much credit 
is due to Miss Fannie Andrews, a daughter of Judge Gar- 
nett Andrews, and one of Georgia's most accomplished 
women, for preserving the history of the first cotton gin 
and its operations. 


Wilkes county has produced a large number of distin- 
guished men and women who have greatly strengthened 
and adorned the life of the state. Eleven Governors of 
Georgia were either born in Wilkes, or were for some time 
residents of this county. These were Heard, Mathews, 
Clark, Talbot, Early, Lumpkin, Rabun, Towns, Gilmer, 
Forsyth, and Stephens. Seventeen counties of Georgia 
have been named in honor of her distinguished sons. 

STEPHEN HEARD moved from Westmoreland coun- 
ty, Virginia, in 1773, and built a stockade fort upon the pres- 
ent site of the town of Washington. He was a prominent 
figure in the councils of the state, and for a time during the 
Revolution he acted as governor with his capital at his fort. 

GEORGE MATHEWS was twice governor of the 
state, and a member of the first United States Congress. He 
was born in Virginia in 1739, and in 1785 he removed to 
Georgia and settled at Goose Pond, now in Oglethorpe 
county, together with the Meriwethers, the Freemans, the 
Gilmers, the Talliaferros, Barnetts and others. While Gov- 
ernor he signed the notorious Yazoo Act, but he himself was 
free from any guilt in this great state scandal. He died in 
Augusta August 12, 1812, while on his way to Washington 
City to inflict punishment on the President of the United 
States for a fancied wrong, and was buried in old St. Paul's 


JOHN CLARK, the son of General Elijah Clarke, was 
a forceful figure in Georgia politics in the stormy period 
succeeding the Revolution. He was born in North Carolina 
February 28, 1766, and at the age of sixteen he entered the 
Continental army as lieutenant. He was elected Governor 
in 1819, and again two years later. He challenged William 
H. Crawford to a duel, and a shot from Clark's pistol broke 
Crawford's wrist. His home was situated eleven miles from 
Washington on the south side of the road to Danielsville. It 
was here that the American troops encamped the night 
before the battle of Kettle Creek. General Clark died of 
yellow fever at St. Andrew's Bay, Florida, October 12, 1832. 

MATTHEW TALBOT was born in Virginia July 24, 
1795. He became ex-officio Governor after the death of 
Governor Rabun in 1819. He died March 14, 1855, and was 
buried at Smyrna church near his home. 

PETER EARLY was also born in Virginia. After 
being graduated from Princeton he moved to Wilkes county 
and began the practice of law. His marked ability and 
forceful character successfully advanced him to the positions 
of Congressman, Superior Court Judge, and, in 1813, to 
Governor. He died in Greene county August 15, 1817, and 
his remains still lie there in an unmarked grave. 

WILSON LUMPKIN was born in Virginia January 14, 
1783, and while very young he moved with his father to that 
part of Wilkes county which is now included in Oglethorpe, 
He served in the State Legislature and in Congress, and in 
1823 he was one of the Commission to fix the line between 
Georgia and Florida. In 1831 he was elected Governor. He 
died in Athens December 28, 1870. 

WILLIAM RABUN was born in North Carolina April 
8, 1771. He moved to Wilkes county at the age of fourteen, 
and later to Hancock county where he died October 24, 1819, 
while Governor of the State. 

GEORGE W. TOWNS, Governor, Legislator, and Con- 
gressman, was born in Wilkes county May 4, 1802. He died 
in Macon July 15, 1854. Miller, in the Bench and Bar of 
Georgia, pays him high tribute for his skill and address, to 
his polished manners, and to his power to move the human 
feelings by his persuasive eloquence. 

GEORGE R. GILMER was born April 11, 1790, in that 
part of Wilkes county which is now Oglethorpe. His father 
moved to Wilkes from Virginia in 1784. He served in the 


War with the Creeks, and in the War of 1812. He was 
Legislator, Congressman, and twice Governor. In 1855 he 
published Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper 
Georgia, of the Cherokees, and the Author. The publica- 
tion, while sensational at the time, was a valuable contribu- 
tion to the history of the state, and especially of Wilkes 
county. He died at Lexington November 15, 1859. 

both Governors of the state, while not born in Wilkes, re- 
ceived much of their education and their inspiration in this 
county, and they owed much of their success in life to this 

Among the other prominent men of Wilkes was Colonel 
Micajah Williamson, one of the most prominent patriots of 
the Revolution. He and General Elijah Clarke were great 
friends. He had five sons and six daughters. All of the 
daughters married prominent men, as follows : Nancy mar- 
ried John Clark, afterwards Governor of Georgia. Sarah 
married, first Judge Griffin, and afterwards Judge Tait, who 
served for ten years in the United States Senate. Susan 
married Dr. Thomas Bird, and her daughter Sarah became 
the wife of L. Q. C. Lamar, Sr., and the mother of the great 
jurist and statesman of the same name, who served on the 
Supreme Bench of the United States, in the national Senate, 
and in the Cabinet of President Cleveland. Mary married 
Duncan G. Campbell, for whom Campbell county was 
named, and who signed the famous treaty at Indian Springs. 
He was the champion of female education in Georgia. His 
son, John A. Campbell, was a judge of the United States 
Supreme Court, and a commissioner in the celebrated con- 
ference at Hampton Roads. Martha married a Fitch, and 
Elizabeth a Thweat, both men of prominence. It would be 
difficult in one family to match this remarkable record. 

Another prominent family of Wilkes is the Alexander 

Adam L. Alexander was born in Sunbury, Ga., in 1803, 
and was graduated at Yale in 1819. He met at New Haven, 
Sarah Hillhouse Gilbert, daughter of William Gilbert and 
granddaughter of David R. Hillhouse and Sarah Porter 
Hillhouse, who was a remarkable woman. They were mar- 
ried in the celebrated old Hillhouse mansion at New Haven, 
and settled upon the wife's plantation on the edge of Wash- 
ington. There were ten children of this marriage. The most 
distinguished of the sons was Gen. Edward Porter Alexan- 
der, Brigadier General of the Confederate Army, President 


of the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company, President 
of the Central Railroad and Banking Company, etc. The 
six daughters, all women of remarkable force and intellect, 
married men of mark. Louisa married J. F. Gilmer, Chief 
of Engineers and Major General of the Confederate States 
Army; Sarah married Alexander R. Lawton, Brigadier 
General, commanding a division in Stonewall Jackson's 
corps, Quartermaster General of the Confederacy, United 
States Minister to Austria, legislator and lawyer; Harriet 
married Wallace Gumming, a leading citizen and a success- 
ful banker of Savannah ; Mary Clifford married George 
Gilmer Hull, a pioneer in railroad operation and construc- 
tion in Georgia ; Marion married Rev. William E. Boggs, 
D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian Clergyman and Chan- 
cellor of the University of Georgia ; Alice married Col. Alex- 
ander C. Haskell, leader of the Democrats in the political 
revolution which restored South Carolina to its own people 
in 1876-77, and judge of the Supreme Court of South 

Adam L. Alexander was one of the citizens of Wilkes 
county who gave to Alexander H. Stephens his education, 
and Mr. Stephens lived some time in the Alexander home. 
Mr. Stephens' dedication of his Reviewers Reviewed to Mr. 
Alexander is the best index of his character and attainments. 

Out on the Mallorysville road four miles from Wash- 
ington at Walnut Hill was located the famous school of Rev. 
John Springer. He was a gigantic man, weighing over four 
hundred pounds. He was the first Presbyterian minister or- 
dained in Georgia. The ceremony took place in Washington 
out of doors under a large poplar tree which is still standing 
in the rear of the home of Mr. C. A. Alexander. To this 
school many boys and young men were sent from Augusta 
and the surrounding country. Among those who attended 
this famous school were Jesse Mercer, John Forsyth, and 
Nicholas Ware. Alexander Stephens was prepared for col- 
lege at the High School in Washington, and for some years 
lived here. Maj. General W. H. T. Walker, who lost his life 
in the battle of Atlanta, and Madam Octavia Walton LeVert, 
one of the South's most brilliant women, were descendants 
of Thomas Talbot of Wilkes county. 

Rev. Hope Hull, the founder of the first Methodist 
school in Georgia, lived, taught, and preached in Wilkes. 
His school was known as Succoth Academy, and was lo- 
cated near Coke's Chapel. The first Methodist Church in 
Georgia was built in Wilkes county by Daniel Grant. 


Rev. Jesse Mercer, for whom Mercer University was 
named, lived in Wilkes. He has done more for the Baptist 
church than any other man in the state. He was, indeed a 
remarkable man. He was baptized in a barrel of water, and 
as a minister he had a remarkable career. He organized the 
first Baptist church in Washington, and became the editor 
of the Christian Index. His second wife was Nancy Simons, 
the widow of Captain Abram Simons, a wealthy Jew and 
a Revolutionary soldier, who lived about seven miles from 
Washington on the Augusta road. It is a curious circum- 
stance that much of the money contributed by Jesse Mercer 
to establish Mercer University, a Baptist institution, should 
have been derived from the estate of this broad minded 
Jewish financier. Jesse Mercer had set his heart on Wash- 
ington as the seat of this University, but the gift of $2,500 
from Josiah Penfield of Savannah, together with other in- 
fluences, carried it to Penfield on Greene county, where it 
remained till 1871 when it was removed to Macon. 

It would be impossible in the limitations of this sketch 
to mention all of the distinguished men and women of 
Wilkes who have honored the state in their lives. Here lived 
the lordly Toombs, the leonine leader of the Confederacy, 
about whose brilliant career a volume could be written. 
Here, too, lived Judge William M. Reese and Judge Gar- 
nett Andrews, both distinguished jurists in their day. The 
genial General Dudley M. DuBose, the son-in-law of Robert 
Toombs, was a resident of Washington. Here also should 
be mentioned Miss Eliza A. Bowen, and Miss E. F. An- 
drews, two of Georgia's most gifted women educators. Miss 
Bowen wrote a text-book on "Astronomy by Observation" 
and an incomplete History of Wilkes county. Miss An- 
drews has written several popular works on fiction, a work 
on botany, and an interesting book entitled "The War- 
Time Journal of a Georgia Girl," besides numerous maga- 
zine articles of great value. 

It is not generally known that the father of Jefferson 
Davis, the President of the Confederacy, was a native of 
Wilkes County, and that the remains of his grandfather 
sleep in an unmarked grave near the present town of Wash- 

In this county also lived that "tall, muscular, fearless, 
red-headed, cross-eyed, and cross-grained" heroine of the 
Revolution, Nancy Hart, for whom Hart county was 
named. Her home was in what is now Elbert county near 
Beaverdam Ford on Broad River. Her maiden name was 
Morgan, and both she and her husband, Benjamin Hart, 


were from Kentucky. Benjamin Hart was a brother of 
Colonel Thomas Hart, and an uncle of Thomas Hart Benton. 

Here also lived the Hills, Popes, Wootens, Callaways, 
McGehees, Barnetts, Colleys, Simpsons, Lanes, Bookers, 
Wynns, and many others. 

It will be seen from this limited sketch that Wilkes 
county is unusually rich in historic material. Her people 
have great reason to be proud of their past, and it is worthy 
of preservation. Miss Bowen, Miss Andrews, Miss Lane, 
Mrs. Green and others have done much to rescue the fading 
records, but her citizens should encourage every effort to 
preserve in imperishable form the splendid history of their 
county before Time's effacing fingers have swept into ob- 
livion the unrecorded deeds of men. 


A. I. — Can you give me the actual date of the death of 
Button Gwinnett, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence from Georgia? 

Sanderson, in the Biography of the Signers of the Declar- 
ation of Independence, says : ''The wound of Mr. Gwinnett 
proved mortal, and he expired on the twenty-seventh of May, 
1777, in the forty-fifth year of his age." This mistake has 
been repeated by other writers. In his History of Georgia, 
vol. 2, p. 270, Chas. C. Jones says that the challenge to the 
duel passed from Gwinnett to Mcintosh on the 15th of 
May, that the duel was fought next day, and that Gwinnett, 
"after lingering for twelve days, died of his hurt," which 
would make the date of death the 28th. Both of these state- 
ments are incorrect. Joseph Clay, in a letter to the Hon. 
Henry Laurens, from Savannah, dated May 19, 1777, (Col- 
lections of the Georgia Historical Society, vol. VIII, p. 32) 
wrote: "You have doubtless heard of Genr'l Mcintosh & 
Gwinnett's dispute w'ch has ended w'th the loss of the 
latter; a mortification took place w'ch brought him to his 
end this morning." So the discovery of Mr. Clay's letter 
definitely fixes the time of Gwinnett's death as May 19, 
1777. But it is proper to add that Jones, in a later work, 
"Biographical Sketches of the Delegates from Georgia to 
the Continental Congress," printed Lyman Hall's account of 
the duel and Gwinnett's death, thus: "He languished from 
that morning, (Friday, 16th) till Monday morning follow- 
ing & expired," and in his sketch of Gwinnett said he died 
four days after the duel. 


S. A. T. — Is it true that Charles Dickens mentions the 
siege of Savannah in the American Revolution in one of his 
novels? If so, kindly give me the name of the book. 

In the 72d chapter of Barnaby Rudge, John Willet (who 
never could be reconciled to the fact that his son Joe had 
grown to manhood, thus causing the latter to leave home 
and join the army) questions his son, on his return, con- 
cerning the loss of an arm, and receives this reply : "At the 
defense of Savannah, father." "At the defense of the Sal- 
wanners," repeated Mr. Willet, softly, again looking round 
the table. "In America, where the war is," said Joe. 

Philip. — In a newspaper published recently I saw the 
account of a horse-race in Georgia which was run some time 
in the early years of the last century, and the suggestion was 
made by the editor that it would be interesting to have 
some account of earlier horse races, and if possible to learn 
when the first race was run in Georgia. Can you give me 
any information on this point? 

We are in possession of the first printed notice of the 
sport in Georgia, but cannot say whether races were run 
here before that time. In the Gazette of Thursday, June 2, 
1763, this interesting item appeared: "On Thursday last 
(May 26) a subscription purse of 20 guineas was run for at 
Sunbury, over a two mile course, when four horses started. 
Mr. Maxwell's little Chickesaw afforded excellent sport 
through every heat, but especially the last, which entitled 
him to the prize, there being three to one again him." 

The Mr. Maxwell mentioned in the foregoing, was the 
owner of Belfast, now in Bryan county, and the great grand- 
father of the editor of the Quarterly. 

Anxious Inquirer. — I have looked into all the works 
on Georgia history at my command for the names of 
the officers of Oglethorpe's Regiment, but can find only a 
few. Has a full list ever been printed? 

Many years ago the following list was sent to the editor 
of the Quarterly by a gentleman living in Maidstone, Eng- 
land, with the statement that he had copied it from a manu- 
script volume in the Public Records Office in London, called 
"A Book of Army Commissions," containing the names of 
officers to whom commissions were issued from 1728 to 

From "A Book of Army Commissions" from 1728 to 
1741 in the Record Office in London, as follows: 


James Oglethorpe, Colonel of a regiment of foot. 

James Cochran, Lieutenant Colonel. 

Wm. Cook, Major. 

Hugh Mackay, Captain. 

Richard Norbury, Captain. 

Alex. Heron, Captain. 

Albert Desbrisay, Captain. 

Philip Delegall, Senior, Lieutenant. 

Philip Delegall, Junior, Lieutenant. 

Raymond Demere, Lieutenant. 

George Morgan. The rank not stated. 

George Dunbar. The rank not stated. 

Will Horton, Ensign. 

James Mackay, Ensign. 

Wm. Tolson, Ensign. 

John Tanner, Ensign. 

John Leman, Ensign. 

Sandford Mace, Ensign. 

Hugh Mackay, Adjutant. 

Edward Dyson, Clerk and Chaplain. 

Thomas Hawkins, Surgeon. 

Edward Wansall, Quartermaster. 

There were also Lieuts. Maxwell and Sutherland who 
are not named in this list ; but they were trusted officers and 
appear in Oglethorpe's account of the troubles with the 

Historian. — Can you tell me whether Oglethorpe's Regi- 
ment was uniformed? If the officers wore a uniform, where 
can a description of same be found? 

It is certain that no description of the uniform worn by 
members of Oglethorpe's Regiment has been given in any 
of the histories of Georgia, but a letter written to Bishop 
Wm. B. Stevens by Prof. Wm. MacK'enzie of the University 
of Edinburgh, dated 15th of September, 1845, gives the 
following: "Description of the Uniform of Oglethorpe's 
Regiment in a MS. volume, in the library of the deceased 
Duke of York ; Hat, old style three cornered, low roofed ; 
Coat, red and of ample dimensions, wide in the skirts, facings 
green, with a narrow stripe of white between the body and 
the dress." 

This is neither full nor definite, but is the only descrip- 
tion to be found anywhere. 



With this number we begin to carry out the design of 
the Georgia Historical Society in deciding to publish a 
periodical devoted to the dissemination of information re- 
lating to the history of the State of Georgia, as one of the 
purposes for which the Society was founded. It is, we 
believe, a fair sample of what was contemplated by the 
action calling it into existence, and we confidently look for 
the hearty approval by our readers of the varied contents 
of this issue. 

We contemplate, as far as possible, the publication in 
each succeeding number of a genealogy of some Georgia 
family, and call upon such of our members as have the ma- 
terial to prepare for publication articles of that nature. Help 
us on this line. 

Articles on matters connected with the history of our 
state are called for, and it should be a matter of duty with 
those who are proud of our achievements to aid us in placing 
on record in our Quarterly the things which we wish to be 
held in lasting remembrance. 

The seventy-eighth annual meeting of the Georgia His- 
torical Society was held at the regular time, February 12th, 
but only a portion of the business on the docket was trans- 
acted, and the meeting was adjourned to the 21st of March. 
At that time the annual address will be delivered by Mr. 
Alexander C. King, of Atlanta. We need not say anything 
here as to the fitness of the selection of Mr. King as the 
orator of the occasion. No better man could have been 
invited, and we bespeak for him a large audience which we 
are sure he will have. We will have more to say on this 
subject in the June number. 


To encourage historical research and the cultivation of 
portraying the art of history in fiction the Georgia Historical 
Quarterly offers a prize of twenty-five dollars to be awarded 
to the writer of the best short story for publication in the 
Quarterly upon the following conditions : 

1. The author or authoress must be a Georgian residing 
within the state. 

2. The plot of the story must be laid in Georgia and the 
chief incidents and characters taken from Georgia His- 

3. The story must contain not less than 5000 or more than 
8000 words. 

4. Rejected manuscripts will be returned. 

5. The winning story will appear in either the June or 
September number of the Quarterly of the present year. 

6. The award will be made by the Committee on Publica- 
tion of the Georgia Historical Society. 







VOL. l-No.2. 

JUNE, 1917. 

Printed for the Society 
Savannah. Ga. , 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year. 


James Mackay, of Strathy Hall, Comrade in Arms of 

George Washington , . . . By William Harden 77 

Fort Pulaski,. . . By Chas. H. Olmstead 98 

Roster of Captain McMullan's Company of Confed- 
erates — The Wise Guards 106 

Bethesda's Crisis in 1791; Disaster Averted ....... 108 

Historic Summerville By Lawton B. Evans. 135 

Some Official Letters of Governor Edward Telfair 141 

The Boundary Between Georgia and South Carolina; 

A Legal Opinion By Hon. George Hillyer 155 

Rev. John J. Zubly's Appeal to the Grand Jury, Oct. 

8, 1777 161 

The Screven Family ..... .By the Genealogical Editor. 166 

Editor's Notes 168 

Art Notes 170 

Queries and Answers 171 

Proceedings 173 

Necrology 176 


Bethesda Orphan Home Frontispiece 

Two Views of Strathy Hall; . . . . 77 

Plan of Siege of Fort Pulaski 98 






VOL. 1-No. 2. 

JUNE, 1917. 

Printed for the Society 
Savannah, Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year. 






William W. Mackall, President. 

Thomas J. Charlton, Vice-President. 

Otis Ashmore, Vice-President. 

Alexander C. King, Vice-President. 

Lawton B. Evans, Vice-President. 

Otis Ashmore, Corresponding Secretary. 

Charles F. Groves, Secretary and Treasurer. 

William Harden, Librarian and Editor of the Quarterly. 


Otis Ashmore. 

R. Preston Brooks. 

Thomas J. Charlton. 

Henry C. Cunningham.* 

Wymberley W. DeRenne. 

Charles Ellis. 

Lawton B. Evans. 

H. R. Goetchius. 

William W. Gordon. 

Alexander C. King. 

Alexader R. Lawton. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Mackall. 

J. Florance Minis. 

William W. Williamson. 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman. 

Charles Ellis. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Williamson. 

Mrs. Anna B. Karow. 

*Died May 9, 1917. 

29 Feet in Circumference. 

Fronting Site of Old Mansion. 




Vol. I. JUNE, 1917. No. 2 



The purpose of this biographical sketch is to acquaint 
the reader with the truth in the history of one who, in his 
lifetime, acted a part of useful service to his fellow men ; to 
the colony of Georgia when he took up arms under the lead- 
ership of the founder of this commonwealth ; to Great 
Britain in her conflict with her enemy in what was known 
as the French and Indian War, where he came in close touch 
with "The Father of his Country ;" to the same great Eng- 
lish government later on when the colonies sought and 
gained their independence from that government ; and who, 
notwithstanding all this, is almost unknown to the people 
of Georgia at the present time. Before taking up an ac- 
count of his life, let us inquire into the history of his ante- 
cedents and learn something of the clan from which he 

From a book on "The Scottish Clans and Their Tar- 
tans," we glean this account of the Clan Mackay: 

"This Clan is known to the 'seanachies' as 'Clan 
Mhorguinn/ or Clan Morgan. In the Book of Deer 
(eleventh century) the Clan Morgan and their 'toiseach,' 
or chief, granted lands to the Abby of Deer, Aberdeenshire, 
in the eleventh century. The Clan are also called 'Clan 
Aoidh/ the Lowland form is Mackie, and the Irish Magee. 
In Manx they are simply Kay. There are at least two clans 
Mackay, an Argyllshire and Sutherlandshire clan. The 
Argyllshire Mackays are to be found at an early date in 
Islay and Kintyre. 


"The genealogy of the Mackays of Kintyre will be 
found in Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, p. 54. It differs 
totally from that of the Mackays of the North. The latter 
are always called Clan Morgan by the Gaelic 'seanachies,' 
and claim to be descended from the common ancestor of 
the Forbeses and Urquharts, and about 1608 they adopted 
Lord Forbes' arms with cadet differences (by permission 
of Lord Forbes, whom Hugh Mackay of Farr calls 'his 
Dear Chief). 

"The first historic Chief of the Clan was Angus Du, who 
flourished 1380-1429. He was called 'Angus the Absolute' 
from the fact of his having 4000 men at his command. 
Angus was an old man when the fierce battle of Drumna- 
coub was fought in 1429, and the Clan was led by Iain 
Abereigh, who gained a great victory. Angus Du fell by 
the hand of a skulking assassin, a follower of the Earl of 
Sutherland, who shot him with an arrow, on the Historic 
Drumnacoub. The assassin was killed some years later by 
a grandson of Angus Du. 

"In the enforced absence of his brother Neil, who was 
confined on the Bass Rock, Iain Abereigh, who had so 
distinguished himself as a leader, acted as chief in his 
brother's stead till 1437. 

"On his liberation Neil assumed his rightful position, 
which he held till his death in 1450. He was succeeded by 
his son Angus, who sided with the Keiths against the Gunns, 
and took part in the cruel fight of Bar Tannic, Caithness. 

"The Chief of the Clan from 1614 to 1650 was Donald, 
whom Charles 1st raised to the Peerage in 1628, with the 
title of Lord Reay. Hugh Mackay of Farr, father of Donald 
Lord Reay, is said to have been the first of his family who 
turned Protestant. Lord Reay carried over a regiment of 
3000 men to Germany to the assistance of the King and 
Queen of Bohemia. He afterwards engaged in the service 
of the King of Denmark against Germany, and upon the 
King making peace with the conqueror, he entered with his 
forces into the service of Gustavus Adolphus, bringing new 
recruits and supplies of men. (See An Old Scot's Brigade, 
Mackay Regiments page 251.) On hearing of the execution 
of Charles 1st, he felt it so much that he took to his bed, 
and died, abroad, about ten days after the execution — 10th 
February, 1649. He was buried at Tongue Sutherlandshire. 

"In 1642 Lord Reay sold Strathnaver, to the Earl of 
Sutherland, to redeem loans of money which he received 
to discharge debts incurred in transporting and maintaining 
12,000 men which he recruited for foreign service to assist 
the Protestant cause in the great 30 years' war. During the 


chiefship of Eric, seventh Lord Reay, in the early part of 
last century the remaining portions of the estate had to be 
sold, so that the Mackays of the North, as a Clan, have been 
for the best part of a century virtually landless. 

"During the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Mackays 
raised the celebrated Reay Fencible Regiment, 800 strong, 
which fought the battle of Tara Hill, routing an overwhelm- 
ing body of the rebels. 

"The Mackays of the South were powerful in Islay 
and Kintyre, and fought under the banner of the Lords of 
the Isles, sharing their misfortunes and exile. It is recorded 
that there were at one time eighteen landed proprietors 
in Kintyre bearing the name of Mackay. They were for 
centuries hereditary Crowners of North Kintyre. The 
earliest Gaelic charter extant was granted by Donald, Lord 
of the Isles, to Brian Vicar Mackay in 1408. The Vicar 
was known in Islay as 'macAoid na Ranna' — 'Mackay of 
Rhinns.' " 

"The Mackies, Mackeys, Macgies, Bains, Poisons and 
McPhails are regarded as Mackays and are eligible for mem- 
bership in the Clan Society. The Clan Mackay Society 
was founded in 1806, a copy of the original rules being still 
preserved and resuscitated in 1888. Its headquarters are in 
Glasgow. The membership is over 500, and the finances 
amount to 1500 pounds. 

"The present Chief of the Clan is the Right Honourable 
Sir Donald James Mackay, eleventh Baron Reay of Reay in 
the peerage of Scotland, Baron Reay of Durness in that of 
the United Kingdom, and Baron Mackay of Ophemert in 
Holland. He is descended from Brigadier-General the Hon- 
ourable Aeneas Mackay, second son of John, second Lord 
Reay, and was born in Holland 22nd December, 1839." 

Following this we come to an account of the branch of 
the Mackay family, from which our hero descended. These 
extracts are from the "Life of Lieut.-Gen. Hugh Mackay, of 
Scoury," etc., by John Mackay, London, 1842. 

"Lieutenant-General Hugh Mackay of Scoury was 
descended from Mackay of Strathnaver, chief of the Clan 
Mackay, in the county of Sutherland. From what country 
the Mackays originally migrated, and at what precise period 
they settled on the west and north-west coasts of Sutherland, 
are questions on which we need not enlarge; it may be 
sufficient to state that, at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, they had attained to such a degree of power and 
importance that Donald Mackay of Strathnaver is men- 
tioned among the chiefs who, at the head of their respective 
clans, fought under the banners of Robert Bruce, at Ban- 


nockburn, A . D. 1314. Angus Mackay of Strathnaver 
sometimes denominated Angus Dow, or Dhu, from his dark 
complexion), supposed to have been the great-grandson of 
Donald, is the same who is described by the continuator of 
Fordun as the leader of four thousand Strathnavermen. 
He fought a bloody battle near Dingwall, with Donald, Lord 
of the Isles, A. D. 1411, and soon after married Elizabeth 
of the Isles, eldest sister of Donald, and daughter of John, 
Lord of the Isles, by Margaret, daughter of King Robert 
2nd. The fifth in descent from Angus was Hugh, or lye 
Dow Mackay of Strathnaver, who succeeded his father, 
Donald, A. D. 1572, in quiet possession of his family estate. 

"He was twice married, first to his cousin Eupheme, 
daughter of Hugh Macleod, laird of Assynt in Sutherland, 
and by her had Donald of Scoury. His second wife was 
a daughter of Sinclair, laird of Dun in Caithness, by whom 
he had two sons, Hugh of Strathnaver, father of the first 
Lord Reay, and William of Bighouse, from whom are de- 
scended the present Bighouse family. Hugh, though the 
younger brother, was preferred to Donald in the division of 
the paternal property, for reasons which the curious reader 
will find detailed in Robert Mackay's 'History of the Clan 
Mackay.' Donald the first, of Scoury, married a daughter of 
Munro, of Assynt in Ross-shire, brother of Sir Hector Munro, 
the first baronet of Foulis, and by her had three sons, Hugh, 
Donald, and William. First, Hugh Mackay carried on the 
line of the family; second, Donald of Borley, so designed 
from having the lands of Borley in Wadset ; and third, Wil- 
liam, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the service of Gustavus-Adol- 
phus, who was killed at Lutzen, 1632, at the same time with 
that renowned Protestant hero. 

"Hugh of Scoury, Donald's eldest son, was, in 1643, 
appointed by parliament a commissioner for raising sup- 
plies, and in 1648 a member of the committee of war for the 
sheriffdom of Sutherland. In 1649, being with the 
royat army at Balveny castle, he was surprised and taken 
prisoner, together with his son-in-law, John Lord Reay ; but, 
owing to some unexplained cause, was permitted to re- 
turn home peaceably, with the Strathnavermen, while his 
lordship was sent, in custody, to Edinburgh castle. By the 
act of 1650, for calling out all fencible men between the 
ages of sixteen and sixty, he was appointed a colonel of foot, 
which rank Charles 2nd confirmed to him at the Restor- 
ation. In 1661, he was reappointed a commissioner for rais- 
ing supplies, and died, in 1662, universally lamented as a 
man of great probity and worth. He married Ann, a daugh- 
ter of John Corbet of Arkboll, or Arboll, in the county of 


Ross, and had issue four sons and several daughters ; of 
whom Barbara the eldest married her cousin, John, second 
Lord Reay; and from this marriage all the subsequent lords 
of Reay have descended. William and Hector, the elder 
sons, were waylaid and murdered in Caithness, at the insti- 
gation, it was supposed, of persons of distinction in that 
county, against whom criminal letters were in consequence 
issued; yet so wretched was the administration of justice, 
and so impotent the arm of the law, that, though all the pre- 
liminary forms were gone through, the criminals were 
never brought to trial." 

From the foregoing we have a very complete account of 
the Mackays of Scoury, and of their receiving: the title of 
Lords of Reay. It is not necessary to quote further from 
the full accounts at hand of this illustrious family ; but this 
short extract from a sketch giving the pedigree of the senior 
branch of the Scoury family is of special interest in an ac- 
count of James Mackay's life : 

"Captain Hugh's eldest son, Patrick, after selling 
Siderra to the Earl of Sutherland, in 1732, accompanied Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe, on his colonizing expedition to Georgia, to- 
gether with three of his brothers." 

The fact that four brothers, sons of Captain Hugh Mac- 
kay, came to Georgia and were closely in touch with Ogle- 
thorpe, is corroborated by the records in existence giving in- 
formation on the subject of the formation of the famous 
regiment which rendered such excellent service in the 
troubles between the Georgia colonists and the Spaniards in 
Florida. The names are Hugh, Patrick, James and Charles. 
Hugh was Captain of one of the companies, and another of 
the same name was Adjutant, and probably the son of the 

The first time we find any of these gentlemen men- 
tioned by Oglethorpe is in a letter to the Georgia Trustees, 
written on board the ship Symonds, in Tybee Road, Feb. 13, 
1735-6, in which he said : 

"The servants that are on account of Patrick Mackay 
and John Cuthbert are to be paid for to the Trust by them 
in Provision & labour & will help to supply the wants of 
those hands we mist of in Germany. With respect to Hugh 
Mackay it is he that contracted with us and commands the 
party at Altamaha," &c. 

This sketch is not the place for a lengthy account of the 
services rendered by the regiment organized and commanded 
by General Oglethorpe, but, as these four brothers, includ- 
ing our hero, formed such an important part of that military 
body, I trust that some incidents connected with their ser- 


vices may not be considered out of order here. The story 
of their conflicts with the soldiers of Spain in Florida has 
been so often told that it is not necessary to say anything 
more in their praise ; but no excuse is offered for the repro- 
duction at this point of the following letter, in the nature 
of a report from Ensign Hugh Mackay to his brother in 
Scotland, dated at Fort St. Andrews, on Cumberland Island, 
August 10th, 1740. It is printed in ''Biographical Memorials 
of James Oglethorpe," by Harris, pp. 232-235. 

"On the 9th of June the General sent out a flying party 
of militia, Indians, and thirteen soldiers, in all making one 
hundred and thirty-seven men, under the command of Col- 
onel Palmer, a Carolina gentleman, an old Indian warrior, 
of great personal resolution, but little conduct. Under him 
I commanded the party, and had orders to march from St. 
Diego, the headquarters, to Moosa, three miles from St. 
Augustine, a small fort which the Spaniards had held, but 
was demolished a few days before, there to show ourselves 
to the Spaniards, and thereafter to keep moving from one 
place to another to divert their attention, while the General 
took another route, and intended to come to Moosa in five 
days. The orders were just, and might with safety be exe- 
cuted, had a regular officer commanded ; but poor Colonel 
Palmer, whose misfortune it was to have a very mean opinion 
of his enemies, would by no means be prevailed upon to 
leave the old fort, but staid there, thinking the Spaniards 
durst not attack him. Pie was mistaken, as will appear 

"Upon the 15th day of June, about four in the morning, 
we were attacked by a detachment of five hundred, from the 
garrison of St. Augustine, composed of Spaniards, negroes, 
and Indians, besides a party of horse to line the paths, that 
none of us might escape. Apprehending that this would 
happen, I obtained leave of Colonel Palmer, and therefore 
ordered our drum to beat to arms at three o'clock every 
morning and to have our men in readiness till it was clear 
day. Thus it was upon the fatal 15th of June, as I have said, 
when the Spaniards attacked us with a very smart fire from 
their small arms, in which Colonel Palmer fell the first. We 
returned the fire with the greatest brisknesss that can be im- 
agined ; and so the firing continued for some time ; but, un- 
luckily, we were penned up in a demolished fort; there was 
no room to extend. The Spaniards endeavored to get at the 
ruinous gate; and our party defended the same with the 
utmost bravery. Here was a terrible slaughter on both 
sides ; but the Spaniards, who were five times our number, 
got at last, by dint of strength, the better ; which, when I saw, 


and that some prisoners were made, I ordered as many of my 
party then as were alive to draw off. We had great difficulty 
to get clear, for the Spaniards surrounded the fort on all 
sides. However, by the assistance of God, we got our way 
made good ; drew up in sight of the enemy, and retired, with- 
out being pursued, till we were in safety. I had no more 
than twenty-five men, and some of them very ill wounded, 
of which number I was for I received three wounds at the 
fort gate, but they were slight ones. Several of the poor 
Highlanders who were in the engagement, and fought like 
lions, lost their lives — some of them your acquaintances." 

Oglethorpe's regiment, after an honorable and success- 
ful career, but, like all organizations, having its periods of 
trouble and dissensions, disbanded under circumstances 
very distressing to its commander. That matter is thus 
graphically related by Mr. Thomas Spalding, in a Sketch 
of the Life of General James Oglethorpe, in the 1st volume 
of the Collections of the Georgia Historical Society : 

"There still remained one blow which was to afflict 
him sorely. He had recruited his own regiment, selected 
his own officers ; and they had followed him undismayed by 
the enemies that surrounded him, or the treachery of ap- 
parent friends. He had no children, and he had learned to 
feel for these companions in arms a father's love. These 
were now to be torn from his command. His regiment, by 
the will of the court and the Duke of Cumberland, was to be 
disbanded and scattered through the wilds of America." 

A little farther on in his account Mr. Spalding states 
that Captain Mackay was sent to Virginia with two com- 
panies to fight the Western tribes. No other inference 
can be drawn therefrom than that the companies were of 
those composing the recently disbanded regiment. We do not 
know whether, after reaching their field of action, they were 
consolidated under one commander ; but we do know that 
an independent company from Georgia, unquestionably made 
up of soldiers of that regiment and commanded by Captain 
James Mackay, was sent to Virginia for service in the French 
and Indian War; and here we become better acquainted with 
that officer, and the information concerning his life as a 
soldier becomes more minute and more interesting. 

The fact that Captain James Mackay, an officer of merit 
and experience in Oglethorpe's regiment, took an active 
part in the French and Indian War, and so became inti- 
mately associated with George Washington in actual war- 
fare years before the American Revolution, is not generally 
known. True, the fact that a man named Mackay was in 
command of a company in that War and was with Wash- 


ington at Great Meadows has been mentioned by certain 
writers, but the idea was formed and has been generally 
received as true that the company was a South Carolina 
organization, and very little credit has been given either to 
the little band or to its leader. 

Considerable light has been thrown on this subject 
through the "Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Colony of Virginia," published by 
the Virginia Historical Society, from which quotations will 
now be freely made. 

On the 1st of March, 1754, Governor Dinwiddie, in a 
letter to Horatio Sharpe, Governor of Maryland, mentioned 
that he had received information that the Governor of New 
York desired two of the independent companies there sent 
to the Ohio, and that six companies were then being raised, 
to be under Col. Joshua Fry, and almost immediately the 
question arose as to the difference in standing of the officers 
of the militia of the Colony of Virginia and the Captains of 
the King's Independent Companies from Carolina and 
Georgia. Without positive knowledge on the subject, it 
seems, from a letter of Dinwiddie to Gov. Glen, of South 
Carolina, that the two companies were sent out by the 
latter, though one was from Georgia — that of Capt. Mackay. 
At any rate, we know, from what has gone before, that 
Mackay was a Georgian, and his company, though usually 
said to be from South Carolina, is also sometimes referred 
to in such a way as to make it appear to be a Georgia corps. 
The difference in the accounts probably arose from the fact 
that the two independent companies, one from each of the 
colonies, were under orders to march from Governor Glen. 

The fact that the combination of troops raised by a 
colony and a corps known as an independent King's com- 
pany was a questionable one, is hinted at in the following 
letter of introduction of Capt. Mackay to Col. Fry by Gov. 
Dinwiddie : 

"May 4th, 1754. 

"The Bearer hereof, Capt. Jas. McKay, Com'ds an 
Independ't Compa. in His M'y's Service, and is order'd to 
the Aid and Assistance of the present Expedition to the 
Ohio. You are by me appointed Com'd'r in Chief on the 
Expedition, but as it is not usual to have the regular forces 
under His M'y's imediate Com'o. to be under the Com'd of 
an Officer in America appointed by any of the Gov'rs, yet, 
that there may be no Misunderstanding or Delay in the 
Expedit'n, I recommend You to shew a due regard to these 
Troops of His M'y, and shew this Officer and the others in 


that Station as much Indulgence as is in Your Power. I 
wish Success to all Y'r proceedings," &c. 

Apparently on the same day the Governor addressed 
another letter to Col. Fry, in which he announced that ''The 
Independ't Compa. from So. Car. is arrived at Hampton, is 
compleat of 100 Private Men, will re-embark on Monday for 
Alex'a," &c. At the same time he wrote to Col. George 
Washington, repeating the above announcement, and added 
that the company would, after reaching Alexandria, ''thence 
proceed imediately and join Colo. Fry and You." Further 
on in that letter he made this important statement, showing 
that Capt. Mackay had the reputation of a thoroughly 
capable officer, and again expressing his anxiety concerning 
the mingling of colonial troops with an independent King's 
company: "I hope Capt. McKay, who Com'ds the Inde- 
pend't Compa., will soon be with You. And as he appears 
to be an Officer of some Experience and Importance, You 
will, with Colo. Fry and Colo. Innes, so well agree as not to 
let some Punctillios ab't Com'd render the Service You are 
all engag'd in be obstructed." 

Governor Dinwiddie certainly omitted nothing that 
could be done to place before the officers who were to take 
part in the proposed expedition all the particulars as to the 
duties required of them. On the same day he gave instruc- 
tions to Capt. Mackay as follows : 

"May 4th, 1754. 

"An Expedit'n being commenc'd and now carrying on to 
the river Ohio, agreeably to His M'y's Orders to me, Six 
Compa's from This Dom'n and five Compa's from No. Car. 
being now on their March, I tho't it proper to give the Com'd 
of the Expedit'n to the direct'n of Colo. Joshua Fry. His 
M'y having tho't it proper and necessary that His Indep'nd't 
Compa. under Y'r Com'd sh'd be employ'd in the Expedit'n, 
and to be under my direction, I therefore order you to 
Embark Y'r Compa. now at Hampton on board of a Sloop 
(I engag'd) to proceed to Alex'a the Head of Potom'k river; 
W'n You arrive there, apply to Maj'r J. Carlyle, who has my 
Orders to supply Y'r Compa. with such Necessaries suitable 
for Y'r March to join the other Forces. On Y'r arrival with 
them, You are to join Colo. J. Fry, who is appointed Com'dr 
in Chief on this Expedit'n, And as Unanimity are proper 
rules for Success, I doubt not You will promote the same to 
the utmost of Your Power. As to the other Parts of Y'r 
duty in conducting and managing Y'r Compa., I have not 


the least doubt of, as I esteem You a very good officer. May 
you retain Y'r Health, and Success attend our just designs, 
is the sincere wish of Y'r most hble. serv't." 

The next two letters, bearing date the same day, show 
how anxious Gov. Dinwiddie was to provide for the com- 
fort of the company. 

Governor Dinwiddie to Major Carlyle: 

"May 4th (1754). 

"The Independ't Compa. of 100 Private Men from So. 
Car. being arriv'd at Hampton, w'ch I expect will re-embark 
in a hir'd Sloop for Alex'a on Monday next, and as they will 
want Tents, Provisions and other Necessaries, I must 
desire You to furnish them and give them all proper Assist- 
ance, taking Capt. McKay's receipt, for w'ch Y'r Acc't shall 
be fully p'd. Pray get 25 tents for the So. Car. Compa. ; if not 
possible to be done in Time, You must let them have Blank- 
ets, and be sure provide Wagons for their Provisions, and 
those of No. Carolina. 

I am, with kind respects S'r." 

Governor Dinwiddie to Colonel Hunter: 


"This will be delivered You by Capt. McKay, Com'dr of 
the Compa. of Soldiers now arrived from So. Carolina. I 
desire You will Supply him with necessary Provisions to 
carry the Compa. to Alex'a. I hope You have put on board 
the Sloop 201bs. Gun Powder, the shot and Flints I sent from 
this Yesterday, And, as I daily look for two Compa's from N. 
York, I must still desire the Favo. of You to have Some 
Vessell in Y'r Eye to transport them to Alex'a. Capt. McKay 
will give You a Bill of Excha for lOOlbs., which please send 
me up as soon as You can. An Express this day from the 
Ohio brings Acc't that the French have landed a Number 
of Men there and taken Possess'n of the Fort, but I hope 
w'n our Forces are collected in a Body, we shall be able to 
dislodge them. My Wife and Girls join me in kind respects 
to good Mrs. Hunter, 

And I am Sincerely." 

It is remarkable how many times this company was 
mentioned in the correspondence of the Governor of Vir- 
ginia. We next hear of it in a letter written by him to a 
Mr. Capel Hanbury, of the firm of John & Capel Hanbury, 


six days after the date of the five just mentioned, namely, 
May 10, 1754. It appears to be just a personal letter from 
one friend to another, but relates in a gossipy way the news 
of the times. It says : 

"His M'y order'd two Independ't Compa's from N. Y. 
and one from So. Carolina ; them from N. York are not yet 
arriv'd, tho' I sent the Order to the Gov'r of that Colony 
the 2d of Mar. ; their Delay is unaccountable. The Compa. 
from So. Caro. arriv'd here only last Week, but as my View 
was to build a Fort as a Mark of Possession, I sent out a 
Compa. to one Trent to begin the Fort." 

To the Earl of Holderness he wrote at the same time a 
letter in which he mentioned that there was trouble appre- 
hended from the Indians at a place called Red Stone Creek 
where he had sent some troops from North Carolina, and 
added : 

"The Independ't Compa. from So. Carolina arriv'd here 
a few days since, and they have my Orders to march to the 
above Place." 

Information of the like nature is given in letters of the 
10th of May to the Lords for Trade, the Earl of Halifax, the 
Lords of the Treasury, the Earl of Granville, and Gov. Glen, 
of South Carolina. To the last named he said : 

"Y'r Compa. is arriv'd after a very tedious Passage, and 
this Day are embarking on two Sloops to carry them to 
Alex'a, from thence to march to the above Place." — Red 
Stone Creek. 

He notified Col. Fry, on the 25th of May, that "Next 
Week the Independ't Compa. from So. Carolina will march 
from hence (Winchester) to join you, and I hope they will 
soon be follow'd by two Compa's of regulars from N. York." 

We now reach that point where the friendship between 
Washington and Captain James Mackay began. They are 
about to meet, and the Governor wrote to Col. Washington 
on the 25th of May that "The Capt. of the Independ't Compa. 
from Car. is now here, and his Corps consisting of 100 fine 
men expected on Sunday ;" then he added that other troops 
were expected, and advises him that "I shall hasten them all 
to you as they arrive." Four days after, Gov. Dinwiddie 
informed Col. Fry that "Capt. McKay, with his Independ't 
Compa. sets off To-morrow, and as they have made quicker 
Marches from Alexa. Hither than the Corps of Your regim't 
has done, and promise to hold on with their Vigour, I am 
in hopes they will soon join you," and on the first of June he 
congratulated Col. Washington on his success in the matter 
of an encounter with La Force and his party, hoped he would 
not make any hazardous attempts against a too numerous 


enemy, and added : "When Colo. Fry's Corps and Capt. 
McKay's Compa. join You, You will be enabled to act with 
better Vigour." The next day he wrote to Capt. Mackay 
from Winchester these words: "Tho' I am well persuaded 
of Y'r diligence, yet as Colo. (Washington) is in a very 
dangerous Situation, I can't help bespeaking Y'r most 
expeditious Endeavours to join him. I have order'd Maj'r 
Muse to leave the Convoy and proceed immediately to the 
Camp, and as I expect You will overtake it at or near Will's 
Creek, I desire when You do that You will leave it with a 
proper Escort, and join the Camp with all possible dispatch. 
Our vigorous Efforts now may probably defeat our Enemies' 
Designs, and You may be assur'd, Sir, I shall do all imagin- 
able Justice to Y'r Merit in my recommendation." 

So much has been said about Col. Joshua Fry up to 
this point that it may be well to turn aside now and have 
a few words concerning this man of some military experience 
whose name suddenly drops out of this story. On the 2nd 
of June, 1754, Gov. Dinwiddie wrote a letter to Col. George 
Washington, in which he gave information that medals 
had been forwarded for Washington, Col. Fry and others 
(certain Indian Chiefs) "to wear as tokens of His Majesty's 
Fav'r ;" but at that very time Col. Fry was dead. His death 
occurred two days before, May 31st, and all that we know 
of it is contained in a note by Mr. R. A. Brock, editor of 
the volumes of the Dinwiddie correspondence, and then Li- 
brarian and Secretary of the Virginia Historical Society, 
from which these words are taken : 

"Commissioned as Colonel and entrusted with the com- 
mand of the Virginia forces in the expedition against the 
French in 1754, he died May 31st, while conducting it to 
the Ohio, and was buried near Will's Creek, now Cumber- 
land Creek." 

The only thing said in relation to the death of Col. Fry 
by Gov. Dinwiddie was this statement in a letter from him 
to Washington, dated at Winchester, June 4th : "On the 
death of Colo. Fry, I have tho't it proper to send You the 
enclos'd Com'o. to Com'd the Virg'a regiment, and another 
for Maj'r Muse, to be Lieut. Colo." 

As the meeting of Washington and Mackay rapidly ap- 
proaches, our intense interest becomes centered in the dis- 
pute which seemed to be inevitable between these two 
officers as to their relative standing as to rank in the ser- 
vice which they were about to enter upon. The first in- 
timation we have of any trouble on this point is in the letter 
from which we have just quoted, in which the Governor con- 
tinued as follows : 


"The Capt. and Officers of the Independ't Compa's hav- 
ing their Com'o's signed by His M'y, imagine they claim a 
distinguished rank, and being long trained in Arms expect 
suitable regards. You will therefore consult and agree 
with Y'r Officers to shew them particular marks of esteem, 
w'ch will avoid such Causes of Uneasiness as otherwise 
might obstruct His M'y's Service, wherein all are alike 
engag'd, and must answer for any ill Consequences of an 
unhappy Disagreement. You cannot believe the Uneasiness 
and Anxiety I have had for the Tardiness of the Detachm't 
under Col'o Fry's Com'd in not joining You some time 
since," &c. 

Col. Fry was succeeded by Col. James Innes, to whom 
the Governor gave special instructions, including the fol- 
lowing : 

"You are, before You enter on any Action of Attack 
or extraordinary Enterprize, to annoy or circumvent the 
Enemy, to call a Council of War, to consist of the Field 
Officers and Capt's of the Independ't Compa's; in which 
Council You are to form a Plan of Operations and issue 
Your Orders accordingly," and repeated the words used to 
Washington about the question concerning commissions of 

He issued additional instructions to Col. Innes in which 
he stated positively that the independent companies were 
under his command, but were to be received "in a particular 

Washington and Mackay met; but the circumstances at- 
tending the meeting are not in our possession. That it was 
pleasant we have no reason to doubt. That the former was 
apprehensive that trouble might come upon the slightest 
provocation is certainly and clearly shown in the letter he 
wrote the Governor of Virginia after the meeting took 
place; but the reader can draw his own conclusion after a 
perusal of the document itself which, with the exception 
of the first paragraph, is now given. The short postscript 
is most significant: 

Colonel Washington to Governor Dinwiddie : 

"10th June, 1754. 

"Your Honour may depend I shall myself, and will en- 
deavor to make my officers shew Capt. McKay all the 
respect due to his Rank and merit, but should have been 
particularly oblig'd if your Honour had declar'd whether 


he was under my Command or Independent of it; however, 
I shall be studious to avoid all disputes that may tend to 
publick prejudice, but as far as I am able, I will inculcate 
harmony and unanimity. I hope Capt. McKay will have 
more sense than to insist upon any unreasonable distinction, 
tho' he and His have Com'ns from his Majesty; let him 
consider tho' we are greatly inferior in respect to profitable 
advantages, yet we have the same' Spirit to serve our 
Gracious King as they have, and are as ready and willing 
to sacrifice our lives for our Country's as them ; and here 
once more and for the last time, I must say this Will be a 
cancer that will grate some Officers of this Regiment be- 
yond all measure, to serve upon such different terms, when 
their Lives, their Fortunes, and their Characters are equally, 
and I dare say as effectually expos'd as those who are happy 
enough to have King's Commissions. I have been solicitious 
on this head, have earnestly endeavor'd to reconcile the 
Officers to their appointment, and flatter myself I have 
succeeded, having heard no mention thereof latterly. I con- 
sider'd the pernicious consequences that would have at- 
tended a disunion, therefore, was too much attached to my 
Country's Interest to suffer it to ripen after I rec'd your 
advising Letters, (and have been) particularly careful of 
discovering no foolish desire of com(mandin)g him, neither 
have I inter-medled with his C(ompany) in the least, or 
given any directions concerning it, only those General. The 
Word, Counter- Sign- and place to repair to in case of an 
Alarm, none of which he thinks he sh'd receive. I have 
testified to him in the most serious manner the pleasure I 
sh'd take in consulting and advising with him upon all 
occasions, and I am very sensible, with him we shall never 
differ when your Honour decides this, which I am convinc'd 
your own discernment and consideration will make appear, 
the impossibility of a Med'm, the Nature of the things will 
not allow of it. 

"It must be known who is to Command before Orders 
will be observ'd, and I am very confident your Honour will 
see the absurdity and consider the Effects of Capt. McKay's 
having the direction of the regiment, for it would certainly 
be the hardest thing in Life if we are to do double and trible 
duty, and neither be entitled to the Pay or Rank of Soldiers. 
That the first column of the Virginia Regiment has done 
more for the Interest of the Expedition than any Company 
or corps that will hereafter arrive, will be obvious to them 
all. This Hon'ble Sir, Capt. McKay did not hesitate one 
moment to allow since he has seen ye work we have done 
upon the Roads, &c. We shall part tomorrow. I shall con- 


tinue My March to Red Stone, while the Company remains 
here, but this Sir I found absolutely necessary for the 
Publick Interest. Capt. McKay says that it is not in his 
power to oblige his Men to work upon the Road unless he 
will engage them a Shilling Sterling a Day, which I w'd not 
choose to do, and to suffer them to March at their ease, 
whilst our faithful Soldiers are laboriously employ'd, carry's 
an Air of such distinction that it is not to be wonder'd at if 
the poor fellows were to declare the hardship of it. He also 
declares to me that this is not particular to his Company 
only, but that no Soldiers subject to martial law can be 
oblig'd to do it for less. I, therefore, shall continue to en- 
deavour to compleat the work we have begun, with my poor 
fellows ; we shall have the whole credit, as none others have 
assisted. I hope from what has been said your honour will 
see the necessity of giving your speedy orders on this head, 
and I am sensible you will consider the Evil tendency that 
will accompany Capt'n McKay's com'g, for I am sorry to 
observe this is what we always hop'd to enjoy — the Rank 
of Officers, which to me sir, is much dearer than the Pay. 

"Capt'n McKay brought none of the Cannon, very little 
Ammunition, ab't 5 Days allowance of Flower, and 60 
Beeves. Since I have spun a Letter to this enormous size, 
I must go a little further and beg your Honour's patience to 
peruse it. I am much griev'd to find our Stores so slow 
advancing. God knows when we shall (be) able to do any- 
thing for to deserve better of our Country. I am, Hon'ble 
Sir, with the most sincere and unfeign'd Regard, 

Y'r Honour's most Ob't and most H'ble Serv't. 

"The contents of this Letter is a profound secret." 

The matter of which the foregoing letter treats became 
so embarrassing that Governor Dinwiddie had to adjust it 
in the manner indicated in the two letters immediately 

Governor Dinwiddie to Governor Sharper 

"June 20th, 1754. 

"To quell the great Feud subsisting between the Inde- 
pend't Compa's and our Forces in regard to rank, I have 
formed the following regulation: Colo. Innes to Com'd in 
Chief, Colo. Washington to have the second Com'd, Capt. 
Clark, of the N. Y. Compa's, to have my Com'o., a Lieut. 
Colo, to be third in Com'd; Capt. McKay, of the So. Caro. 



Compa., to have a Lieut. Colo's Com'o., and be fourth in 
Com'd on the Expedition. This Expedient was agreed to 
by Capt. Clark, and was the only Method I c'd think of to 
keep up Harmony amongst them. Pray give me your 
Opinion thereon. A distraction or Confusion among our 
Forces w'd be ruining to the Expedition, and give the 
Enemy Advantages on our Divisions. (I) therefore hope 
the above will thorowly reconcile all Disputes. I shall be 
glad to hear frequently from you. With my Complim'ts to 
Messrs. Tasker and Calvert, I am most sincerely, and with 
great Truth, 

Y'r Exc's most Obed't, h'ble Serv't." 

Governor Dinwiddie to Colonel Washington : 

June 25th, 1754. 

"This will, I hope, be deliver'd you by Colo. James 
Innes, who has my Com'o. to Com'd in Chief on the expedi- 
tion, w'ch I dare say will be very agreeable to You, and (I) 
am in hopes w'n all the Forces are collected together in a 
Body You will be able to turn the Tables on the French and 
Dislodge them from the Fort, and in Time to take full 
possession of the Ohio river. As I am afraid of Disputes 
from the Officers of the Independ't Companies, to prevent 
that, I have order'd Colo. Innes to Com'd in Chief, and You 
are to be second in Com'd ; have sent a Briveate Com'o of 
Lieut. Colo., to Capt Clark to be third in Com'd and the 
same to Capt. McKay to be fourth in Com'd on this Expe- 
dit'n, and have desir'd Colo. Innes to allow their Lieut's to 
rank with our Capt's ; this is only Feathers in their Caps to 
prevent any ill Blood in regard to rank, as Unanimity is 
the only Step towards Success in Y'r Exped'n, and I doubt 
not all the officers will perceive my meaning in this regulat'n. 
I have directed His M'y's Present to be sent out to be given 
among the Ind's, as Colo. Innes may think proper, with Y'r 
Advice. I have given orders to keep You duely supplied 
with Provisions, and I am in great Hopes w'n joined in a 
Body You will be a proper Match for the French, as I am 
in Hopes you will have a good number of our friendly Ind's 
to Y'r Assistance. I have no more to add, but recommend- 
ing you to the Protect'n of God and wishing Success to attend 
all Your Undertakings, I rem'n in Truth, 

S'r, Y'r most h'ble serv't." 

So frequent are the references to Capt. Mackay and his 
company in the correspondence of Governor Dinwiddie 


from the 18th of June to the 15th of August, 1754, that no 
further extracts will be made except that it is considered 
best to give the following in full, on account of its im- 
portance in relation to the same matter of priority in rank. 
It will be seen that the first is given as to Capt. Mackay, 
but, from the facts that Mackay is referred to in it, and the 
only letter that we find written to the Governor on the 10th 
was one from Washington, it does not seem clear that it was 
intended for Mackay. 

Governor Dinwiddie to Captain Mackay : 

"June 27th, (1754). 

"I rec'd Y'r Lett'r of the 10th June, from Will's Creek. 
I am sorry You were detain'd there for want of Flower, but 
hope this will find you joined with Colo. Washington's 
Forces, and I doubt not before this reaches you, Colo. Innes 
is with You, who has my full Instruct's for conducting the 
Expedition, and I doubt not You and the other Officers will 
lay aside any little Punctilios in rank. I have done all in my 
Power to reconcile these Things, therefore, hope You will 
be unanimous in doing Every Thing for the Service, and as 
Y'r Corps are maintained by this. Colony, I think that they 
will assist in clearing the roads and building the Forts, as 
occasion may require. The Conduct of each Corps will be 
represented (at) Home, and I have not the least doubt of 
Capt. Mackay's exerting himself on this occasion. W't 
you heard from Hands about the Cherokees is without 
Foundation. Capt. Legg has been here, and does not men- 
tion one Sylable thereof. They had taken a Canoe, with four 
French Men, going up the Ohio ; They killed one and took 
two Prisoners. As this Expedit'n is (by) the immediate 
Order from His M'y, and the Conduct thereof left with me, 
I have nothing more at Heart than that it may meet with 
Success, w'ch greatly depends on the resolution and unan- 
imity of the Forces. I wish You Health, and am Sincerely, 
S'r Y'r F'd and humble serv't." 

Postscript to a letter from Governor Dinwiddie to Col. 
Innes, dated 27th June, 1754 : 

"Ask Capt. MacKay if he thinks on this Expedition My 
Powers from the King does not enable me to give a Com'o 
superior to (his and) which he must obey, and (say that) 
he and his Compa. is immediately recommended to be 
under my Com'd, and in Course, whoever I may appoint." 


As there is not in existence a single line to show that 
Colonel Washington and Capt. Mackay ever had a word 
of dispute over the question of the relative positions of the 
two comrades in the ranks during their term of service, we 
may rightly draw the conclusion which has always held 
true as to the former that they were both men of good judg- 
ment and as a general rule of even temper. 

Both Col. Washington and Capt. Mackay were cap- 
tured at Great Meadows in 1754, and the latter remained in 
the service another year, when he retired and returned to 
Georgia. That he did not re-enter the service we are sure. 
Sir James Wright, the Royal Governor of Georgia, in a report 
to the Earl of Dartmouth on the condition of the Province 
of Georgia, dated September 20th, 1773, said of the old fort 
at Frederica : "There is still some remains of good tabby 
walls, &c, but there has been no men there since the Inde- 
pendent Company were broke in the year 1767, and is now 
going to decay very fast." The Independent Company com- 
manded by Capt. Mackay returned to Georgia in September, 
1757, though he had retired in 1755, and the source from 
which this information is derived proves the statement 
already made that, notwithstanding the fact that it went to 
Virginia under the direction of the Governor of South Caro- 
lina, it was truly a Georgia organization.* 

That Captain Mackay left the army in Virginia to 
take part in the political affairs of the Province of Georgia 
cannot be doubted. We know that he gave up his commis- 
sion in 1755. On the 30th of September of that year, John 
Reynolds being Governor, James Mackay was sworn in as 
one of his Council, appointed by the King; and that office 
he held under successive administrations, until the conclu- 
sion of the War of the Revolution, at all times remaining 
loyal to the government of Great Britain. 

In 1748 he obtained possession of five hundred acres 
of land in the Parish of St. Philip, to which he gave the 
name of "Strathy Hall," and later he acquired another tract 
which he called "Pinkey House" — both being names of 
places held by the Mackays in Scotland. Afterwards he 
acquired lands adjoining Strathy Hall increasing that posses- 
sion to 1,000 acres. St. Philip's Parish became Bryan County 
in the year 1793, and Strathy Hall has since then passed 
through the hands of several possessors, the owner at this 
time being Mr. R. Habersham Clay. Documents written 
in connection with the life of Capt. Mackay bear testimony 
to the fact that he was held in the highest esteem by his 

*Gov. Dinwiddie to Col. Bouquet, Va. Hist'l Collections, 
N. S., vol iv, Dinwiddie Papers, vol. ii, p. 703. 


contemporaries, and that he was a man of the strictest in- 
tegrity, faithful to the trusts committed to him, honorable 
in all his dealings with his fellow men, and that he was intel- 
lectually inferior to none of the leaders in Georgia's political 
affairs of his day, among whom were many whose names 
have been preserved and are held up to our view as objects of 
esteem and veneration, while his name has almost passed into 

That he was looked upon as a person o'f distinction and 
of noble bearing, it is well to note here that he was, in some 
of the written statements coming down to us, called "The 
honourable Captain James Mackay, Esquire, of Strathy 

Among the very important matters intrusted to his 
care and management was the marking of the boundary lines 
separating the Indians from the white people. The story 
of his service in this matter is told in this notice of the 
business by the only newspaper then printed in Georgia : 

From the Georgia Gazette, Wednesday, December 
14th, 1768 : 

"Last Monday evening the Hon. James Mackay, and 
William McGillivray, Esqrs., returned from marking the 
Indian Line, which is now finished for William's Creek, fifty 
miles above Augusta, to the flowing of the tides on Saint 
Mary's River, and here we must not omit to do justice to the 
uncommon address shown by Mr. McGillivray in treating 
with the Indians Deputies ; nor was he unassisted by Capt. 
Mackay, who on all occasions displayed the most solid judg- 
ment, and joined his opinion with the greatest harmony. In 
short, the ardour, unwearied diligence, and unanimity with 
which these gentlemen have conducted this interesting and 
important business, calls in the strongest manner for the 
public thanks, and must do them lasting honour in the 
opinion of all well-wishers of their country." 

We will not attempt to enumerate the incidents in the 
life of this good man from the time of his retirement from 
active military employment until the end of his earthly exis- 
tence which came in his absence from home with none of 
his family or friends around his couch to receive his last 
words of love, injunction and advice. The official records 
tell us of the faithfulness with which he attended the meet- 
ings of the Board of Governor and Council, and his active 
and careful performance of the duties required of him as a 
member of important committees. 

His service as one of the Royal Council ended probably 
about the spring of 1779. On the 6th of January of that 
year the Governor, Sir James Wright, sent a memorial, in 


behalf of himself and other loyalists, to Lord George Ger- 
main, Principal Secretary of State for America, the pre- 
amble of which showed : 

"That several of your memorialists who were officers of 
the Crown in the Province (Georgia) aforesaid on account 
of their zeal for the support of His Majesty's authority and 
government there, and for the active part they took in oppo- 
sition to the rebellion, when it first broke out, rendered 
themselves obnoxious to the rebels, and have since at differ- 
ent times been under the necessity of quitting that Province 
and leaving their property which is very considerable be- 
hind them at the mercy of the rebels." 

The next month there was filed in the Public Record 
Office in London "A List of Officers of His Majesty's Pro- 
vince of Georgia and Their Present Places of Residence." 
At that time, as well as at the date of the memorial just re- 
ferred to, Sir James Wright was himself in London, as was 
also John Graham, Lieutenant-Governor. Out of the eight 
members of the Council only one was in Georgia, and James 
Mackay, the first on the list, was in South Carolina. The 
name of Mackay does not again appear in the records of 
the Loyalist Government, and his activities in that body must 
have ended about that time. 

We now come to the final scene in the life of the subject 
of this sketch ; and for the description of his last moments we 
are indebted to the greatest of Americans, even the "Father 
of his Country" himself. 

Towards the last of the year 1785 the health of Capt. 
Mackay began to fail, and he left his home, by sailing 
vessel, on a sea voyage, intending to go to some point in 
Rhode Island. Reaching the place marked out as the end 
of the journey, and finding his health not improved, he 
abandoned the idea of a return trip by water, and took the 
land route for home. Arrived at Alexandria, in Virginia, a 
very ill man, he thought of his former comrade in arms and 
fellow prisoner, General Washington, and sent a messenger 
to request him to come to his bedside. Washington did not 
receive the message until the end had come, and the story 
of that end as told by him is all that ever has been recorded, 
except that this very brief notice appeared in the Georgia 
Gazette of Thursday, December 29, 1785 : 

"Died lately, at Alexandria in Virginia, James Mackay, 
Esq., of this State." 

The account given by Washington is contained in a 
letter to a Scottish gentleman, and is, with the exception of 
the last paragraph, reproduced here from The Writings of 
Washington, edited by Sparks, vol. xii, p. 303. 


General George Washington to Robert Sinclair, Scot- 
land : 

"Philadelphia, 6 May, 1792. 

"I have received your letter of the 12th of December, in 
which you request information respecting Captain James 
Mackay, and likewise respecting the part of this country, 
which would be the most eligible for forming an establish- 
ment as a farmer or planter. The only information in my 
power to give you on the first head is, that my acquaintance 
with Captain Mackay commenced in the army, in the year 
1754, when I Commanded the troops, which were sent to 
prevent the encroachments of the French upon the western 
boundaries of the then colonies. Captain Mackay then com- 
manded an Independent Company, either from Georgia or 
South Carolina, and was captured with me by an army of 
French and Indians, at a place called the Great Meadows. 
In 1755, he left the service, sold out, and went to Georgia. 

"I heard nothing of him from that time till about five or 
six years ago, when he went by water from Georgia to 
Rhode Island on account of his health. On his return to 
Georgia by land, he was seized either by the complaint for 
which he had gone to Rhode Island, or by some other dis- 
order, and died at Alexandria ; not at my house as your letter 
mentions. I was not informed of his being at Alexandria 
until after his death, which was a circumstance that I re- 
gretted much, not only on account of the regard which I had 
for him, from our former acquaintance, but because I under- 
stood that he was then on his way to pay me a visit, and had 
expressed an anxious desire to see me before he died. I do 
not know whether Captain Mackay left any family or not ; 
for, from the time of his quitting the service until his death, 
as I observed before, I knew nothing of him. I have, how- 
ever, been informed, that he was possessed of a handsome 
property in Georgia." 

Robert Sinclair, to whom the letter was addressed, must 
have been a relation of Capt. Mackay, as in the history of 
the family at the beginning of this article reference is made 
to such a connection. 

Captain James Mackay had three daughters, Mary, who 
married Hugh Clark and died before her father; Ann, who 
married James Maxwell, and Barbara who married Roger 
Kelsall. Many descendants of these are living in Georgia 
and elsewhere. Among them are the Arnolds and Talbots 
of Rhode Island and at one time of Bryan County in this 
State; Miss Townes, of Greenwood, S. C. ; the wife and 


children of Mr. Wm. N. Nichols, of Savannah, and others 
too numerous to mention. 

The Mackay mansion at Strathy Hall was destroyed 
long ago. The only traces remaining of the home are some 
ancient live oaks which were probably there during the 
lifetime of Capt. James Mackay, and two pictures of them 
are given as illustrations of this article. 



The autumn and early winter of 1860 were crowded 
with startling events as day by day and step by step the 
country moved toward the great convulsion that awaited it. 

Perhaps nothing more profoundly stirred the people of 
South Carolina and Georgia than the action of Major Robt. 
Anderson, when on the night of Dec. 26th, 1860, he aban- 
doned his position in Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island and 
threw his command into Fort Sumter, a fortress dominating 
the very doorway to Charleston Harbor. The holding of this 
work by the United States government was absolutely in- 
compatible with the separate independence of South Caro- 
lina. It was felt that much as the State might desire a peace- 
able withdrawal from the Union it would be committed to 
war by the fact that the entrance to her chief port and com- 
mercial metropolis was in possession of another power 
from which it could be taken only by force of arms. What- 
ever other events may have assisted in bringing about the 
war, this one alone would have rendered it certain. 

The feeling was intense all over the State, and it was 
scarcely less so in Georgia whose chief seaport would be 
blocked in like manner should a garrison be thrown by the 
United States government into Fort Pulaski, near the mouth 
of the Savannah River. 

The Fort at that time was in charge of a single non- 
commissioned Ordnance officer, but it was evident that, with 
free access from the sea, any morning might bring about its 
occupancy by government troops, and much uneasiness pre- 

Hon. Joseph E. Brown was then Governor of Georgia, 
a man of resolute will, fine intellectual powers and intense 
Southern feeling, a living embodiment, indeed, of the doc- 
trine of States Rights. Colonel Alexander R. Lawton, (so 
well known throughout the Confederacy afterwards as a 
Brigadier General under "Stonewall Jackson," and as Quar- 

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termaster General at Richmond) commanded the 1st Volun- 
teer Regiment of Georgia which consisted of all the infantry 
companies in Savannah and the Chatham Artillery. 

The writer of this paper was Adjutant of the Regiment, 
and in the forenoon of January 2d, 1861, was summoned to 
attend the Colonel at his office on Bay street. On reaching 
the room he found Governor Brown in conference with Col. 
Lawton; several of the Regimental Captains were present, 
also Mr. S. Prioleau Hamilton, General Henry R. Jackson, 
and some other gentlemen whose names have passed from 
memory. It was an earnest, grave assembly, every one there 
apparently deeply impressed by the weight and importance 
of the business in hand. For some of us, probably for the 
first time, there had come a realizing sense of the possibili- 
ties of the immediate future. 

The Governor was on the point of leaving the room, 
and as he reached the door he turned and said in effect, as in 
repetition of instructions already given, "Colonel, you will 
take possession of the Fort tomorrow." 

Col. Lawton then drew up a rough memorandum of the 
order he desired to give, and charged the Adjutant with its 
prompt promulgation. The three companies chosen for the 
expedition were the Chatham Artillery, Captain Joseph S. 
Claghorn; Savannah Volunteer Guards, Captain John 
Screven; and Oglethorpe Light Infantry, Captain Francis 
S. Bartow, anal it may be said in passing that no more repre- 
sentative selection could have been made of the manhood 
and military spirit of the State. 

The remainder of the day was spent in preparation and 
early on the following morning, January 3rd, 1861, the 
troops embarked on the little government steamer Ida, at 
the foot of West Broad street, Col. Lawton taking charge 
of the expedition in person. Great enthusiasm prevailed all 
over the city, especially in the splendid body of young men 
who made up this small force, and their brother soldiers 
in the regiment who were impatiently waiting their turn 
for similar duty. 

How many of these, alas, were to lay down their lives 
in the titanic struggle that was before the country. 

Fifty-six years have passed since that eventful morning 
and but few of that little band are left, yet to those who are 
still here it is doubtful whether any memory of those 
troublous times is more vivid than that of the march over 
the draw bridge, through the portcullis, to the interior of the 
Fort. To all of us it was the actual dividing line that sepa- 
rated from peaceful ante-bellum days, the beginning of a 
new and unknown era in life. There was in every heart a 


keen consciousness of this combined with uncertainty for 
the future and pride for the present at being permitted to 
take part in the making of history. 

Fort Pulaski is situated on Cockspur Island between the 
north and south channels of the Savannah River, command- 
ing them both. The Fort is an irregular pentagon sur- 
rounded by a broad moat. The gorge faces the west and is 
covered by an earthwork also protected by a moat. Two 
faces guard the north channel and two the south — these 
last having also a bearing on Tybee Island from whence the 
attack was to come later. There was one tier of casemates 
opening on to the parade by large double doors, and plat- 
forms had been arranged for another tier of guns on the 
ramparts. In the casemates were 20 long naval 32 pdrs. 
mounted on iron carriages, but there was no other armament. 
Officers quarters, kitchens, storerooms and magazines are 
located in the gorge. 

It is specially worthy of note that this action of Gov- 
ernor Brown was in reality an act of war against the United 
States government, for at that time Georgia was yet a State 
in the Union, the ordinance of Secession not having been 
adopted by the State convention until January 19th, 1861, 
sixteen days after the Governor had taken possession of 
United States property "Vi et armis." 

From that time on until the establishment of the Con- 
federacy, the Fort was garrisoned by details from the First 
Regiment under orders from the State. 

After the government at Montgomery was in the saddle 
and a Confederate army in actual existence the 1st Georgia 
Regulars, Col. Charles J. Williams, furnished a garrison until 
that regiment was ordered to Virginia, when the 1st Vol. 
Regiment which was now also in Confederate service, re- 
sumed its old post and held it until the bombardment and 
fall of the Fort in April, 1862. 

Meanwhile considerable addition had been made to the 
armament both in the casemates and on the ramparts ; sev- 
eral 10-inch and 8-inch Columbiads, a 42 pdr. and two 24 pdr. 
Blakely rifled guns and two 10-inch mortars. 

Tybee Island, just below Cockspur, between it and the 
sea, was held as an outpost until the latter part of 1861 ; 
a small earth-work was thrown up there and garrisoned by 
various bodies of Confederate troops though the position 
was felt to be much exposed and incapable of a stout defense. 

On Nov. 7th, 1861, the attack and capture of the forts 
at Port Royal by a strong United States fleet, with support- 
ing land forces, convinced the authorities of the unwisdom 
of attempting to hold all the outlying islands of the coast 


with the limited forces at command. Accordingly it was de- 
cided to dismantle the battery at Tybee Point and to with- 
draw the garrison which then consisted of the 25th Georgia 
Regiment, Colonel C. C. Wilson. 

Shortly after this withdrawal a fleet of United States 
vessels anchored in the roads and a force was landed upon 
the island thus taking the first step toward the investment 
of Pulaski ; a final one was put into execution on February 
13th, when a Federal force unexpectedly opened fire, from 
a battery that had been secretly erected at Venus Point on 
the Savannah river, upon the little steamer Ida as she was 
making her daily trip down to the Fort. This battery had 
been put up by a force from Port Royal coming through 
Wright and Mud rivers on the Carolina side, it was entirely 
beyond the guns of Pulaski and, indeed, its existence was 
unknown until it began firing. 

The Ida escaped injury, and, aided by an unusually high 
tide, succeeded in returning to Savannah the next morn- 
ing by way of Lazaretto Creek and Wilmington River ; but 
communication between the Fort and city was permanently 
cut off excepting for an occasional messenger with mails 
slipping through the marshes at night. 

The garrison of the Fort at that time consisted of four 
companies of the First Regiment, the Oglethorpe Light In- 
fantry, Co. B, Captain F. W. Sims ; Washington Volunteers, 
Captain John McMahon; Montgomery Guards, Captain 
L. J. Guilmartin; German Volunteers, Captain John H. 
Stegin ; to which should be added the Wise Guards, Captain 
M. J. McMullan; a company from middle Georgia, near 
Oglethorpe, that had gallantly offered itself as a reinforce- 
ment when an attack upon the Fort seemed inevitable. 

The entire garrison, officers and men, summed up 
only 385 under Colonel C. H. Olmstead, with Major John 
Foley of the First Regiment, second in command. The staff 
was as follows : 

Lieut. Matthew H. Hopkins, Adjutant. 

Capt. R. D. Walker, Commissary. 

Captain Robert Erwin, Quarter Master. 

Dr. John T. McFarland, Surgeon. 

Rob't H. Lewis, Sergt. Major. 

W. C. Crawford, Qr. Master Sergt. 

Ed. W. Drummond, Commissary Sergt. 

Edward Hopkins, Qr. Master's Clerk. 

Harvey Lewis, Ordnance Sergt. 

Rev. Peter Whelan served as Volunteer Chaplain to the 
Montgomery Guards, but he will be remembered as a faithful 


comrade and friend to the entire garrison — a man who 
lived up to the teachings of the Master whom he followed. 

Prior to the closing of the river, General Robt. E. Lee, 
who was then in command of the Military District of South 
Carolina, Georgia and Florida, visited the Fort and gave 
instructions for further defensive work to be done — tra- 
verses to be built on the ramparts between the guns, ditches 
dug in the parade to catch shells, the light colonnade in front 
of the officers quarters to be torn down, blindages of heavy 
timber to be erected before the casemate doors around the 
entire inner circuit of the Fort, and these to be covered by 
several feet of earth. 

[It is interesting to quote a remark of Gen'l Lee's at 
this time. Pointing to the nearest part of Tybee Island, 
1700 yards away, he said, "Colonel, they will make it very 
warm for you with shells from that point but they cannot 
breach at that distance." From 800 to 900 yards was then laid 
down in the books as the extreme range at which a wall of 
good masonry could be attacked with any prospect of suc- 
cess, but up to the Seige of Pulaski, so far as the writer 
knows, no fortification had ever been subjected to the fire of 
rifled guns. Their power against masonry was yet an un- 
known quantity. In the following year some of us saw Fort 
Sumter reduced to ruins at a distance of 2 l / 2 to 3 miles.] 

Immediately after General Lee's return to the city steps 
were taken to supply the timber required for the work he 
had laid out. Rafts were brought down the South Channel 
and from thence by a small canal on the South side of the 
island into the moat. The whole garrison was put to. work 
and to such good purpose, with such hearty good will, that 
everything contemplated was practically completed when 
the bombardment actually began. 

During the month of March signs of activity on the part 
of the enemy were heard though not seen. Our pickets at 
the water's edge on the South Channel reported hearing 
movements during the night over at King's Point, but the 
morning light revealed nothing to the closest scrutiny. The 
sand ridge there remained unchanged in its profile, the shrub- 
bery that covered it appeared untouched, save by the breezes 
from the ocean, while not a living thing was visible at the 
point from daylight until dark excepting upon one occasion 
when three men appeared making insulting gestures toward 
us. They were fired upon by a 32 pdr. and one of them 

On the morning of April 10th, just after reveille, Lieut. 
Frank Blair of the Washington Volunteers reported to the 
commanding officer that he had observed a change in the 


configuration of the ground at the Point. The Summit of the 
ridge had been leveled, the bushes cut away, and, he thought, 
guns were visible ; moreover he stated that a boat had 
started to come across to the Fort bearing a flag of truce. 
Captain F. W. Sims was sent to the South Wharf to meet 
the officer who carried the flag and who presented a demand 
for the surrender of the Fort. This was refused, the officer 
returned to Tybee and shortly after, at a quarter past eight 
o'clock, the first gun was fired. It was replied to immediately 
by the Fort and from that time until night-fall the firing con- 
tinued steadily, without intermission, from either side. Very 
early in the day however it was seen that the effect upon 
the fortification was becoming disastrous. 

The guns of the enemy were located in eleven different 
batteries stretching along Tybee beech for a distance of two 
and a half miles from Lazaretto Creek. Four of these bat- 
teries wer,e at King's Point armed with 10-inch rifled guns 
firing Parrott and James projectiles, three 10-inch and one 
8-inch Columbiads, and four 10-inch mortars. Farther along 
the beach were twelve 13-inch mortars and a few more Co- 
lumbiads, but the rifled guns and Columbiads at the Point in- 
flicted more damage to the Fort than all the others com- 
bined. A shot from one of these struck the wall beneath 
an embrasure while it was still intact and bulged the bricks 
on the inside, a significant fact that left little doubt of what 
the ultimate result would be. That the power of rifled ar- 
tillery was unknown to the enemy themselves, is shown by 
the following extract from the report of General Gillmore to 
his Government. Speaking of the Parrott and James guns 
he says : 

"Had we possessed our present knowledge of 
their power, previous to the bombardment of Fort 
Pulaski, the eight weeks of laborious preparation 
for its reduction, could have been curtailed to one 
week, as heavy Mortars and Columbiads would 
have been omitted from the armament of the bat- 
teries as unsuitable for breaching at long range." 

The greater part of our own guns were on the two sea 
faces, and of those upon the faces fronting the fire that was 
breaching our walls nearly all were dismounted before the 
close of the day. 

Just before dark the commander walked around on the 
edge of the moat to inspect the state of affairs from the 
outside. It was worse than disheartening, the pan-coup^ at 
the south-east angle was entirely breached while above, on 


the rampart, the parapet had been shot away and an 8-inch 
gun, the muzzle of which was gone, hung tremblingly over 
the verge. The two adjoining casemates were rapidly ap- 
proaching the same ruined condition ; the moat was nearly 
filled with masses of broken masonry, as was the interior of 
the three casemates where the dismounted guns lay like logs 
among the bricks. 

All through the night the firing was kept up by a few 
guns from Tybee, more, however, with a view to prevent 
the garrison from sleeping, but with the morning it began 
with renewed vigor all along the line while, because of the 
number of guns out of commission, the Confederate fire ma- 
terially slackened. 

During the morning, the breach rapidly became wider 
and the enemy's shot and shell played freely through it across 
the parade upon the opposite interior angle where the prin- 
cipal service magazine was located. The entrance to this 
was protected by a large traverse sufficiently heavy, it was 
thought, for the purpose designed. Between one and two 
o'clock in the afternoon, however, a shell passed through the 
top of this and exploded in the passage way, filling the maga- 
zine with smoke and lighting it up with flame. 

What prevented a general explosion, who can say? But 
it was too evident that a second similar escape could not be 
counted upon. Entirely cut off from any possible chance 
of reinforcement ; the means of replying to the batteries at 
King's Point reduced almost to nil ; and exposed momentarily 
to the danger of having the entire Fort blown up beneath us 
— the commander felt that the end had come and most re- 
luctantly the order to display the signal of surrender was 

The firing from Tybee ceased at once and a boat brought 
General Q. A. Gillmore over to the Fort in response to the 

*In connection with this account of the danger to the 
north magazine it will be of interest to note that the maga- 
zine at the south-west angle also ran rather a remarkable 
risk. In addition to the batteries on Tybee Island the enemy 
had planted a mortar on Long Island some distance above 
Cockspur, and had likewise placed a rifled Parrott gun upon 
an old hulk near a small hammock called Decent Island off 
in the south-west. It was noticed that one of the vacant 
embrasures in that part of the Fort lay in the direct line 
from the hulk to an air hole of the magazine and, as an excess 
of precaution, this embrasure was solidly bricked up. After 
the fight it was found that a shell had struck squarely in the 
middle of the new brick work. 


signal. He was the Engineer Officer in charge of the attack, 
a man of great professional ability and destined to be very 
widely known by his work in Charleston Harbor in the fol- 
lowing year. 

The terms of surrender were soon arrived at for un- 
happily the Confederates were not in position to demand 
much ; the Fort and its armament were given up and the 
garrison, with this exception, made prisoners of war — it was 
explicitly agreed that our sick and wounded should be sent 
up to Savannah and not treated as prisoners. Gen'l Gill- 
more assented to this in a pleasant manner that left a friendly 
impression upon the Confederates. He affixed his signature 
to the terms of capitulation and the matter was considered 
closed. The Fort Pulaski garrison was sent on to Governor's 
Island, New York, the officers being confined in Fort Colum- 
bus, the men in Castle Williams. 

Some weeks after our arrival such of the sick and 
wounded as had not died, and whom we supposed were 
safely at home in Savannah, were brought North, as prison- 
ers. Col. Olmstead at once wrote to Secretary Stanton claim- 
ing the carrying out of the written terms. The Secretary re- 
sponded that the matter was referred to General Gillmore 
who also wrote saying that he had been sent elsewhere after 
the fall of Pulaski and had supposed that what he agreed to 
had been done. To this Col. Olmstead replied that the men 
certainly had not been released as they were then prisoners 
on Governor's Island — he also said that he considered it a 
point of personal honor with General Gillmore that he 
should use every endeavor to right the wrong. Whether 
he did so or not the writer does not know — the men were 
retained and exchanged with the rest of the garrison in the 
autumn of 1861. 

The attack and fall of Fort Pulaski seems a very small 
event when contrasted with the tremendous struggle now 
shaking the whole civilized world, but it marked the begin- 
ning of a great advance in modern artillery and deserves to 
be remembered. 


Muster Roll of Captain M. J. McMullan's Company of the 

Wise Guards From the 31st Day of August, to the 

31st of October, 1862, Stationed at Camp 

Jasper, Near Savannah. 

On the following Muster Roll is entered a statement 
that the company enlisted Sept. 1st, 1861, for one year, and 
after the expiration of their time of service were re-enlisted 
for three years, or duration of the war, and, in another place 
this statement: 

"Volunteered and went to Fort Pulaski on 11th Febru- 
ary, 1862, and remained there and took part in the defense 
of that post on the 10th & 11th April, 1862, at which time 
the Fort was surrendered. Left for Hilton Head on the 
12th April, 1862. Left for Governor's Island, New York, 
April 17th, 1862. Left for Fort Delaware, Delaware, July 
10th, 1862. Left for Aikens Landing, Aug. 1st, 1862, and ar- 
rived in Richmond, Aug. 5th, 1862, at which time we were ex- 

1— M. J. McMullan, Captain. 
2— D. H. Smith, 1st Lieut. 
3— John H. Blow, 1st Lieut. 
4— J. W. Holt, 2nd Lieut. 

1 — T. B. Asbury, 1st Sergeant. 
2 — A. J. Gaines, Sergeant. 
3 — W. J. Bridges, Sergeant. 
4 — H. F. Tarrer, Sergeant. 
5 — H. C. Gatlin, Sergeant. 

1 — C. W. Taylor, Corporal. 

2— M. L. Shealy, Corporal. 

3 — J. S. Sowter, Corporal. 

4 — John Melton, Corporal. 


1— J. S. Adams. 8— Will Henry Cox. 

2— Elias Barnes. 9— A. A. Danforth. 

3— Jas. Bridges. 10— J. W. Duffy. 

4— P. Barfield. 11— J. W. Duncan. 

5— D. G. Barfield. 12— A. B. Edge. 

6— J. D. Bowles. 13— W. J. Grantham. 

7— C. H. Cox. 14— M. B. Gilmon. 



15— S. J. Gatlin. 
16_Wiley Hall. . 
17— Z. W. Hall. 
18— J. L. Hilton. 
19— W. D. Hangabook. 
20— Thos. Holhan. 
21— D. H. Klickly. 
22— C. B. H. King. 
23— A. A. Lowe. 
24— F. M. Moulton. 
25— E. Y. Moore. 
26 — Rufus McGlamery. 

27— J. H. Martin. 

28— A. W. Norris. 
29— S. J. Norris. 
30— S. A. Pearce. 
31— S. B. Smith. 
32— W. W. Ricks. 
33 — J. W. Thompson. 
34 — Julius Turner. 
35—W. J. Taylor. 
36— H. Williams. 
37— W. S. Williams. 
38— G. W. Whittington. 

1— R. Banfield. 
2— R. M. Brooks. 
3— W. J. Brantly. 
4— J. R. Glover. 
5— T. J. Moulton. 
6— Pat Waddill, 

1 — Elijah Cloud, 
2— J. M. Dinkins, 
3— S. R. Holland, 
4 — R. H. Hankinson 
5— Dan'l Klickly, 
Corp. 6— J. H. Miller 


7— T. W. Montford, Lieut. 7— Jas. Murphy, 

8— E. W. Stubbs, 
9 — James Wicker, 





The story of Bethesda, the charitable institution founded 
by the Rev. George Whitefield more than a century and a 
half ago shortly after his arrival in Georgia, is generally well 
known ; but there is one event in its history concerning 
which little has been said by any writer, and the reason for 
the omission is the lack of material necessary for a thorough 
understanding of the subject. The incident to which we refer 
is the management of the establishment by a certain Rev. 
John Johnson, and the trouble growing out of his connection 
with the Orphan Home and his control of the property 
through which it was supported. 

Whitefield died on the 30th of September, 1770, and by 
his will he left Bethesda with all of its possessions "to that 
elect Lady, that Mother in Israel, that Mirror of true and 
undefined religion, the Right Honorable Selina, Countess 
Dowager of Huntingdon," &c. ; but soon afterwards all of 
the buildings were consumed by fire. Lady Huntingdon ac- 
cepted the trust, and the work went on under her direction 
through persons placed in charge with her approval, bat the 
property was again badly damaged by fire in 1773, and again 
rebuilt through her generosity and that of her friends. From 
time to time changes were made, for various causes, in the 
office of manager or superintendent until the period when 
the circumstances unfolded in the following documentary 
history arrived. 

Just when Mr. Johnson appeared on the scene we do not 
know ; but he was sent out from England in January, 1791, 
it seems as manager of the estate, and had full control of the 
property. As the Countess was an alien, an act of the legis- 
lature had to be passed in order that she could hold legal 
title, and by it the said estate was "vested in the said Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon, any laws to the contrary notwith- 
standing," and trustees were appointed, in whose hands the 
sheriff was instructed to place one thousand pounds, the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of confiscated property in Chatham County. 

Lady Huntingdon died June 17, 1791, at which time the 
Rev. John Johnson was managing the Bethesda Home and 
plantation. The death of that good lady of course concluded 
the trust created as already shown, and a new act was 
passed, making the same trustees a corporate body with 
power to do all things "necessary and beneficial for carry- 
ing the original intention of the institution into full effect." 


The original trustees who were therein reappointed were 
George Houstoun, William Stevens, William Gibbons, Sr., 
Joseph Habersham, Joseph Clay, Jr., William Gibbons, Jr., 
John Morel, Josiah Tattnall, Jr., John Milledge, James 
Whitefield, J. George Jones, Jacob Waldburger, and James 

After the death of the Countess, Johnson had instruc- 
tions from England to continue his management of the 

Johnson in his anger against the legally constituted 
trustees, wrote and published a poem called "The Rape of 
Bethesda; or The Georgia Orphan House Destroyed." The 
book is now very rare, and only a few copies can be located. 

Comparative freedom from misfortune came to Bethesda 
when the management of her affairs passed into the 
Union Society; but the institution has had periodical sea- 
sons of adversity which we trust are now ended. 

The originals from which the following record is made 
were offered for sale by a London bookseller, more than 
twenty years ago, and were bought by the Georgia His- 
torical Society for a comparatively small sum. In conclud- 
ing these prefatory remarks, we reproduce this short account 
of Mr. Johnson from the English Dictionary of National 
Biography, edited by Sidney Lee : 

"JOHNSON, JOHN (d. 1804), dissenting minister, born 
near Norwich, was one of the first students of the Countess 
of Huntingdon's college at Trevecca, and a minister in her 
chapels. He settled at Wigan, Lancashire, and preached 
there and in neighboring towns. On one occasion his preach- 
ing caused a riotous disturbance. He moved to Tyldesley 
in the same county, and then, at Lady Huntingdon's desire, 
went to America to superintend an orphan asylum- founded 
by Whitefield. The state authorities refused to recognize 
him, and he and his wife were imprisoned for resisting the 
sheriff's officers. On returning to England he was imprisoned 
for debts incurred in the erection of his chapel at Tyldesley. 
He subsequently settled at Manchester as pastor of St. 
George's Rochdale Road, where he gathered an appreciative 
congregation. He was a good Hebrew scholar, and on three 
occasions he preached to the Jews in that language. He 
published "The Levite's Journal," and a prospectus of a uni- 
versal language. Other works were left in manuscript. He 
died at Manchester on 22d Sept. 1804." 




Copy of a letter from Thomas Gibbons to Roger Smith, 
Esq., of Charleston. 

Savannah, January, 1791. 

Lady Huntingdon has been pleased to send out a letter 
of Attorney to me favor'd per the Rev. Mr. Johnson including 
that Gentleman with me to act in all matters respecting the 
Orphan House — was herewith furnished with a copy of a 
receipt of Mr. Glen's for the valuable papers which it men- 
tions — upon application to Mr. Glen he informs me that he 
left the papers with you. I will be much obliged to you to 
forward me them as soon as convenient and a statement of 
such circumstances as comes within your recollection, as I 
am wholly unacquainted with the Business at present. 

I forward a Letter to you which I presume is from her 

I am Sir, Yours, 


Extract of an act of Assembly respecting the Orphan 
House Estate. 

"AND WHEREAS THERE is in this 

State a very considerable property, as well real as personal, 
known and distinguished by the name of Bethesda College 
or Orphan House Estate, originally intended for an Academy 
and devised in trust by the Late Rev. George Whitefield for 
literary and benevolent purposes to Selina, Countess of 

Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid that the said 
Estate be vested in the said Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, 
any law to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Georgia, February 1st, 1788. 


Sept. 11th. 

Was told of the Death of the Honorable Countess Dow- 
ager of Huntingdon by Mr. Thing after the forenoon service 
— found it confirmed by a Charleston paper the same evening. 


Sept. 15th. 

Thursday after it was in the 'Savannah Gazette with 
some little alteration in consequence of my observation on 
certain mistakes in the Charleston paper. 

Sept. 17th. 

Received a letter from Mr. Thomas Cahusac of London, 
with a brief account of L. H's. last moment by the Rev. Mr. 

Oct. 1st. 

Was informed of General Jackson's determination to 
bring forward a motion in the next Gen'l Assembly for tak- 
ing away the Orphan House Estate & of applying it to the 
purpose of an Academy for the County of Chatham — also 
of his preparations to enforce the same by showing an adver- 
tisement in some one of the northward papers exposing the 
Orphan House Estate for sale as private property — but 
knowing there was no real ground for the one ; nor authority 
for the other I prepared to oppose, but having no official 
papers it was out of my power. 

Oct. 2nd. 

Found the clamor against Jackson & Clay, becau3e the 
people were aware of their intention against the Orphan 
House ; But in consequence of their declaration against any 
such intentions, Gen'l Jackson was elected one of the mem- 
bers of the House the next day. 

Nov. 1st. 

Tuesday — Preached at the Lutheran Church of Goshen, 
about 15 miles from Savannah ; spent the evening and 
slept at the house of William Gibbons, Esq., one of the 
members of the House of Assembly for this County, who 
was to set off for Augusta the Thursday following in order 
to be ready for the meeting of the House the Monday after. 
Proposed a plan to counteract General Jackson's intention, 
but could not execute anything for want of a fresh power 
from Lord Dartmo', Sir Rich. Hill and others in time. 

' Nov. 21st. 

Monday — Received an Official Letter giving a full and 
particular account of the Death of Lady Huntingdon with 
Power to assert the Trust in the Hands of Lord Dartmo', 
Sir Richard Hill & Clement Tudway, John Way & Oliver 
Cromwell, Esq. 


Dec. 20th. 

Tuesday — Rec'd a Letter from the Speaker of the House 
dated 10th of same inst. 

(See Official Letters.) 

True copy of a letter from the Speaker of the House of 

Augusta, 10th December, 1791. 
Dear Sir: 

A Bill has past the house of representatives, declar- 
ing the property vested in the Countess of Huntingdon to be 
a life Estate and vests the same in certain trustees by that 

I shall not make any comment on the Bill but thought 
it my duty to inform you thus far. 

My best wishes attend you and Mrs. Johnson, and 
I remain Dear Sir; 
Your hbl. Servant, 

Dec. 26th. 

Monday — Saw several of the Members return'd from 
Augusta — called upon Lawyer Gibbons, signified my deter- 
mination of refusing possession and of making it a Ques- 
tion of Congress — promised him 50 guineas (in the presence 
of Mr. Owen) to assist me with his Counsel & to act 
as Attorney thro' the whole business. 

Dec. 27th. 

Tuesday — Went to inspect proceedings of the plan- 
tation. Went from there to the Orphan Home in the 

Dec. 28th. 

Wednesday — Came to the plantation — determined 
to keep close possession by residing day & night Sunday & 
working day upon the premises to defend the negroes and 
ye remaining part of the evening — had reason to believe 
one black man came as a spy. 

Dec. 29th. 

Thursday — Found the negroes alarmed and determined 
to arm themselves — took a cutlass from one of the negroes 
telling him it was contrary to law. 


Dec. 30th. 

Friday — Kept a strict look out all day — but no attempt 
to take possession visible — Mrs. J. seeing one of the 
negroes return from breakfast with his hoe upon his should- 
ers — asked him why he carried his hoe, and received for 
answer "Don me no Misse War Time."* 

Dec. 31st. 

Saturday — No attempts to take possession visible 
this day. 

Jan. 1st, 1792. 

Sunday — Had the pleasure of the company of Mr. 
Lewden, Capt. Hamilton, Mr. Keeves & Mr. Miller — about 
half past ten in the forenoon, Arthur Thewes & Michael 
Green came riding very hastily up to the back door, the 
former of which dismounted very suddenly turning his horse 
loose & on being asked what he wanted, showed great con- 
fusion — having my suspicions awake, I held out my positive 
determination to keep possession and that the negroes were 
also arming themselves & saying no Buckro (that is white 
man) should take them, this said he answered he was not 
afraid of any man upon God's earth — feigned an inquiry after 
employment & that he had seen Mr. Thomas Gibbons, add- 
ing this, he expected I w'd have been in town — in short his 
whole conduct confirmed my suspicion of his being employed 
to take possession (contrary to law) on the Sabbath Day — 
however I gave him some rum & water but a day or two 
after (I am told) this same man went and made a false 
affidavit against me. 

About one o'clock Mr. Blogg (with whom I had been in 
habit of friendship some time) accompanied with Mr. 
Netherclirr, Jr., came riding up to the front door — a friendly 
conversation took place upon the business in hand & after 
Mr. Nethercliff was introduced to me by my quondam friend. 
I ask if all the family was well and sent my compliments to 
them, but they also a day or two after in order to make them- 
selves necessary to the Trustees (I am told) went & made 
false affidavits against me. 

See extract in official letter &c, for the subject matter 
impressed into an affidavit against me by Messrs. Keeves, 
Blogg and Nethercliff. 

Jan. 2nd. 

Monday — Took away a musket from one of the negroes 
loaded with four ball, — received advice from Lawyer Gib- 
bons to persevere in keeping possession. 

*Don't I know, Mistress, it is war time ! 


January 3rd. 

Tuesday — Captain Hamilton dined with me this day & 
informed of Mr. Blogg's declaring in Savannah he w'd make 
affidavit I said on Sunday last I had put all the negroes under 
arms & that I had a design against the life of Mr. John Morell. 

January 4th. 

Wednesday — Kept a strict look out but no attempt to 
take possession visible. 

January 5th. 

Thursday — Sent to Lawyer Gibbons — received fresh 
matter of encouragement to persevere in keeping possession. 

January 6th. 

Friday — About 4 o'clock this afternoon, the sheriff's 
officer brought me a letter from Sir George Houstoun (en- 
closing a copy of the Act of Assembly) declaring the 
commissioners intention of coming in a body to take posses- 
sion on Tuesday next. 

January 7th. 

Saturday — Had my suspicions that a Day was appointed 
in order to draw me off the premises ; and put me off my 

January 8th. 

Sunday — Had reason to believe an attempt was made to 
take possession, but my not going to Savannah, as usual, 
rendered it Abortive. 

True copy of a letter from Sir George Houstoun, Presi- 
dent of the Commissioners to J. Johnson. 

Savannah, January 9th, 1792. 

We do ourselves the honor to inclose a copy of an act 
of the General Assembly respecting the Orphan House Es- 
tate and Bethesda College. The trustees will be at the 
Orphan House and plantation on Tuesday next to take pos- 
session of the Estate 

It will be necessary that an Inventory of the whole 
property, should be delivered to them on that day. 

It will naturally strike you that no property ought to be 
removed from the plantation without instructions from the 

We are Sir, 
Your very humble servant on behalf of the Board, 



January 9th. 

Monday — Wrote a letter in answer to Sir George's 
dated 7th, tho' it came to hand the evening of the 6th. 

(See Official Letter.) 

Lawyer Gibbons' advice superficial and discour- 

True copy of my first letter to Sir George Houstoun, 
President of the body corporates. 

January 9th, 1792. 

Sir George : 

To avoid a tedious circumlocution, I proceed to answer 
your letter to me in a style altogether pointed, nevertheless 
I hope you will do me the justice to believe I speak under 
the limitation of modesty and a suitable deference to an 
Honorable Gentleman, whom I'm sorry to find made presi- 
dent to execute an unworthy commission under the sanction 
of a public Act. And now if my feelings should betray me 
into a severity of Language I pre-engage your pardon, and 
can only say by way of apology, I am too independent in 
spirit to stand in awe of dust. The rectitude of your design 
in taking possession of the Orphan House Estate without 
a due course of law and before we reap that which we sowed, 
I question ; as I do the ground upon which your pretentions 
claim foundation. 

Is it your zeal for the object of a County Academy which 
urged you to attempt a fraud upon the public on both sides 
of the Atlantic? Or have you entirely forgot your obliga- 
tions to the worthy founder of Bethesda that you would com- 
mit an act of such violence on his favorite design without the 
least compunction? 

This is best known to God and your own conscience. 
However, it is well understood that in a representation, made 
from Georgia to the House of Commons in or about the year 
1740. It was therein declared that the very existence of the 
then colony was in a great measure, if not wholly owing to 
the building and supporting of the Orphan House. I am well 
aware of your wish to call in the approbation of the public 
by saying the object of your design is the establishing of 
the Rev. George Whitefield's will;, what an insult upon the 
common sense of that great and good divine. Tell it not in 
a land of equity ! But they who attempt to give co-existence 
to contrarieties, and fail, may thank themselves for the 
little ceremony they deserve. Can it be supposed the Rev. 
George Whitefield would be so improvident as to devise 
property (worth so many thousands) in trust to the Countess 


of Huntingdon, (who he had all the reason in the world to 
believe could not survive him but a very little time) and in- 
tend after her decease to make an orphan of the Orphan 
House itself and abandon so great a property, collected in 
charitable donations from different parts of the world, to the 
mercy of party rage; or the 'public of this State? Equity I 
trust will soon say no, to the confusion of your claim and if 
she should say no at your expense, you and the rest of the 
commissioners (as a body corporate) must say what then. 

But We'll suppose for a moment I lose the man in the 
minister, and basely admit you, possession the object of 
your interest (whatever it be) stands insulted and dis- 
honored by its own officious advocates while the scripture 
demands, in terms of the most severe rebuke, who hath re- 
quired this at your hand. It is a vain oblation. 

Now the well known act of 1788 relieves Bethesda from 
the sentence of confiscation and pursuing the intention of 
Whitefield vests the whole Estate in the Countess (not limit- 
ing her trust for life) who devised the same in trust (accord- 
ing to official papers now before me) to the Right Honbl. 
William Earl of Dartmouth, Sir Richard Hill, Bar't, and 
Clement Tudway, John Way and Oliver Cromwell, Esquires ; 
and sorry I am Sir George, the Honorable House could not 
find some other way of quieting the worthy heirs of Zouber- 
buhler and of building a County Academy but at their ex- 
pense. Had the Orphan House Estate ever interested the 
Countess' private purse, the explanation of the General As- 
sembly would appear more plausible to the public, but it is 
well known by the thousands of pounds she has expended 
in the services of Bethesda that she was a slave to the trust 
confided in her. Yea, I may say in a certain sense she robbed 
churches to do the State of Georgia service, moreover the 
current of Bethesda's benevolence was never yet confined to 
a single county — may the thought awaken the sensibilities 
of every other county in Georgia, the Northern States and all 
the world ! It is the voice of bleeding innocence ! 

How far the exhortation of Scriptures "be not forgetful 
to entertain Strangers," may politically apply to the infancy 
of this State I leave to the Judgment of the truly patriotic, 
but sure I am it is both unrighteous and impolitic to the 
last degree, to proscribe without mercy by an arbitrary ex- 
planation the vigorous intentions of the above Honorable 
trust. Be on your guard Sir George, the whole world will 
soon sit in Judgment upon your character in particular as 
president of such a Commission. 

Did a certain person (with whom I would scorn to con- 
tend) think your Worthiness and honor necessary to varnish 


over his party design, but I forbear ; yet cannot help adding 
who are there in this state, but will commence wayfaring 
men, if their property must be left to the mercy of such in- 
terested explainers? O heavens! If this be the state of sub- 
ordinate possessors what defence do they enjoy against the 
abuse of superior power? But to conclude 

As the general assembly of this state has thought proper 
to explain away from the charitable public at large ; and the 
private purses of the Rev. George Whitefield and Countess 
of Huntingdon, so many thousands ; we shall not ask leave of 
thirteen commissioners to promote our appeal to Congress 
for an explanation of your explanation itself. 'Till then de- 
spair of possession Sir George, but if you attempt it tomor- 
row, I wish you to understand, I would much rather open my 
breast to your fatal steel than act unworthy of my present 

I am, Sir George, your most obedient Humble Servant, 


N. B. If in consequence of my sober determination to 
keep possession, or of false reports, any unlawful advantages 
be taken by the inferior commissioners, or any person or 
persons employed by them ; I shall imitate the conduct of 
one of old, who punished the Master for the disobedience 
of his scholars. 


January 10th. Tuesday. 

** (See extract in the Charleston Gazette and official 
letters, etc.)* 

Before the commissioners left the premises I told them 
all I had full possession still. The sheriff's officer called the 
driver to hold his horse. I countermanded it and ordered 
another of the negroes to do it. About an hour after dinner 
I called all the negroes to work. The sheriff's officer im- 
mediately contradicted the order, but all the negroes obeyed 
me except the driver who I had reason to fear was either 
bribed, flattered or else very much intimidated by the Com- 

I also understand that the driver w'd unlock the 
barn door when the Commissioners came up to it, altho' 
it was quite contrary to my orders and that most of the ne- 
groes attempted to diswade and withhold him from it. 

Copied above. 


About 8 o'clock this night two constables well armed 
were sent from Savannah by Joseph Clay, Jun'r to 
assist the sheriff's officer — one of them (quite drunk) when I 
opened the door & asked who was there, put the muzzle of 
his gun toward my breast and made answer "a friend to the 
State." I told them they might come in and stay a day or 
two with the sheriff's officer, but that I had possession there 
and was determined to keep it. 

About half past eight the sheriff's officer went out in 
order to give the driver orders for the next day. I followed 
him immediately and gave contrary orders, we returned to 
the plantation house and the sheriffs and the sheriff's 
officer committed me to the custody of the two constables 
and went out again to enforce his orders, but the negroes 
declared they would die before they would serve him. On 
going to bed, found the lower part of my arm quite bloody, 
in consequences of a slight wound which I received in the 
upper part of my hand while scuffling with the sheriff's 
officer or with Mr. John Morell who presented his sword to 
my breast. 

From the State Gazette of South Carolina, Thursday, 
Feb. 9th, 1792. Charleston, February 9th. 

Extract of a letter from a gentleman in Savannah to his 
friend in this city, dated January 20, 1792. 

"We are all confusion here, in consequence of a late act 
of the general assembly of this state, explaining away the 
transmarine trust of the Georgia Orphan House to thirteen 
commissioners of which Sir George Houstoun is president. 

"On Tuesday the 10th of this inst., Sir George Houstoun, 
William Stevens, Jacob Waldburger, Joseph Habersham, 
Joseph Clay, Jr., John Morell, Josiah Tattnall, Jr., John Mil- 
ledge, James Whiteneld, Jr., Dr. John Brickell, Dr. 
Parker and a sheriff's officer, went to the house of the Presi- 
dent, (the Rev. John Johnson) demanding possession without 
a due course of law. The president, out one of the windows 
remonstrated against their premature proceedings, alledging 
his three-fold claim to possession. First as agent for trust, 
and not for the heirs of Lady Huntingdon, which the act only 
excludes. Secondly, as not having beat out the crop he had 
sowed, in which case equity continues peaceable possession. 
Thirdly, as superintendent, not paid, besides having ad- 
vanced near fifty pounds of his own money in different sums, 
at different times, without interest, still unpaid ; and de- 
clared his intention on these three bottoms ; or either of them, 
to refuse them possession, until they should gain it by an 
equitable decision of a jury. This said, the president was 
about to make his defence against the false affidavits of 


Messrs. Keeves, Blogg and Nethercliff, who swore the pres- 
ident had put all the negroes under arms, and also, that he 
had a design against the life of one of the commissioners, 
(Mr. John Morell) in order to which, the president had a 
cutlass under his hand, and a musket by his side. The for- 
mer he intended to make appear, was taken from one of the 
negroes four days before he saw Messrs. Keeves, Blogg and 
Netherclifr; and that out of the latter (which he took from 
another of the negroes the day after) were taken four balls 
— this he thought would sufficiently justify him from the 
charge of putting the negroes under arms, though they were 
determined to arm themselves, which was all the president 
said, adding, he could not help it. He also intended to 
shew, what he said respecting Mr. Morell was only in the 
mere pleasantry of these words, "There is no missing him." 
But before the president could make this latter part of his 
address, the sheriff's officer was ordered to force his way into 
the window; but was strongly resisted by the president, and 
failed in the attempt. Immediately upon this, some one or 
more of the commissioners broke open the door, and enter- 
ing the house, insulted, assaulted, wounded and threatened 
the life of the president with a drawn sword presented to 
his breast. This done, they left the sheriff's officer in the 
house — went and turned all the negroes out of the barn, 
threatening them with the most inhuman severity if they 
obeyed the orders of the president any longer, which was en- 
forced by Jacob Waldburger, who threatened also to bring 
the White Bluff company of militia against them if they did 
not obey the orders of the sheriff's officer. But the president 
still persisting in countermanding the orders of the sheriff's 
officer with effect, the latter attempted to drag he former 
out of the house, assaulting him and seizing him by the 
throat ; but not being able, two constables ordered from Sa- 
vannah came to his assistance about eight o'clock at night, 
and next day Mr. and Mrs. Johnson were violently dragged 
off the premises, and the former sent in the custody of an 
armed constable, was brought to Savannah, where he still 
remains a prisoner of honor in the house of Mr. Charles 
Scrimger. But what is very strange — all this violence has 
been done without any writ of ejectment, decision of jury, 
or shewing any authority from a magistrate. 

The above letter* being much misrepresented, a copy of 
it was immediately taken, by a friend, to the Printers of the 
Georgia Gazette for publication. 

*Referring to letter just preceding the extract from the 
South Carolina Gazette. 


Inclosed is the following: 

To the Printer of the Georgia Gazette : 

The Inclosed is a Copy of a Letter from the Rev. John 
Johnson to Sir George Houstoun, upon the latter's declared 
intention of taking possession of the Orphan House Estate. 

The inserting of which in your next will much oblige, 

Your Hbl. Servant, 

A Correspondent. 


Contrary to the Constitution of this State. 

Parson Johnson's compliments to the printer of the 
Georgia .Gazette, requesting his acceptance of the following 
motto for his next public paper. 

"Open to all parties — influenced by none." 
Should be glad Mr. Johnson would call upon him about 
twelve o'clock this day, opposite the burying ground. 
Monday, January 16th, 1792. 
True Copy of a note to the Public Printer. 

January 11th. 

Wednesday — This morning countermanding the orders 
of the sheriff's officer but the negroes were so horrified by 
his abuse & shreaking that they all except a few ran away 
into the woods without obeying either of us. 

And about 2 o'clock this afternoon Mrs. J. and myself 
were violently dragged off the premises by the sheriff's 
officer and the two constables and I was sent to Savannah in 
the custody of one of them to a Commissioner of Justice. 

January 12th. 

Thursday — Still in custody in the home of Justice Lew- 
den. Understand Boyd has been with the Commissioners 
this forenoon, and has obtained employment from them (as 
overseer) and paid to take possession of the plantation and 

About half past three this afternoon Whitefield called 
upon me feigned great disgust at the conduct of Boyd, after 
having promised me so often before witnesses "he would not 

act against me" gave Whitefield keys and power 

to take possession in my name before proposed witnesses 
and hastened him off to take possession on the premises be- 
fore Boyd laying a strict charge upon him to be faithful 


to me and the negroes which he promised to observe with the 
greatest solemnity ; but about an hour after I was informed 
Whitefield had obtained a joint power with Boyd from the 
Commissioners a little time before I saw him. (I neverthe- 
less hoped he would act for me.) 

Was made to understand (thro' a certain medium) that 
the Commissioners proposed to make me President of their 
intended College — to give me 200Lbs. sterling a year and 
to pay my demand against Bethesda in case of my compliance 
with their proceedings. 

This evening wrote a note to Way & Hills 

requesting a statement of his account with Bethesda 

about 9 o'clock was removed by leave of Justice Lewden to 
the house of Mr. Charles Scrimger and committed to his 
care as a prisoner of honor — but no charges are yet brought 
against me. 

January 13th. 

Friday — Wrote another letter to Sir George H. 
James and Nicholas Johnston, public printers have refused 
to print my first letter to him which has been much mis- 
represented, and I am denied the liberty of the Press — con- 
trary to the Constitution of this State. 
January 14th. 

Saturday — Understand Boyd has collected some of the 
negroes in my name, tho' in reality acting for the Trustees 
appointed in the Act. Wrote a letter to William Stevens, 

Esq., (see Official Letter) still in custody but no 

charges are yet brought against me. 
January 15th. 

Sunday — Was told the negroes are indeed collected to- 
gether, but will not obey Boyd's command and that not any- 
thing has been done, but that which I ordered them to do, 
before I was dragged off the premises — also that Whitefield 
has betrayed my confidence by joining Boyd in the name of 
the Commissioners the evening of the same day he engaged 
to act for me. 

And also that some written hand bills were posted in 
different parts of this city to the following effect. 

"O Citizens of Georgia, let the Constitution reign and 
not men. The right of Jury and the Liberty of the Press are 
both denied a Reverend Stranger." 
January 16th. 

Monday — I am informed several of the Commissioners 
went out to the Orphan House Plantation this forenoon. 

still in custody, but no charges are yet brought 

against me. 


True copy of a letter to Sir George Houstoun, President 
of the thirteen Commissioners. 
Sir George : 

Our subject of contention naturally supposes two differ- 
ent claims and it is well known that in the constitution of 
this state the right of a jury is to be held inviolate. Now 
sir, being your opposite claimant, I demand the legal and 
equitable decision of the same and assure you thro' this 
medium that no other can dispossess me, for tho' myself and 
Mrs. Johnson were violently dragged off the premises by the 
sheriff's officer and two constables, armed by the authority 
of the Commissioners — and myself sent in the custody of a 
civil officer to a commissioner of justice and tho' now held 
as his prisoners of honor in the house of Mr. Charles Scrim- 
ger, I do not consider myself as dispossesed. I have a person 
on the Estate (now in possession which I have never re- 
linquished) acting for me with the best advantage he has.* 
But I wish you to know Sir George as I am officially sent 
here in the capacity of a prisoner, in that situation I am de- 
termined to, remain, till I am committed more fully in con- 
sequence of charges Mr. Coxe said he had to bring against 
me by your order, or till I am officially discharged by that 
power which has deprived me of my liberty unjustly, and 
know also I shall certainly sue the body corporate hereafter 
for false imprisonment (tho' now for two years I am an 
outlaw and treated as such) in consequence of a certain 
clause in an Act of Assembly passed (horrid to think) in a 
free country. I thank you for your proposals made to me, 
and although you have no power, yet to make them, I treat 
your politeness with the respect it deserves — as politeness; 
but will not admit a temptation to betray my trust. However, 
Sir George I will meet your condescension as far as I can 
consistently putting on that cloth, which I am sorry my sit- 
uation made it necessary for me to throw off for a while, I 
speak and act with decision ; but am superior to malice. I 
admit an apology for the violence exercised by the Commis- 
sioners and others thro' the provocation too hastily assumed, 
on the misrepresentation of Messrs. Blogg and Nethercliff 
which I would much rather impute to the unfaithfulness of 
their memories, than the malice of their hearts. 

The subject in hand is I am certain a question of Con- 
gress seeing I can prove from authority indisputable that the 
object of Bethesda's charity so far from being confin'd to 
a single state always looked with an Eye of Mercy to the 

*Whitefield, [James], who went to London from this 
place with Mr. Phillips. See my journal, Jan. 15th. 


first sources of her generosity — South Carolina, and the 
Northern States. Yea, the declared intention of Bethesda's 
worthy founder looked with compassion to the Indian — Or- 
phans of the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, &c. The Act of 
Assembly excluding the heirs of Lady Huntingdon does not 
apply to the exclusion of my present claim as agent 
for trust, but beside that I have two more founded upon 

equity, law & precedent, they who sow shall reap 

No common overseer can be legally dispossessed unpaid, 
but I promised to meet you, not as a suppliant, but rather 
as one who demands your obligations of honor as a body 
corporate — for quiet possession — till a legal decision of a 
jury puts the question beyond your or my dispute, and I 
will immediately do my endeavor to collect the negroes in 
mercy to their present distress, and I will give a regular ac- 
count of all — to those who shall legally demand it. The 
face of the overseer you have appointed (tho' in his duty 
an honest man) unless he goes in my name, will drive away 
the negroes sooner than an army of soldiers. The motives 
of my objection are strong against your conduct as a sys- 
tem of the greatest violence and most dangerous in its con- 
sequences, you know Sir George my advantages ; but, con- 
sider my demand upon your honor, in tenderness to your- 
self; and mercy to the poor negroes, who I am afraid will 
almost all fall a sacrifice to your contention with me. 

Don't mention my demand against Bethesda, nor must 
you assume the privilege of paying me, till you first gain 
legal possession. 

I am, Sir George, 

Your most obed't servant, 

Savannah, Jan. 13th, 1792. 

P. S. The expense of procrastination will be very 
great. I must charge for the absence of all the negroes thro' 
your violence — for my own expenses as a prisoner and for 
every article consum'd by any officer or others you may 
put on the premises. 

True copy of a letter to William Stephens, Esquire, one 
of the thirteen commissioners. 

Savannah, Jan. 14th, 1792. 

The inclosed comes to your hand in mercy to Sir 
George's feelings who yesterday experienced a bereaving 
providence for which I am very sorry. God avert the im- 



pending judgments which hang over the head of all who 
dare to take to themselves the houses of God in possession 
with such inhuman violence as you have shown to me. I 
am this moment inform'd Boyd is on the plantation, and has 
collected some of the negroes in my name ; tho' acting in 
reality for the Commissioners, (horrid unfaithfulness) ; after 
pledging his word and honor to me so often before witnesses 
that he never would act till the business was legally settled 
— esteem such a man worthy of trust if you can. 

Bring forward your charges against me, immediately — 
commit me to the common jail ; or honorably acquit me. If 
you do the former, I shall soon prefer an indictment against 
you and others, for breaking open my house, insulting, as- 
saulting, wounding me and threatening my life with a drawn 
sword presented to my breast — if the latter Boyd shall soon 
know who has possession still. But if you agree to the de- 
mand of the inclosed, my honor shall be your privilege, and 
I will subscribe myself ever your hbl. serv't. 


P. S. I hope you will consider — I am detained from my 
ministerial duties, in consequence of custody at the expense 
of 10/6 per day. 

January 17th. 

Tuesday — Was called upon by a planter who had made 
proposals to the Commissioners to rent the Orphan House 
Estate at 200 lbs. sterling a year ; but after knowing the 
situation of my claims declined having anything to do to it. 

Justice Lewden called and spent the evening with me; 
promised to call a Counsel of Justices as soon as possible 
and demand the Commissioners charges against me. 

January 18th. 

Wednesday — I'm informed Boyd has quitted his employ 
under the Commissioners and that another overseer is there 
in his room — but the negroes still refused to work for any 
but me. 

January 19. 

Thursday — Understand some of the negroes are got 
to work this morning in consequence of the driver's declar- 
ing for the Commissioners, being either bribed by money, or 
overawed by fear. Also that the Commissioners who went 
out last Monday broke open the right wing of the Orphan 
House — forced open the lock of the store room and an- 
other of the closet and that the house has been plundered in 
consequence of their leaving the doors quite open. 

Still in custody — no charges yet brought. 


January 20th. 

Friday — Have reason to believe the Commissioners in- 
tend to throw all the blame of my custody upon the Deputy 
Sheriff, who was this day sought for to explain his reason 
for putting me in custody, but was nowhere to be found. 

January 21st. 

Saturday — Wrote a letter to Lawyer Gibbons, received 
his answer — had a very short interview with him this after- 
noon, but no encouragement to expect any assistance from 

(See Official Letter.) 

find 2 hand bills were posted last night at the 

Vendue House to following effect: 

(1st) "Great encouragement will be given to a public 
printer who is not influenced by any party. 

(2nd.) "High Church, Lindsay and Fury. 
Low Church, Johnson and Jury." 

The Rev. Mr. Holbrook informed me this day that to his 
certain knowledge, a sheriff's officer was fined 901bs. in 
Boston (about 3 years ago) for only lifting up the latch 
of a door — and that the plaintiff appealed to a superior court 
for further satisfaction notwithstanding the debt the officer 
seized for, was a just one. 

True copy of a-letter to the Mayor . 

Savannah, Jan. 21st, 1792. 

Tho' but an inexperienced politician, I will readily 
pledge myself to meet the terrors of an arbitrary explana- 
tion with courage and composure. But it is possible one so 
independent as yourself, will deny me his counsel, because 
time has not yet disrobed my conduct of its formidable as- 
pect. If it be as I am told, you have pledged your honor to 
the contrary party, I will remember my obligations to you 
still and admit the best apology I can. But if you come for- 
ward and prove the falsity of such a report my obligation of 
honor for fifty guineas, given before in the presence of Mr. 
Owens will perhaps be found as strong in your favor as any 
bond vou have in your possession. 

My present custody makes it impossible for me to come 
to you. Call upon me at the house of Mr. Charles Scrimger, 
opposite the burying ground, and I will soon show you some 
of your best advantages, against your worst enemies, but if 


you refuse me this my humble request — my official journal 
which I must publish in my own defense, will be no compli- 
ment to your perseverance. 

I am Sir, your most obed't hbl. serv't, 

The Mayor's answer. 

January 21st, 1792. 

Your letter of this date was this moment handed to me. 
I will call on you as soon as I can make it convenient. 

I am not prompted to an interview from any motive 
of gain (or fear of any future publication.) 
I am sir, 

Your most humble serv't, 


January 22nd. 

Sunday — Still in custody — find it rumored amongst my 
enemies, that my own counsellor is turned against me. 

January 23rd. 

Monday — Am informed the new overseer appointed by 
the Commissioners came to town this morning to inform 
them — none of the working negroes were to be found and 
that the driver himself was gone from the plantation. 

This evening had an interview with the speaker of the 
house — am happy in finding him still my friend ; altho' a 
false report was aimed to separate our friendship. 

January 24th. 

Tuesday — Was this day formally discharged from cus- 
tody by Justice Lewden in the presence of John Beck and 
Charles Scrimger. 

(See official letter for copy of my discharge.) 

Received a subscription of 50 Dol. from a very worthy 
friend, towards carrying on a prosecution against the Com- 

Copy of J. Johnson's discharge from custody. 

Savannah, Jan. 24th, 1792. 

"I, William Lewden, Esquire, commissioner of justice 
for the City of Savannah, have held in custody from the 1.1th 
of this instant to the present time — pursuant to the order of 
John Coxe, Deputy Sheriff of this County, the Rev'd John 
Johnson officially delivered to me as a prisoner of honor 


from the hand of one of the constables of this city. But 
having no charges brought against him, nor any reason to 
expect any will be laid before me, I do hereby acquit him 
from the above custody. 

J. P. 

January 25th. 

Wednesday — Offered a considerable fee to Matthew 
McAllister, Esq., Attorney at Law (& attorney Gen'l for the 
federal court) this day to take up the cause of Bethesda 
against the Commissioners, but did not agree. 

January 26th. 

Thursday — Ordered one of the negroes to fetch some 
small things of value out of one of the closets in the Or- 
phan House — bought & paid for with my own money as per 
receipt now in my possession; but the things were seized as 
soon as brought to town and the negro put in prison by 
order of Sir George Houstoun. 

January 27th. 

Friday — Agreed with Lawyer McAllister to take up 
the cause of Bethesda and retained him with a fee of fifty 

He informs me he finds six indictments against my op- 
ponents. Four criminal & two civil. 

Copy of a power to Matthew McAllister, Es- 
quire, Attorney at Law and Attorney General for the Federal 

I do hereby authorize and impower Matthew McAllister, 
Attorney at Law, to appear for me and take such measures, 
institute such process and proceedings in any of the Courts 
of Law, or equity in this state, relative to the Orphan House 
Estate, or Bethesda College, as to the said Matthew Mc- 
Allister may appear legal and proper & tend to the benefit of 
the Trust reposed in me by Selina, Countess of Huntingdon 
& others. 

Witness my hand this 27th day of January, 1792. 


January 28th. 

Saturday — Understand eight negroes broke out of prison 
last night, one of which was the negro belonging to the Or- 
phan House put there on Thursday last. 


Embarked on board the Eagle, Capt. Ross (bound for 
Charleston) in consequence of an alarm respecting the sit- 
uation of Mr. R. S's affairs in whose hands the bonds belong- 
ing to L. H. are. 

January 29th. 

Sunday — Wind bound in the mouth of the Savannah near 
Tybee Island. A rough wind and boisterous sea threatened 
our advance into the ocean. Wrote a letter to Gen'l Wayne 
(at Philadelphia), one of the members of Congress for the 
State of Georgia. 

(See official letter.) 

Copy of a letter to the Hon'ble Anthony Wayne, mem- 
ber of Congress for the State of Georgia. 

On Board the Eagle bound for Charleston, January 
29th, 1792. 

Honorable Sir: 

The unexpected disappointment of General Jackson in 
losing that seat in Congress which you now have the honor 
to fill has been wreaked upon us with all the thunder of party 
rage. His conduct indeed puts me in mind of that of An- 
tiochus Epiphanes who, disappointed in his ambitious de- 
signs against Egypt, let his vengeance fall without mercy 
upon the poor Jews. But this I enjoy (seeing I am made an 
outlaw for two years — denied the right of Jury and the Liber- 
ty of the Press) in consequence of his violence our antagonist 
has forged his thunderbolts at the expense of the constitu- 
tion itself, so that Justice and Equity cannot but turn them 
all against the man who aimed them at us with so much 
scorn. A motion has been brought forward in the late House 
of Assembly here by the above gentleman (after pledg- 
ing his honor to many that he had no such intention) ex- 
plaining away the transmarine trust of the Georgia Orphan 
House Estate and applying it to a Chatham Academy. This 
wonderful piece of party chicanery is entitled "An Act to 
Explain an Act" and what is very remarkable after the House 
had decidedly exploded the idea of the property being given 
to the Countess of Huntingdon as fee simple directly turned 
the edge of their act against the heirs of Lady Huntingdon, 
as British subjects & non residents therefore aliens incapable 
of receiving and executing the same. 

O ! tell it not in the Northward States ! An act was made 
in the General Assembly of Georgia in '88 and the meaning 
of it explained in '91, when perhaps not three persons who 


were in the former house made a part of the General As- 
sembly of the latter. How arbitrary and interested, such 
procedures! But how heavily the consequences are fallen 
upon me the enclosed will fully inform you, and (if you think 
proper) the public at large. 

I am honored Sir, 

Your most obed't humb. serv't, 

January 30th. 

Monday — Weighed anchor this afternoon. Sailed out 
to sea with a fair wind. 

January 31st. 

Tuesday — Encountered the disadvantage of a dead calm 
all last night, accompanied with a thick fog, but arrived at 
Charleston with a, fair wind about 8 o'clock this night. 

February 1st. 

Wednesday — Feel myself a good deal recovered from 
the consequence of a horrible sea sickness. Took a view of 
the town, was introduced to & spent the evening with 
the Rev. Mr. Firman. 

February 2nd. 

Thursday — Called upon Roger Smith, Esq., took cer- 
tain papers out of his hands belonging to the Countess of 
Huntingdon. Find he has negotiated one bond, all the Con- 
tinental certificates, together with seven Carolina indents 
committed to his care for certain bonds, two of which I am 
afraid are not safe, and find the amount of the whole with in- 
terest to be considerably under eleven hundred pounds Eng- 
lish sterling. To try their real worth I offered them for sale, 
but could not by any means get fifty per cent, for the bonds 
one with another. 

Was offered 300 lbs. for your bonds by Mr. O'gear 
merch't in Charleston, who declared it was their full worth. 
In the evening called upon Colonel Laurens but he was 
out of town. 

February 3rd. 

Friday — Called upon Gen'l Pinckney this morning wish- 
ing him to take the bonds into his possession, and collect the 
payment of them as soon as convenient ; but he refused to 
take them because he was afraid only two of them were good. 


February 4th. 

Saturday — Waited on Dr. Smith to know if he had a 
mortgage in his possession to secure Evcleigh's bond (as I 
had some reason to hope he had) but he was out of town 
and not expected to return for some days. Called again upon 
Colonel Laurens but he is still in the country. 

Understand the Carolina indents sell at this time, at the 
rate of 50 per cent, and that they sold 5 months ago at the 
rate of 17/6 per pound sterling. What a pity Mr. R. S. nego- 
tiated them to such a disadvantage. 

February 6th. 

Monday — Embarked this forenoon for Savannah with a 
fair wind. Sailed close past the wreck of a fine vessel — one 
of the two lost on Saturday last passing Charleston Bar. 

February 7th. 

Tuesday — Arrived safe at Savannah after a very dan- 
gerous passage (in consequence of a thick fog at sea) about 
half past nine this night. 

Found the city under arms occasioned by a riot among 
the sailors, determined to revenge the inhuman murder of 
three of their profession last Sunday night. 

February 8th. 

Wednesday — Understand the negroes would do no 
work during my absence and that all things are quite in con- 
fusion at the plantation. 

February 9th. 

Thursday — I am told the overseer which the Commis- 
sioners sent to manage the plantation furnished one of the 
negroes with a boat and sent him a fishing a few days ago, 
but he has never since been heard of. Called upon Lawyer 
McAllister this forenoon, find him encouraged to expect 
he shall bring the Commissioners to terms of accommoda- 
tion on the principle of those in my second letter to Sir 
George Houstoun. 

Find false reports circulating against me — "that the 
Sunday but one before last I held seditious correspondence 
with the Orphan House negroes in the road, and that I 
carried off* several of the Orphan House negroes with me to 


February 10th. 

Friday — Mr. Polhil informed me this day that he spent 
the evening of the 10th ult. with Gen'l Jackson and that he 
ran out vehemently against my first letter to Sir George, 
adding with an air of scorn (before a certain time) Johnson 
would be taken off" the premises of the Orphan House Es- 
tate neck & heels ; or words to the same effect, importing vio- 
lence — and this was said in the audience of about five more, 
one whom was Lawyer Stirk — so it appears the violence of 
the Commissioners was premeditated. This will also justify 
the sheriff's officer from the charge of exceeding his order. 

Called upon the Public Printer of this citv & requested 
him in the audience of Mr. Clarke and Mr. Polhil to print 
some of my papers that the public might know thro' this 
medium the real situation of my claims ; but received nothing 
but bad language and abuse. 

February 11th. 

Saturday — Received a hint from a certain friend that my 
life is in danger, requesting my not venturing myself abroad 
after dark — also intelligence from another that the case of 
my opponents is rendered so desperate in consequence of my 
standing out against them that they are trying to forge out 
an accusation against me tending to treason. 

I am informed Mr. Milledge, one of the Commissioners, 
has ordered some of the moveables belonging to the O. H. 
Estate into his possession & that Boyd is cutting down some 
of the best trees on the Habersham tract. 

February 13th. 

Monday — The superior State Court beginning to-day I 
called upon Lawyer McAllister who informed me the Com- 
missioners were then about to meet to consider of the terms 
above mentioned — amplified into a regular statement, in a 
letter he had laid before them. 

February 14th. 

Tuesday — Understand the Commissioners did not com- 
ply with my terms of accommodation yesterday. Ordered 
Mr. McA. to proceed in bringing forward the several.* 

February 16th. 

Thursday — Understand another of the O. H. negroes 
was brought to prison, prisoned this morning by Whitefield 
and Denceller. 

: Here something is omitted. 


February 18th. 

Saturday — Saw the driver this afternoon. Says he was 
sent to take Sam out of prison, and that the jailor ordered 
him to flog him first which he refused to do, and came away 

removed yesterday from Mr. Charles Scrimger's 

to a house in Johnson's Square but am obliged to borrow our 

February 20th. 

Monday — The business of the State Court is nearly 
ended and nothing has been done by Mr. McAllister against 
the Commissioners & I have neither seen, nor heard from 
him since I ordered him to proceed. This morning the negro 
who was brought to prison, last Thursday, came to me in a 
very miserable condition requesting my protection — says he 
received 100 lashes this morning by order of some one or 
more of the unmerciful usurpers. 

February 27th. 

Monday — Lawyer McAllister has never yet called upon 
me since I gave him positive orders to proceed against the 
Commissioners in the Superior Court of this State. 

No accommodation on the plan I proposed is acceded 
to by them. The negroes are almost all off; and if some- 
thing be not done in a few days we must inevitably lose the 
next year's crop. 

February 28th. 

Tuesday — Denceller (who holds as overseer, what the 
Commissioners wish to call possession) with another white 
man with him called upon me this morning & in the name of 
some of the Commissioners demanded the negroes which I 
had in my possession here in my house in town. I asked 
him by what authority. He said he had none but what he re- 
ceived by verbal order of the Trustees. I told him I desired 
their claim to the Estate and would only relinquish in conse- 
quence of a due course of law in their favor. That it was re- 
quired of a steward that a man should be found faithful. 
That it was true I fed, harbored and protected the negroes 
which came to me, sometimes hungry and greatly distressed 
and would continue to do so, until I was legally dispossessed 
by an equitable decision of a jury. I then repeated my de- 
mand upon their honor for quiet possession till right & not 
force should determine the contest. 


I'm informed the sheriff's officer made an attempt to 
take all the negroes out of our kitchen but was prevented by 
our precautions. 

March 1st. 

Thursday — This morning Betty a valuable negro wench 
belonging to the Orphan House Plantation came to me with 
breast very very much swollen & in smart fever — says she 
was taken from her sucking child & was brought to prison 
some time ago. 

About 12 o'clock to-day a person came to inform me, the 
Commissioners were met and were about to issue out a 
warrant against me. I told him I was ready to meet it not 
only without fear, but with pleasure as I had a material ob- 
jection to being plaintiff in the business. 

March 2nd. 

Friday — An advertisement appeared in yesterday's pa- 
per holding out certain intimidations against me and others 
who shall dare to oppose the unjust claims of the Commis- 
sioners — but I am determined to contradict it in the most 
public manner I can. 

(See official letters & extract.) 
March 6th. 

Tuesday — Received two letters from London, one from 
the Rev. Mr. Haweis dated Oct. 29th — the other from Lady 
Ann Erskine dated Nov. 1st, 1791. But I am very sorry in- 
deed no power of attorney accompanies them as I am afraid 
my opponents will by this time be able to produce legal proof 
of the death of Lady Huntingdon. Throw all the expenses of 
a lawsuit upon me & laugh all my expectations to scorn 
at the expense of not only dear Mr. Whitefield's original de- 
sign ; but of the gospel itself. 

March 7th. 

Wednesday — Have prepared an advertisement in oppo- 
sition to that published on Thursday last by the Commis- 
sioners & putting it into the hands of one of the principal 
Mechanics to take it to the public printers for publication 
he was obliged to accept it for fear of offending the whole 
body of them. 

March 8th. 

Thursday — The Commissioners made a board this day 
& had the mortification to see their premature & unlawful 
proceedings contradicted in a public advertisement before 
they assembled. 

(See official extract.) 


March 9th. 

Friday — Find a small poem called the Rape of Bethesda, 
is just published and announced for sale at Charleston — but 
have not received them yet. 

March 10th. 

Saturday — As the greatest part of the Commissioners 
are ungodly men and strangers to the blessed gospel, the 
more serious part of my friends begin to consider their con- 
duct towards me, and the O. H. a system of persecution — 
heightened into violence so much the more as my plan of 
managing the negroes has differed from theirs with success. 

Savannah, March 10th, 1792 

P. S. Perhaps Lord Dartmouth or Sir Richard Hill 
will think it proper to lay these papers before the American 
Consul now in London & if so I should be very happy to 
meet his documents to Congress at Philadelphia. 


N. B. The code of laws in Georgia are except in two 
or three local respects the same as those of Great Britain. 

Apoligie. (Sic) 

Excuse whatever is incorrect in the above Journal, 
which I designed to be official ; and not evengelical as my 
time is so much limited. 

Should have wrote sooner but wished my account of the 
business to be as full as it was possible. 




The Village of Summerville, which is now the Sixth 
Ward of the City of Augusta, has acquired considerable 
celebrity of late on account of the presence of two large 
winter hotels and its popularity with the Northern tourists. 
It lies well above Augusta on the west. During the day 
the smoke of the city's industries hovers like mist 
over a valley. At night the lights of the city look like har- 
bor lights upon darkened waters. 

The Village now boasts of a Country Club, golf links 
and fine houses, and during the winter season is a scene of 
pleasure by day and revelry by night. But it has not always 
been so. Its history dates back before the times of the Revo- 
lution, when it was merely a quiet and obscure residence 
place for a few people of Augusta, who approached it by 
old time methods, from their places of business on the low 

Summerville as a place of residence has a record for 
more than one hundred years, when Augusta was a very 
small town of a few thousand people and the Village of 
Summerville itself, instead of being a part of Augusta as it 
is now, was then removed by several miles from the activity 
of the town. 

Tradition does not say who first came to Summerville, 
or, as it is more popularly known in Augusta, "The Hill," 
but it is well understood that from Revolutionary times on 
there has been a decided preference for it as a place of resi- 
dence. Only of late years has it come into its fame, but for 
many generations has it been a pleasant place for those who 
are weary of the struggle and the temperature of the lower 
portions of the city. 

As far back as 1790 Thomas Cumming established his 
home on the Hill and owned a considerable portion of its 
present area. He built a small home, which since has in- 
creased in size and changed in appearance, but it has been 
held in its original family, who for three or four generations 
have kept the Cumming estate. 

About the same time John Milledge, who was Governor 
of Georgia, likewise moved to the Hill and established him- 
self in what was known for many generations as the "Mill- 
edge Place." It also was a small house, and being on the 
eastern brow of the Hill, overlooked the Savannah Valley, 
in which, in all probablity, John Milledge had his own farm 
lands. There John Milledge lived for many years in his 


old age, and it was at this place he died and from this place 
was carried to the little cemetery, which then was far back 
on the Hill, but which now is practically the center of its 

John Milledge was one of the notable men of the 
Revolution. He was Governor of Georgia in 1802. For 
him Milledgeville is named, and with him is closely asso- 
ciated the early history of our State. Near him located 
about 1810 James Gardner, and, later on, Thomas Gardner, 
John Howard and Hugh Nesbit — all of them not far from 
the Cumming home. These families seem to have made the 
original unit of which Summerville was composed, cluster- 
ing together on the eastern slope of the Hill ; and back of 
them, through the woods, trails, paths and sandy roads led 
into the interior. In all probability this group of men first 
called the village by its name of Summerville, since it afford- 
ed unusual advantages for summer residence. The approach 
to this group of residences was through what is known now 
as "Battle Row." 

The original name of Battle Row may have been Battle 
Road, and it is certain that on this road occurred some of 
the battles of the Revolutionary War, since on it is the 
famous White House, at which certain atrocities of the 
Tories during the siege of Augusta were committed. At any 
rate the name of Battle Row has adhered to this particular 
road for so many years, and its origin is so obscure, that no 
one now seems to know why it was so named. There is an 
intimation on the part of some of the old citizens that it 
was the scene of many turbulent conflicts between the origi- 
nal settlers on the outskirts of the city, who were workers 
in small mills and industries of various sorts and who would 
waylay travelers passing in that direction from time to time 
and hand-to-hand conflicts would occur which in themselves 
were sufficient to give the name to the road. At any rate 
Battle Row was the only approach to the Hill for many years. 

Near the Cumming estate there stood an old house 
which was not much more than a barn but which grew into 
a small store and also into a school. It seems that a certain 
Mr. Sandwich, who called himself Lord Sandwich (though 
nobody knows why), opened up a store and began a school 
at this place. He called it Mount Salubrity Academy. He 
had a few pupils coming from the farms nearby, as well as 
the children of the residents of the Hill, and he put up a 
rather conspicuous sign at the crossroads, which sign can 
be remembered at the present day by the older inhabitants 
of the Hill. 


The Hill is now approached by a much larger and more 
pretentious highway, and trolley cars and automobiles find 
their way to the thickly populated portions. In the early 
history of Summerville this road was not more than a path 
lying through swamps, and was by no means passable for 
vehicles. Later on, when the United States Arsenal was 
located on the Hill, about 1832, this pathway through the 
swamps was widened and covered with planks, and for many 
years was known as the "Plank Road" to the Hill. A toll 
gate at both ends of the Plank Road demanded passage fees 
of all travelers. It was only in late years that this plank 
road was abandoned and a graded road was made that was 
suitable for the passage of more pretentious ways of trans- 
portation. At the site of what is now the Bon Air Hotel 
there was merely a bluff that was inaccessible to vehicles 
but which could be scaled by adventurous riders, and there 
are several old residents of the Hill to-day who speak of the 
perils of approaching town from the ^top of the Hill by the 
old Plank Road. 

Early in the century John Forsyth came and joined the 
group of residents, and built a small house near the Cum- 
ming estate, which even at this date is known as the "J onn 
Forsyth House." John Forsyth was one of the great orators 
and statesmen of Georgia. He was an eminent lawyer, one 
time Governor of the State, and was the representative of the 
United States at the court of Spain in 1819, where his per- 
suasive eloquence succeeded in securing from the Spanish 
Government the cession of the territory of Florida. As many 
others of these houses, the Forsyth house has since been 
changed and added to, but there is a tradition among the 
present owners of the house that at least one room of it 
still remains as originally built, in which room Lafayette 
was entertained upon his visit to Augusta in 1825. 

Next to the old John Forsyth house is the Terrett home, 
that once in its history was the winter residence of Mr. Taft, 
who occupied it during the season preceding his inaugura- 
tion as President of the United States. The only other Gov- 
ernor of Georgia who had a home on the Hill was Charles J. 
Jenkins, who lived there for many years after he became 
Governor, and who died and was buried from his residence 
there. He was Governor during the reconstruction period, 
and administered the affairs of the state during the most 
trying times. It will be remembered that when he was de- 
posed from office he took the seal of the Executive 
Department of the State and the State's funds with 
him when he retired to Halifax. When the State 
was reconstructed and Gov. Jenkins returned to Geor- 


gia, he restored the seal and the State money to the 
proper authorities, saying that he was glad that the 
seal of State had never been desecrated by a usurper's hand. 
He was granted a medal by the State of Georgia, on which 
was inscribed "In arduis Udells!' These words are inscribed 
upon his tombstone in the little cemetery on the Hill 
where he was buried. His home has passed into the hands of 
a winter resident, and is now one of the most beautiful 
places in the village. 

Richard Henry Wilde also lived on the Hill in the early 
part of the last century in a very small cottage which has 
been preserved almost entirely, but which was moved from 
its original location to an adjoining lot. Here Richard 
Henry Wilde lived and wrote some of his sweetest verses. 
He will be long remembered as the author of that sad but 
beautiful lament known as "My life is like the summer rose." 
He practiced law, but was ever more fond of literature than 
he was of the legal profession. He spent many years in 
Italy, studying the life of Tasso, and became an eminent 
authority on that Italian poet. There is a tradition that in 
his studies in Florence he became interested in the frescoes 
of the Bargello, and that his studies led him to believe that 
a portrait of Dante was concealed behind certain frescoes. 
Obtaining authority to remove the frescoes, he uncovered 
a portrait of Dante which is now accepted as the authorita- 
tive likeness of that great poet. In the rear of the Wilde 
home was his own little cemetery, in which his family were 
buried. On the tombstone of one of his children, I find the 
following epitaph : 

"Love, hope and pride lament thee — lost too soon — 
Yet even our very grief with every breath 
Confesses length of days is misery and the boon 
Heaven sends its favorites, an early death." 

Wilde himself was buried in the rear of his cottage and 
his grave remained there for many years. Subsequently 
his remains were removed to the larger cemetery in Augusta 
and are buried near that other great poet, Paul Hamilton 

The United States Arsenal was located on the Hill in 
1832. It is quite a large though not a very pretentious ar- 
senal, and for many years it has been the headquarters of 
the Ordnance Department of the South Atlantic States. It 
came into public notice in .1861, when Governor Brown came 
to Augusta to demand its surrender by the United States 
Government, when Georgia seceded from the Union. The 


ceremony of this surrender was very simple. There was 
no parade and no opposition. The demand for its surrender 
was made, and after a few preliminary exchanges of cour- 
teous notes, and without any violence whatsoever, a com- 
mittee of citizens accompanied the Governor in the formal 
ceremony of lowering the United States flag and raising the 
flag of Georgia. The post, of course, was untenable by the 
United States Government at that time, and its taking over 
was a simple matter for the State authorities. 

'Back of the arsenal is what is known as the "Madame 
LeVert House." Mme. LeVert was a granddaughter of 
George Walton, signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
She married Dr. LeVert, of Mobile, Alabama, and after his 
death moved to the Hill to live. She was a famous woman in 
her time — a traveler and author, who wrote the "Souvenirs 
of Travel," a book that is charming in its recital of everyday 
affairs in Europe. " 

Another one of the old historic spots on the Hill is what 
is known as the home of Alfred Cumming, another distin- 
guished member of the Cumming family who, as a soldier in 
the War of 1812, came to the attention of the United States 
authorities. When Utah was organized as a territory, Alfred 
Cumming was appointed Governor, thereby acquiring a title 
which has always attached to his name. After his term of 
office expired, he moved to the Hill, where he lived at the 
time of his death. The Governor was quite a large man, 
weighing something near 400 pounds. In front of his home 
there was a bench of very ample proportions and of consider- 
able strength, on which the Governor would sit waiting for 
his carriage to convey him to the city. This bench became 
known as "The Governor's Seat," and remained so for many 
years after his death. 

Further up on the Hill was an old house known as the 
"Smyser Home." Mr. Smyser came to Augusta from 
Charleston, and bought a tract of land upon which he built 
a small but comfortable home. It was then on the out- 
skirts of the village but now it has been completely sur- 
rounded by the growth of the population. Upon the death of 
Mr. Smyser the place was purchased by the late Joseph R. 
Lamar, who was then a lawyer in Augusta, and who subse- 
quently became one of the Associate Justices of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. Judge Lamar improved 
the place considerably and it has become one of the notable 
places in the village. 

A few miles back of the Hill is an old farm-house where 
once lived the father of General Joseph W r heeler, of fame in 
the Confederate War and in the Spanish War, Here Gen- 



eral Wheeler was born and spent his boyhood as a farmer's 
son. The road leading into the village from the west is still 
known as "The Wheeler Road," because it led out to the 
Wheeler farm. 

The cemetery of the Hill was first intended to be be- 
yond the range of the ordinary resident, and was far back 
in the woods at the time it was located. Since its location, 
however, the village has grown up to it. It includes among 
the list of those buried there, a number who are notable in 
the history of the State. George W. Crawford was buried 
there in the family burying-ground, being brought from his 
home at Bel Air, about ten miles from Augusta ; Charles J. 
Jenkins and John Milledge are also buried in the small ceme- 
tery ; Charles C. Jones, Jr., who was a noted historian of the 
State, and whose residence was on the Hill, is likewise buried 
there. Among the others are C. Shaler Smith, who during 
the Civil War was the engineer in charge of construction of 
the powder works, and who has passed into history as the 
designer of the cantilever bridge ; also Prosper J. Berckmans, 
who was the leading horticulturist of America at the time 
of his death ; Joseph R. Lamar ; Judge Ebenezer Starnes, and 
others who have played important parts in the history of the 
nation and the community. 

The Village of Summerville is already one of the winter 
residence beauty spots of the South, but it has buried in it 
these historic reminiscences that make it most attractive to 
those who care to preserve the traditions of the old times. 
All of the old homes have changed, new roads have been 
opened, and the pleasure seeker at the Country Club and on 
the golf links are passing spots that have been noted in the 
history of Georgia for more than a hundred years. 

There are very few places in Georgia that have a longer 
history or a more notable one than this little village. It is 
indeed well in these times of progress and expense and ex- 
travagance to remember that the soil upon which we tread 
is saturated with the traditions of all these years and that 
the flavor of by-gone times lingers around the places where 
we live and have our pleasures. The influence of these tra- 
ditions is plainly felt by those who live permanently in the 
village, and there are those of us who like to point out the 
places where things happened many years ago, and still love 
to show the homes where the notable men of our state lived 
and reared their families. 

In these hurryinp- times, when streets are changed and 

large hotels are built, gardens are opened, and fortunes are 

spent in making beautiful homes, we still cry back to the past 

times when these spots were made notable and sacred by 


the tradition of men who labored in the interest of the public 
cause rather than spent their time in seeking extravagant 


The letters herewith presented are only a small portion 
of the correspondence of Governor Telfair, and are taken 
from a manuscript volume in the possession of the Georgia 
Historical Society which contains also some letters of 
Governor Samuel Elbert, whom Mr. Telfair succeeded. 

Reference is made to the important subject of the bound- 
ary between Georgia and South Carolina — a subject upon 
which much has been written, and which has not by any 
means been clearly understood. The most intelligent and 
reasonable discussion of the question that we have seen is 
contained in an opinion given by the Hon. George Hillyer, 
in the year 1915, in the case of the State of Georgia versus 
the Georgia Railway and Power Company. Mr. Hillyer has 
very kindly consented to the request of the editor to let it 
be reproduced in the Quarterly, to follow the letters of 
Governor Telfair, and we are sure our readers will be glad 
to be so highly favored. 

Copy of Letters in the year 1786: 

To the Honorable the Board of Treasury : 

Augusta, 14th January, 1786. 
Gentlemen : 

The Legislature have received and acknowledged Job 
Sumner, Esquire, as Commissioner of Accounts for this 
State, and have required that I notify the same to your 
Honorable Board. I am Gentlemen, 

Your most Hble. serv't, 

E. T. 

Joseph Clay, Esq., 

In Council, 16th February, 1786. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Executive hereunto annex- 
ed you will please to deliver in charge of Mr. James Pearre 


a certain Box or case with Books and other Papers said to 
be in your care ; the said Box or case having been forwarded 
to the State by Noble Wimberly Jones, Esquire. 

I am sir, 

E. T. 

To His Excellency William Moultrie, Esq., 
Governor of South Carolina, 

Augusta, 30th March, 1786. 

I had the honor of receiving your Excellency's letter of 
the 24th instant regarding the boundaries between the States 
of South Carolina and Georgia and observe with peculiar 
pleasure the amicable and friendly disposition in your State 
towards the adjustment thereof. 

In support of an equality of disposition towards the 
important event in the State, in which I now have the honor 
to preside, I beg leave to call your exellency's attention 
to a communication made by the Executive in the year 1784 
to his excellency the Governor Guerard. 

In Consequence of the delay on the part of the State of 
South Carolina by their Commissioners, to appoint the 
time and place to meet the agents of this State to proceed on 
the objects contained in your Communication, The Legis- 
lature at their last meeting passed an act and therein ap- 
pointed agents to proceed according to the form pointed out 
by the Confederation and perpetual Union of the United 
States ; upon taking a view of this Act, I find the Executive 
have no power to enter into any negotiations or to proceed 
in any other way except the one pointed out as aforesaid. 
I have the honor to be, 

Your Excellency's obt. serv't. 

E. T. 

His Excellency John Hancock, Esquire, 
President of Congress. 

State of Georgia, Augusta, April 4th, 1786. 

I had a communication made by the Secretary of Con- 
gress dated the 23rd November last passed announcing your 
Excellency being elected President. 

On this event permit me, Sir, to congratulate you and 
the United States in Congress assembled. The Legislature 


of this State during the last session passed Acts touching 
the federal Requisitions of that extent and magnitude that 
will doubtless give energy to the federal Union. They will 
be presented to your Excellency by the State Delegates and 
I have caused the necessary form of office to be annexed 
to them. 

The requisitions of Congress of the 30th April, 1784, 
respecting the situation of Commerce I have reason to con- 
clude will be an object of the General Assembly of this State 
in July next and I flatter myself with the expectations of the 
Legislature pursuing such measures and vesting such powers 
in the United States in Congress Assembled as may be com- 
petent to the protection of Commerce, and Ultimately to the 
Establishment of a Navy, greatest Bulwark of National 
safety. I have the honor to be, 

Your excellency's serv't, 

E. T. 

To Charles Thomson, Esquire, 
Secretary of Congress. 

State of Georgia, Augusta, April 4th, 1786. 

On the 9th day of February I received dispatches from 
your Office of the 23rd November & 3rd of December which 
were laid before the General Assembly by way of informa- 
tion. And since their recess on the 30th, ulto., I also receiv- 
ed dispatches of the 3rd & 12th of January— 1st, 15th, & 28th 
of February & the 1st & 4th of March all last passed, which 
said Communications shall also be laid before the Legisla- 
ture when met. 

I am Sir, your most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 

Honorable Samuel Osgood & Walter Livingston, Esquires, 
Board of Treasury. 

State of Georgia, Augusta, April 4th, 1786. 
Gentlemen : 

I received on the 30th, ultimo, dispatches from your 
Board, dated the 16th, 26th & 31st October, the 3rd & 17th 
December last passed the receipt of which I now have the 
honor to acknowledge, & shall in due course, cause the same 
to be laid before the Legislature when met. It affords me 
pleasure to observe that the Acts passed by the General As- 
sembly of this State, during their last Session will give great 


stability to the federal funds & in addition to this, certain 
funds are appropriated toward the payment of arrears which 
will in course he notified to you by the proper Officer as soon 
as they can be fully ascertained. 

I believe this State is not singular in the derangement of 
her finances, at the same time I flatter myself they will soon 
be in a better train. 

I find there are some part of the expenditure and ad- 
vances made by the Citizens of this state in the Quarter 
Master, Clothier, & Medical Departments, that the Com- 
missioner of Accounts for this State do not conceive himself 
fully authorized to take up & liquidate. Upon this Subject 
I beg leave to remark that the State & United States have at 
various times made advances to the late Officers acting* in 
these departments in this State, in as much as having nearly 
closed the same, & from what I can understand their vouch- 
ers & Accounts are chiefly ready for a final settlement. 

I can point out no mode except the heads of the afore- 
said departments are, or may be vested with power to trans- 
mit the respective advances to the State Commissioners with 
the regulations in such cases. At which time he will be 
furnished with the respective State advances. By this mode 
of procedure matters would be brought to a speedy issue. 

Any assistance or information the Executive can afford 
the State Commissioners will at all times be had. Without 
some similar regulations to what I have now pointed out be 
adopted, I see no prospect of drawing this busines to a con- 

I have the honor to be your most obt. 

E. T. 

The Honorable John Jay, Esquire, 
Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 

New York. 

State of Georgia, Augusta, April 4th, 1786. 

Your dispatches of the 14th Oct., & 10th Jan. last passed 
came to hand the 30th, ult. The information contained in 
the former Communication is of that consequence that ap- 
pears to have engaged the attention of Congress and may 
lead to some speedy adoption of federal & ultimately re- 
spective States operations. Upon this subject & its progress 
I make no doubt of being fully informed. 

I have the honor to be your most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 


His Excellency The Governor of Virginia. 

Augusta, Georgia, 27th May 1786. 

The Commonwealth in which your Excellency presides, 
having on all occasions displayed every ratiocination to any 
of her sister States when required, have induced the 
Executive of this State to enter into the inclosed order upon 
which the present communication is founded. 

The savage depredations that have of late taken place 
on our Western Frontier and the want of a sufficient supply 
of Arms, etc., to give full energy to defensive measures, I 
hope will plead a forcible excuse for the liberty taken on the 
present occasion. 

I have the honor to be your most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 

Mr. Robert Dixon, 

May 27th, 1786. 

You'll proceed with all convenient speed to the County 
of Charlotte in the Commonwealth of Virginia & there take 
into your care and possession the arms, etc., belonging to 
this State in the hands of any person or persons in whose 
care the same may be, and procure such transportation as 
may be necessary for the safe conveyance of the said arms, 
etc., to this place & immediately thereafter to the City of 
Richmond with the Dispatches for his Excellency Governor 
Henry, and in case of a supply of Arms, etc., by way of Loan 
from that State you are to take immediate order for trans- 
portation of the same to the place aforesaid. 

Your most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 

To His Excellency William Moultrie, Esquire, 
Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

Augusta, May 30th, 1786. 

I do myself the honor to transmit to your Excellency 
the application of the Executive of this day for the loan of 
Arms, etc. The savage depredations that have of late taken 
place on the Western frontiers of this State, and the want 
of a Sufficient number of Arms for defensive measures will 
I trust, plead a sufficient excuse for the requisition now 


It will afford me pleasure to be favored with a speedy 
reply on the premises. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

E. T. 

Honorable William Houstoun & Wm. Few, Esquires, 
Agents at N. Y. 

Augusta, Georgia, 18th August, 1786. 
Gentlemen : 

The Legislature of this State during the late Session 
appointed General Lachlan Mcintosh, John Houstoun, and 
Joseph Clay, Esquires, Commissioners to treat with the 
Commissioners appointed by the State of South Carolina in 
order to endeavour at an amicable Settlement of dispute 
with this State and the State of South Carolina respecting 
boundary, and to this end have required that you co-operate 
with the agents of the State of South Carolina to adjourn 
the Federal Court until some time in the Spring to give 
time for an accommodation if such can be procured. 

I am Gentlemen, 

Your most obt. Serv't, 

E. T. 

His Excellency Wm. Moultrie, Esq., 

Augusta, Ga., 18th August, 1786. 

I have the pleasure to inform your Excellency that the 
Legislature of this State at their late meeting entered into 
certain resolutions to endeavor at an amicable settlement 
and adjustment of the dispute respecting Boundary between 
this State and the State of South Carolina, and to that end 
have appointed General Lachlan Mcintosh, John Houstoun 
and Joseph Clay, Esquires, Commissioners to treat with 
Commissioners appointed by the State in which you preside. 
In order to facilitate this measure I have wrote to the 
Agents of this State to co-operate with the Agents of South 
Carolina to adjourn the Federal Court until some time in 
the Spring to give time for an accommodation if such can be 

I make no doubt of your Excellency's making the neces- 
sary communication to the agents of South Carolina on this 
subject and also giving me early information of the result. 
I have the honor to be, 

Sir, your Excellency's most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 


Messrs. William Houstoun & William Few, Esquires. 

Augusta, Ga., 20th August, 1786. ' 
Gentlemen : 

The pacifick disposition of this State towards the nu- 
merous Tribes of Indians residing to the West, has at all 
times been fully evinced by the peculiar attention paid by 
the Legislature towards them, in the appointment of Com- 
missioners at various times to treat on principles of amity, 
and by opening a free trade and otherwise maintaining inter- 
course and good understanding with them. Which measures 
have proved effectual with the respective Tribes and nations 
until some time in May last, when several parties of Creek 
Indians marched to the frontier Settlement, and committed 
murders and Depredations on the persons and property of 
Citizens of this State which caused much alarm and distress 
to the frontier's Settlers. This conduct on their part caused 
every exertion to- take place on the part of the State towards 

The Legislature during the late session appointed Com- 
missioners to treat with the Creek Nation, and they have 
sent a Talk tending to the re-establishment of peace, and 
have also made conditional provision in case they decline 
a meeting with the Commissioners, and should evince they 
intend an hostile invasion or meditate a War against the 
white people of this State. 

After having reference to the different Communications 
and other documents herewith transmitted, I flatter myself 
the conduct of this State will meet the approbation of Con- 
gress and through you Gentlemen I have now to solicit 
the immediate aid and attention of that Honorable Body 
towards this State. 

I have the honor to be Your most obt. serv't, 

E. T. 

Messrs. Robert Dixon & Stephen Jett, Esqs. 

Augusta, Ga., Feb. 27th, 1786. 
Gentlemen : 

The Commission with which you are now furnished is 
founded on a Resolution of the General Assembly of the 8th 
inst. By having reference to it, the duties required of you 
will more fully appear. I have to require that you at all 
times and on all occasions use every means in your power 
to cultivate the good and friendly disposition of the Choc- 
taw and Chickesaw Indians and to make them otherwise 


useful to this State in the event of war with the Creek Indians 
and that you also explain to the people residing on the 
Holstien Notechuckey, and Wataga Settlements the Views 
and designs of this State in demanding Satisfaction of the 
Creek Nation and the great probability there is of Vigorous 
operations being carried on against the said Indians. 

On this subject I have wrote to the Honorable Mr. 
Sevier and notified that about the first of November in case 
of need the movements on the part of this State will take 

I must now require of you Gentlemen full information 
and correspondence on the premises committed to your care. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

E. T. 

Note — Commissioner to the Choctaw and Chickesaw 
nations and to explain to the Settlements of Holstien, Note- 
chuckey, and Wataga, the motives of this State with regard 
to the Creek Indians. 

Honorable John Sevier, Esq. 

Augusta, Ga., 27th August, 1786. 

I received your letter of the 14th of May last, and would 
have made reply to it sooner if the circumstances of the 
case would have admitted thereof. The Legislature were 
near their time of meeting on the receipt of it, and their de- 
liberations were necessary in order to form some criterion 
whereby I might reduce my communication to some certain 

The General Assembly of this state among other things 
took under their consideration that district of Territory 
on the Tennessee and after deliberating some time thereon 
postponed the Consideration of it until January, by which 
you will readily perceive that no immediate order can be 
given or taken on that head. 

The Creek Indians have committed murders and depre- 
dations on the persons and property of Citizens of this State, 
which have caused the Legislature to adopt measures for 
the better security thereof. It has been the policy and 
peculiar object of this State to cultivate amity with the re- 
spective Nations and Tribes of Indians residing to the West- 
ward and moreover to evince a pacifick disposition on her 
part. The General Assembly have appointed Commission- 
ers to meet the 15th of October next, for the purpose of 


negotiating a peace with the Creek Nation, on failure of 
which this State will carry on immediate and vigorous 
operation against the said Indians. 

It being suggested that you intend to march a body of 
men against the Creek Indians, I flatter myself it will tend 
greatly to the success of both armies to begin their move- 
ments at one and the same time, should it become necessary; 
which said movements will take effect in this State about 
the first day of November next. On this subject I have to 
solicit your immediate answer and determination. I have 
also to inform you that Robert Dixon, and Stephen Jett, 
Esq'rs, are appointed Commissioners on the part of this 
State to communicate the result of any conference that may 
come within their department and are competent to give 
you additional information. 

I am sir, 

Benjamin James, Esq., 

Agent Choctaw Nation. 

Augusta, Ga., 27th August, 1786. 

I have the pleasure to transmit your commission as 
agent of the Choctaw Nation, and at the same time to inform 
you that the Legislature have revoked and made null and 
void the powers granted to John Wood to act in that office. 

It affords me pleasure to be informed of your abilities 
and great influence in the aforesaid Nation, by which means 
I am hopeful your well directed exertions may terminate 
favorable to the present views and designs of this State. 

The Legislature in consequence of murders and depre- 
dations committed by the Creek Indians have directed 
fifteen hundred men to be embodied immediately to attend 
Commissioners appointed to treat with the Creek nation, 
and to demand satisfaction, and assurance of peace, and 
thereafter should it become necessary the aforesaid men are 
to be joined by another body to carry immediate and vigor- 
ous operations against the said Indians. 

The intended bodies of men in case of need will be in 
readinesss to march about the first week in November next. 
I have desisted from entering into a minute detail of this 
business in the talk herewith sent. On a presumption it will 
be more expedient that you in conjunction with Robert 
Dixon and Stephen Jett, Esquires, make such communica- 
tion to the head men and warriors of that nation on this 


subject, as you may deem best calculated to cultivate the 
good and friendly disposition of that nation, and to make 
them otherwise useful to this State. In the event of War with 
the Creek Nation I shall look forward to making a supply of 
ammunition for the service of Choctaws ; in case you give 
me full assurance, that the force of such supply will be di- 
rected to the proper object. 

I am sir, 

E. T. 

Joseph Martin, Esq., 

Agent of the Cherokee and Chickesaw Nation. 

Augusta, Ga., August 27th, 1786. 

I received your letter of the 14th of May and have here- 
with transmitted a talk you are without delay to give the 
Chickesaw Nation and also such part of it as may be appli- 
cable to the Cherokee Indians, and you are at this conjunc- 
ture to use every means in your power, to cultivate the good 
and friendly disposition of the aforesaid Tribes and nations 
of Indians and also to keep two or three spies continually 
in the Creek Nation with proper runners, taking special care 
to transmit every information you may receive touching 
their movement or hostile preparation. You will also use 
every address in your power to engage the Tribes of Indians 
in your department to render services to this State in case 
of war with the Creek Nation. Fifteen hundred men are 
embodying & to take post at Shoulder Bone near the Oconee 
about the 15th of October and Commissioners are appointed 
to attend at that time and place to demand satisfaction of 
the Creek Nation and in case of non-compliance the afore- 
said men are to be joined with another body of men to carry 
on immediate and vigorous operations against the said 

I am Sir, Your most obt. Serv't, 

E. T. 

William Davenport, Esq., 

Commissary Choctaw Nation. 

Augusta, Ga., 27th August, 1786. 

The General Assembly during their late session appoint- 
ed you Commissary of the Choctaw Nation with a salary of 
twenty-five pounds Sterling, in pursuance of which you'll 
receive your commission. 


I have now to give you in special charge to cultivate the 
good and friendly disposition of the said nation in behalf of 
this State and to use every prudent measure to render them 
beneficial in case of open hostilities with the Creek Nation. 

I shall on this subject refer you to Robert Dixon, and 
Stephen Jett, Esquires, Commissioners of this State in that 
department, and also to Benjamin James, Esq., Agent in the 
aforesaid Nation. I am sir, 

E. T. 

John Habersham, Esq., 

Chairman of the Board of Commissioners for Treating 
with the Creek Indians. 
Sir: Augusta, 4th Sept., 1786. 

You have herewith transmitted copies of two letters I 
have just received from Mr. Barnard by which you will 
observe a moment is not to be lost in making the necessary 
opposition to repel the hostile attacks of the Creeks which 
we have every reason to conclude will take place before 
many weeks, in short if they are determined on war which 
I see no reason to doubt, the event of a renewal of hostilities 
may be every day expected. In the present situation of 
affairs I must call your immediate attendance with the Gen- 
tlemen of your board that council and deliberation at this 
important period may take place in order that one uniform 
system may prevail. The Executive have appropriated the 
sum of two thousand pounds, Sterling, towards the purchase 
of Arms, Ammunition, etc. The net proceeds of this sum 
will prove inadequate to the present emergency. I must 
therefore lay before your Honorable board the necessity of 
recommending me to draw on the Treasury for a sum ade- 
quate to the purchase of one thousand Swords, four field 
pieces and five hundred Stand of arms in addition to the 
quantity already ordered. The Executive lament at this criti- 
cal conjuncture, the restraint laid on the executive powers, in 
which the common safety of the people are so immediately 
interested, and at a period when the pointed exertions 
of a few days being delayed may endanger the public safety. 

I am sir, 

E. T. 

Brigadier General John Twiggs. 

Augusta, 11th Oct., 1786. 

The detachment of fifteen hundred men ordered by the 
Executive to attend the Commissioners appointed to treat 


with the Creek Indians you are (in conformity to the express 
order of the Executive) to take under your Command, and 
in all cases touching the disposition or arrangement of the 
aforesaid force to be subject to the orders and Commands 
of the said Commissioners or a Majority of them, so far 
as shall relate to the said Indians. You are in addition 
thereto to cause such other restrictions and give such orders 
to such officers and men as may be in actual service as in your 
opinion will tend to good order, and as shall have a tendency 
to carry into execution the views and designs of the Com- 
missioners so far as shall be conformable to the will and de- 
cree of the Legislature, all of which you are to consider as 
standing Orders until otherwise directed by me or some 
other Superior Officer. I am Sir, 

E. T. 

Brigadier General Elijah Clarke. 

Augusta, 12th October, 1786. 

I received your letters of the •7th & 8th inst. A small 
Quantity of Arms and Ammunition is arrived and more daily 
expected which will be deposited in the hands of the Quarter 
Master General, subject to the Warrant of the Command- 
ing Officers. The arrangements are fully completed by the 
appointment of a Commandant of Horse Commission Gen- 
eral of Issues, Pay Master General and Inspector General. 
I am Sir, your most obt. serv't., 

E. T. 

The Hon'ble Wm. Few, Esq. 

Augusta, 19th Oct., 1786. 

I received a letter from the delegation which was laid 
before the Legislature and an order issued on Mr. Berrien 
to take up the draft on him. I must observe that the Collec- 
tor's office at Sav., has been the only productive fund for 
specie, which now expires by Virtue of an Act for the 
Emission of a paper currency. This circumstance with partial 
drafts for supplies of Ammunition, etc., in times of extreme 


danger and also by means of drafts made thereon by the 
late assembly will effectually preclude every hope of aid 
from that channel. 

Mr. Houstoun's term will soon expire, from which I con- 
clude the provision made by the Executive will prove 
adequate to his time of Service. 

In order to give support to the Delegation Federal 
Court, and to aid the requisitions of Congress the Legis- 
lature have appropriated the sum of 12,000 Lbs., Sterling, out 
of the non emission towards the purchase of produce in 
order more fully to enable the Agents appointed to remit 
to New York — a part of this sum will be in their hands in a 
few days out of which the Executive have directed the sum 
of 233.6.8 Lbs. to be remitted you. 

The Creeks have not as yet renewed hostilities and it is 
said are now about to treat. The Commissioners appointed 
to negotiate this business have repaired to Oconee River 
where a detachment of 1500 men are ordered to attend. The 
progress and event of this meeting will be determined in a 
few weeks, after which you shall be furnished with a detail 
of the proceedings. This unfortunate outrage on their part 
have been the cause of a very considerable expenditure, 
which can only be obviated in future by the peace having 
such coercive checks as will compel them to abide by it. In 
support of your opinion on the subject of the Post coming di- 
rectly to this place, I inclose an Order of the Executive 
founded on the detention of Government dispatches at Sa- 
vannah for many Months. I think your proposition in this 
head cannot fail of success, when taking into View the 
propriety of all communications on the part of the federal 
Government going directly to the place of residence and Seat 
of Government within the respective States, while System 
must give way to partial accommodations our Government 
can never be placed on the true basis of public Utility. I am 
perfectly Satisfied with the mode pursued by the Agents on 
the part of the State that respects the Federal Court, the 
period of decision being distant will afford sufficient time 
for the Commissioners to confer on the part of the States, 
and also for the Legislature to accommodate if they see fit. 
Even in that case the necessarv forms of the Federal Court 
will be requisite to make the measure conclusive. 

I am, Sir, Yours, 

E. T. 


Honorable John Habersham, 

Chairman of the Board of Commissioners appointed to 
Treat with the Creek Nation. 

October 20th, 1786. 

The Executive since your departure have received 
sundry dispatches relating to the Creek Indians, extracts of 
which have been directed to be made out and are herewith 
transmitted for the information of your honorable Board. 

E. T. 

The Honorable Duplissis, 

Brigadier General of His Most Christian Majesty's 
Armies and late Governor of Saint Vincent, Effing- 
ham County. 

Augusta, 19th October, 1786. 

I have been favored with your letter of the 8th inst., in- 
forming of your arrival and your intention of making this 
State your seat of residence. It affords me peculiar pleasure 
to congratulate you on the occasion in full expectations that 
the system You have adopted will prove beneficial. It is my 
wish your example may be followed by Gentlemen of rank 
and distinction from the Nation that went hand in hand 
with us in the arduous struggles of a long complicated war 
and fixed an early standard as the friend and Ally of the 
American republics. 

The Executive have taken under consideration that 
part of your letter that respects the duties paid in Savannah 
on stores and provisions for your own use and have entered 
into an Order thereon that affords me pleasure to transmit 

I have at the same time to acknowledge the receipt of a 
letter from Major General Elbert and also one from Mons. 
Sibly, Consul of France at Charleston, by which Sir, together 
with your polite address to me, I have full evidence of your 
Rank, Merit and abilities, and during the period, I am in 
Office, it will afford me pleasure to make any communication 
of a public nature that may contribute to your ease and Satis- 
faction. I have the honor to be, yours, Sir, 

E. T. 






POWER CO. 1913-1914. AWARD September 17, 1915. 

Opinion by George Hillyer, Arbitrator. 

The controversy in this case turns mainly on the proper 
location of the boundary between the States of Georgia and 
South Carolina. There is no doubt that in the ordinary 
reaches of the river where no island or islands exist, the 
current or main thread of the channel of the Savannah 
River is the boundary between the two States. This was 
so held in the case of Simpson vs. the State, 92 Georgia 41 ; 
and in the case of James vs. the State, 10th Appeals 
Reports, page 13. Both of these were criminal cases where 
a fight had occurred at or near or crossing the boundary ; one 
of them occurred on a bridge connecting the two States. 
But in both these cases the question was uncomplicated by 
the presence or existence of any island or islands at the locali- 
ties in question. 

According to both these decisions and very obviously 
the question is to be determined by reference to the treaty 
of Beaufort, dated April 28, 1787, afterwards ratified by the 
Legislature of the State of Georgia, and presumably South 
Carolina also. The Code of 1861, Section 18, provides that 
the line between Georgia and South Carolina shall con- 
form "as much as possible to the line agreed on by the 
Commissioners of said States at Beaufort on the 28th day 
of April, 1787." This language is repeated in every re- 
vision of the Code down to and including the Code of 1911, 
Section 17. 

In order to construe the convention or treaty of Beau- 
fort properly, we look, of course, to the law, as it stood prior 
to that time and the conditions with which that Convention 
dealt. The Legislature of Georgia passed an act in 1783, — 
see Watkins Digest, page 749, which was five years before 
the treaty of Beaufort, in which it was recited that the 
"limits, boundaries, jurisdictions and authority of the State 
of Georgia had and did and of right ought to extend from 
the mouth of the river Savannah along the North side 
thereof and up the most Northern stream or fork of said 
river to its head source," 



The Treaty of Beaufort, — Watkins Digest, page 754, — 
dealt with two phases of the controversy between Georgia 
and South Carolina. One was the boundary between the 
two States ; the other was the navigation of the river Savan- 
nah from its mouth clear up to the head of the Tugalo, so 
as to make such navigation advantageous and absolutely 
free of tolls, duty, or interference of any kind by one State 
with the inhabitants of the other. Article first of the treaty 
of Beaufort deals with the boundary, and this section pro- 
vides, — leaving out surplus words relating to other mat- 
ters, — "that the most Northern branch or stream of the river 
Savannah from the sea or mouth of such stream to the fork 
or confluence of the rivers now called Tugalo and Keowee, — 
reserving all the islands in the said rivers Savannah and 
Tugalo to Georgia * * * * * * * * * * * * 
shall forever hereafter form the separation limit and bound- 
ary between the States of South Carolina and Georgia." 
Article second of said treaty of Beaufort, which relates to 
the other subject, provides as follows: 

"The NAVIGATION (capitals mine) of the river Sa- 
vannah at and from the bar and mouth along the North-east 
side of Cockspur Island and up the direct course of the main 
Northern channel along the Northern side of Hutchinson's 
Island and from thence up the bed or principal stream of the 
said river to the confluence of the rivers Tugalo and Keowee, 
and from the confluence up the channel of the most Northern 
stream of the Tugalo River to its source and back again by 
the same channel to the Atlantic Ocean, is declared to be 
henceforth equally free to the citizens of both States, and 
free from duties, tolls, hindrances, interruptions, etc., at- 
tempted to be enforced by one State on the citizens of the 
other ; and all the rest of the river Savannah to the 
Southward of the foregoing description is acknowledged 
to be the exclusive right of the State of Georgia." 

So we observe that the boundary line is the most North- 
ern branch or stream of said river ; but so run as that it shall 
reserve all of the islands in the river to Georgia ; but the line 
of navigation is the principal stream of said river. Obviously, 
if the intention had been that the right of navigation shall 
follow the boundary of the State there would have been no 
necessity for this second paragraph treating the boundary 
line as one thing and the channel of navigation as another 
thing. It would have been easy to say, if such had been the 
intention, that the right of navigation along said boundary 
shall be open and free. But the framers of the treaty 
of Beaufort knew that the channel would run sometimes on 
one side of the boundary line and sometimes on the other; 


and therefore it was necessary to draw two sections, one 
denning the route or channel of navigation and the other 
defining the boundary, which would sometimes run along a 
stream of the river too small or shallow for navigation ; and 
so the framers of that treaty met the difficulty by inserting 
the two separate articles in the treaty to cover the problem 
in each of these respects separately. In the one case when 
dealing with the question of navigation the language is 
"along the bed or principal stream" of the river "and back 
again by the same channel." But when dealing with the 
boundary, the language is "the most Northern branch or 
stream of said river." In the present instance there are 
islands at the locality in controversy. The concrete or 
masonry dam about 14 ft. high stretches across the river 
from the Georgia side with its Northern or Eastern end 
actually touching or almost touching the upper end or point 
of an island, which island is about 35 or 40 feet from the 
South Carolina shore. There was always a current or 
stream of the river running down between said island 
and the South Carolina shore, just as called for in 
the boundary description contained in the treaty of 
Beaufort. There are several islands in the river im- 
mediately above and below the dam. The principal stream 
of the river as it formerly existed before any dam was built 
threaded its way among these islands sometimes on the 
Georgia side and sometimes on the Carolina side as to them. 
It is a matter of proof that pole boat navigation up and down 
the river was in old times a matter of very great practical 
importance. It is not strange that the right of such naviga- 
tion should be carefully considered by the Commissioners in 
1787 ; in this case the proof is by some witnesses living in 
that locality that the boat landings and channel formerly 
used by the boats conformed to the principles here recog- 
nized by following the main channel, no matter on which 
side of the island the main channel might happen to be. 

To my mind it is entirely clear that the Comptroller 
General is correct in having treated the stream of the river 
which separates the island here in question from South 
Carolina at the Eastern end of the dam as marking the true 
boundary between the two States at that particular locality ; 
and from thence bending or curving to the like stream of 
the next island or islands so as to take in the islands on the 
Georgia side, is absolutely correct. 

The Savannah is a noble river nearly 300 miles long; fed 
by pure mountain springs ; averaging 1000 feet wide from the 
locality here in question, down to the sea. There are very 
many islands in the Savannah River, — hundreds of them, 


and every island is involved in this question. Many of them, 
— possibly most of them, are located in shoaly parts and 
falls adapted for water power development ; and constantly 
growing in importance and value. It is very greatly to the 
public interest that the rights of the State and all concerned 
should be carefully preserved and the correct conclusion as 
to this particular phase of the question of boundary where 
an island or islands exist in the river, should be finally and 
authoritatively adjudicated. 

The convention or treaty of Beaufort in 1787 was framed 
by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Andrew Pickens, Pierce 
Butler, Jno. Habersham and Lachlan Mcintosh. They were 
very able men. When they took hold of the problem they had 
to deal with the line or boundary as already set forth by 
Georgia in the Act of 1783 above mentioned. That Act dealt 
with two elements of description ; — One to run "along the 
North side thereof" (the Savannah), and the other "up the 
most Northern stream or fork of the said river Savannah." 
The first gave the whole bed of the river ; islands and all, 
to Georgia, clear across to the South Carolina side. The 
other element of description in the Act of 1783 related to 
"forks" of the river; such for instance as the Broad in Geor- 
gia or the Seneca in South Carolina. The "fork" of a river 
is the same as the "branch" of a river. And accordingly the 
Beaufort Commission in 1787 used the word branch instead 
of fork ; but use the word stream in the same sense as it was 
used in the Act of 1783; just so as to run the boundary up 
every "stream" of the river Savannah that separates any 
island from South Carolina, and thereby aptly "reserving all 
the islands to Georgia." 

Any one in doubt as to the meaning or shades of mean- 
ing of the words or phrases in question by consulting the 
dictionary will see that the flowing body of water on either 
side of an island is very properly called a "stream ;" but that 
a "branch" of the river is a fork that flows into it. The only 
change made by the Beaufort Commission was that by plain 
meaning and construction they made the boundary run not 
along the north side as theretofore but along the current 
or main thread of the channel of the river where there are 
no islands or island : and extending or bending up or along 
the middle thread of every stream of the river which sepa- 
rates any island or islands from the South Carolina side. 

It is conceded by those holding the contrary view, that 
the island here specially in question (at the eastern end of 
the dam) as also every other island, belongs to Georgia. 
If this be so, then as to every other island similarly situated 
it is entirely surrounded by territory of the other State : and 


even though inhabited or very large, hundreds of acres per- 
haps ; or worth thousands for water power purposes, Georgia 
officers would have to go through South Carolina to serve 
process or enforce her laws. I submit with all due respect 
that the Beaufort Commissioners never perpetrated an 
absurdity like that; and that the conclusion here submitted 
is not only the "possible" but the obvious and reasonable 
Code, Section 17. 

There was no very serious dispute as to values and 
amounts. The arbitrators readily came together in agree- 
ing on the figures set forth in the assessment ; and comment 
on that feature in the award is not needed for understand- 
ing of the real dispute in the case as above set forth. 

Having made a careful investigation and study of the 
subject, I think it is my duty to place the reasons and con- 
clusions touching same on the record, as here set forth. 







POWER CO. 1913-1914. AWARD September 17, 1915. 

SupplementarOpinion by George Hillyer, Arbitrator. 

Since writing out the former opinion as to this contro- 
versy my attention has been called to a letter covering the 
subject of boundary between the States of Georgia and South 
Carolina, written by Governor Howell Cobb to the Governor 
of South Carolina in 1852, and which letter, though probably 
never printed, upon further inquiry I have ascertained is 
duly recorded in the volume of executive minutes for the 
year 1852, at page 389. I am having a copy of said letter 
prepared for the filing along with this supplemental opinion. 
This letter, like everything else coming from the brain and 
hand of Governor Cobb, is singularly logical and clear. I 
am led to take note of the fact that probably this letter was 
not before the Supreme Court nor the Court of Appeals at 
the time of rendering the two decisions mentioned and set 
forth in the above mentioned opinion as already written out 


by me, and that if said letter with the very pregnant facts 
related therein had been before the above courts for review, 
the decision might have been different. It naturally follows 
that if at any time hereafter those decisions should be ques- 
tioned and reviewed, as provided by law, they may be re- 

It occurs to me to add that the deeds and mesne con- 
veyances which would make the Carolina shore the true 
boundary as so provided in the Act of 1783, relating to the 
several tracts of land with which this controversy is con- 
cerned, seem to describe the entire bed of the river, which 
would include not only the dam but the power house, as lying 
and being in Georgia ; and it is quite probable that the con- 
testing company in this case derives title either in the later 
deeds or the older ones, possibly both, not describing the 
bed of the river or any part of it as being in South Carolina, 
but recognizing its locus or situs as entirely in Georgia. 

The decisions of the Supreme Court of Georgia and 
Court of Appeals naming the central or main current of the 
river as the boundary, where no islands exist, are of course 
binding on all concerned, as long as they stand ; and the 
assessment in this case has been made in accordance there- 
with. But all doubt should be removed and 'the question 
of boundary finally settled and adjudicated, to save endless 
and vexatious controversy hereafter. Probably an appeal 
to the Supreme Court of the United States, as suggested by 
Governor Cobb, in Annual Message 1852, is the best and 
wisest method. 

I am filing this supplemental opinion so as in no degree 
to predjudice the rights of the State, but so far as my own 
action is concerned, to leave the matter open for final ad- 
judication as to the law and to justice shall appertain. 
Atlanta, Ga., October 1st, 1915.. 




OCT. 8, 1777. 

In reproducing this extraordinary document which we 
believe has never been given in full since it was first 
published as a broadside, we deem it advisable to state some 
preliminary facts. 

Dr. Zubly came to America about 1758, after a short 
residence in South Carolina made his way to Savannah, and 
in 1760 became the pastor of the Independent Presbyterian 
Church. When the troubles preceding the American Revo- 
lution began he was an ardent patriot and espoused the cause 
of the American Colonies. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress and took an active part in its proceedings. 
He was elected one of the members of the Continental Con- 
gress, and was placed on four important committees. 

He addressed the inhabitants of Georgia on the State of 
the Country and we make the following extracts from that 
document. "It is with great sorrow we are to acquaint you 
that what our fears suggested, but our reason thought impos- 
sible, is actually come to pass. A civil war in America is 

"You will permit us most earnestly to recommend to 
you a steady perseverance in the cause of Liberty, and that 
you will use all possible caution not to say or do anything 
unworthy of so glorious a cause ; to promote frugality, peace, 
and order; and, in the practice of every social and religious 
duty, patiently to wait the return of that happy day when we 
may quietly sit under our vine and fig tree, and no man 
make us afraid." 

Like the Rev. Jacob Duche, chaplain of the Continental 
Congress, he abandoned the cause of the Colonies and be- 
came an out and out espouser of the British cause. He made 
himself so obnoxious to the Colonists that he gave up his seat 
in Congress when his defection was revealed through his 
correspondence with Sir James Wright, and he returned to 
Savannah where he became active on the British side, and 
in 1777 he was banished from Georgia, and half of his estate 
was confiscated. 

He then went to South Carolina where he remained until 
the Royal Government was re-established in South Georgia 
in 1779. He died in Savannah on the 23rd of July, 1781. 

The paper which follows was written immediately after 
the act of confiscation was passed. 



Gentlemen : 

On the point of being (unjustly as I conceive) banished 
from this Country, I think it a debt due to those whom I shall 
leave behind, to point out the very fatal precipice towards 
which this State is, I think, now verging, and which, in my 
opinion must soon complete the Ruin of the State, and of 
every individual. I cannot address myself to any one more 
properly than to you, w r ho are of the Grand Inquest, and if 
things take their present natural course, will probably be 
the last Grand Jury that will have an opportunity to enquire 
into grievances, present them for redress and judge whether 
a man shall be put to the painful solemnity of a trial. 

You must be convinced, gentlemen, that no grievance 
can more properly demand the attention of a Grand Jury, 
than that which strikes at the very root of its existence. 
That nothing can be more injurious to Freemen in a popu- 
lar Government than to be declared SUBJECTS. That noth- 
ing can be more alarming, than the establishment of a power 
to take away libert}^ and property out of the usual and due 
course of law, by a power distinct from and in opposition to 
the only legal and constitutional judiciary department. 

You must be convinced, gentlemen, that if the Constitu- 
tions, by which a people are to be governed, may be altered, 
infringed, or taken away, or acted contrary against, at the 
pleasure of those who may chuse to do so, Constitutional 
Government is at an end. 

If we must swear an Oath of Allegiance to other States, 
who are not by oath bound to support, nor claim any right 
to rule over us, the independency of this State is at an end. 

If a man may be taken up without any previous accusa- 
tion upon oath, all liberty is at an end. 

If a man may be condemned .without any public trial, or 
pretense of violation of a law, all law is at an end. 

If he may be determined against by his known and pro- 
fessed enemies, whom he is not allowed to except against, 
all appearance of justice is at an end. 

If a man cannot preserve liberty and property, without 
taking an oath, which cannot be known whether it be true, 
and in part is known to be false, all decency is at an end. 

And in a word, where the Constitution is not a law to 
rulers, when judges and powers are set up in manifest op- 
position to it — where natural justice, which condemns no 
man without a crime proved, is disregarded — where a set of 
men, not sworn to act according to law, and to do justice 


are vested with discretionary powers, to harass or spare 
whom they please, I ask what constitution, what law, what 
liberty or property can the people possibly hope for, what 
motive can they have to swear, or what benefit can they ex- 
pect from an oath of allegiance! What great blessing can 
those, who may be ruled without, or contrary to law and the 
constitution, expect from their rulers, and what can those 
who rule contrary to a constitution, from which they derive 
all their authority, and which they have sworn to support, 
expect from the people? 

I submit it, gentlemen, whether the treatment I have 
received comes within any of these cases, but as the gentle- 
men who were called upon before me, were prisoners on 
parole (which it seems is not to be held sacred). 

I look upon myself as the very first victim singled out to 
feel the effects of a power which will greatly affect every man 
in this State. If any government in its proper channel may 
require an oath of the people, I must yet look upon it as a 
great stretch of power, that no man shall be permitted to 
swear, unless he produces two vouchers, this I conceive 
equally dishonorable to government, the vouchers that are 
to be presented, and the person that is to take the oath. 

If a government can not acquiesce in the highest assur- 
ance they can receive an oath, it marks very strong diffidence, 
which is usually the effect of fear, as that is of something else. 

If two persons vouch for one, and he is to swear not- 
withstanding, it is plainly treating the vouchers like men 
that cannot be credited. If no man is to be admitted to swear 
without vouchers, it plainly implies a supposition that he 
would forswear himself. This I apprehend a most ungener- 
ous illiberal presumption, (unworthy of a wise government 
and intolerable to a virtuous people). 

In free government no person can be compelled to 
appear before any but the lawful judge, and in case of re- 
fusal and contempt, may be proceeded against and outlawed. 
I have been ordered to appear before judges who have no 
existence in our Constitution, under the moderate penalty, 
not of being proceeded against and outlawed, but of an 
immediate forfeiture of my effects, and of being sent to any 
gaol without bail or mainprize. 

When I appeared I was not indeed required to take an 
oath, but had the alternative set before me, either to take 
it, or be banished in forty days — that I had some scruple — 
and had heard that the Committee themselves had altered 
the oath, availed me nothing. The chairman told me that 
if they acted wrong, they were liable to be called to an ac- 


count, by the Assembly, I suppose, who will, not meet till 
after I am banished, and so shall have it out of my power to 
prefer a complaint. 

A power to tender an oath to deprive a man of half his 
estate, and banish him from every endearing connection, is 
lodged in seven men, without appeal, without check, without 
challenge. I verily believe this State is the only one which 
hath trusted so few men with so much power — a power 
which annihilates Grand Juries altogether, and effectually 
renders Petty Juries useless. Formerly in a trial, the issue 
of which might not be above ten pounds, we had a jury of 
twelve men, any of whom might be challenged, who must 
be freeholders, and unanimous in their verdict. As the mat- 
ter is now mended, every man's person and half his property 
lies at the mercy of seven men, who need not have any quali- 
fications, need not receive or produce any accusation, or hear 
any evidence, nor judge of the breach of any law, but only 
swear that they will judge and determine to the best of their 
knowledge, without favour or affection. 

Besides the civility of hearing a short defense with- 
out interruption I must do the committee the justice to ac- 
knowledge that they have proceeded against me more form- 
ally than against the two gentlemen heard before, or as far 
as I know, against any that were heard after me. They 
exhibited some charge, a very enormous one indeed, a 
parallel to which I doubt whether the most experienced law- 
yer will find in any law books new or old. The Chairman, by 
desire most gravely and solemnly asked me "Whether before 
I went to the Continental Congress as a delegate, I had ever 
signed the Association," and must it not be evident that a 
person, who may but be asked so important a question, must 
be a suspected person of course, and deserve to be banished 
as an internal enemy of the State? You may be informed 
by numbers who were present that this great and mighty 
charge was the sum total of all that was offered to be alledged 
against me. I offered to swear, that while I enjoyed the pro- 
tection of the State I would in all things do my duty as a 
good and faithful freeman. 

Would give no intelligence to, nor take up arms in aid 
to the troops of the King of Great Britain. And that I had 
received no letters of protection since the war. 

But all this would not answer the purpose. 

I have begged to be excused from swearing myself a 
subject, till the Assembly had reconsidered whether we 
ought to be subjects or freemen. I have hesitated to take an 
Oath of Allegiance to other States, who are bound by no oath 
to us. 


I have refused to swear that I have received no pro- 
tection from the King of Great Britain, because every one 
who knows me, must know it to be false. 

And for this I am now to be banished, and have half 
my estate taken from me. By the act no provision is made 
to transport any that may be thought enemies, but have no 
estate or means to transport themselves, probably because it 
is found by experience, that those who have the least to 
lose, are always the best friends to their country. 

I will not take up more of your time, but embrace this 
seasonable opportunity, Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, be- 
fore I am driven out of this country, to leave with you upon 
record, that in my opinion no people can be more miserable 
than those who may have laws made for them without any re- 
gard to a Constitution, who may be judged without evidence 
or the trial by a jury of their peers, deprived of liberty and 
property without any accusation made or proved against 
them, who must submit to their enemies as their judges, and 
to men, who without any disguise, alter the Constitution 
from which they derive their authority, and which they have 
sworn to support, as their rulers. 

To be punished for no crime, even pretended to be com- 
mitted, always carries a strong appearance of injustice, but 
there may be cases jn which banishment may be a greater 
injustice than hardship. 

Savannah, Oct. 8th, 1777. 

P. S. I should be glad to know upon what principle, 
natural, humane, divine, moral, legal, equitable or conscien- 
tious, any jury upon oath, or any impartial Barbarian, could 
possibly condemn a man as an internal enemy, against 
whom no crime has been alledged, whose veracity is not dis- 
puted, and who offers solemnly to swear not to give any in- 
telligence to, nor take up arms to assist an enemy, and in all 
things to do his duty as a good and faithful freeman of the 




The record of this family contains the names of several 
representatives who fought nobly under the banner of the 
Cross as well as a goodly number who served patriotically 
under the banner of their country. 

The first of the name who holds a place in history on 
this side of the Atlantic was the Reverend William Screven, a 
resident of Kittery, Maine, whence he removed to South 
Carolina near the end of the seventeenth century with his 
wife and children. She was before marriage Bridget Cutts. 
With the family came also a part of the Baptist congregation 
over which he was the overseer. He organized and was the 
pastor of the first Baptist Church in Charleston, and later 
went to Georgetown where he purchased a home, and it is 
said he was the original proprietor of the land on which 
that town is built. He wrote "An Ornament for Church 
Members," a work published after his death. 

William and Bridget Screven had a son, Samuel, of 
whom we have very little knowledge ; and this Samuel was 
the father of James, who married Mary Smith, daughter of 
the second Landgrave Thomas Smith, of South Carolina, 
who was a son of Thomas Smith, of Exeter, England, and his 
wife Barbara. 

James and Mary (Smith) Screven had two sons, John, 
who was a Lieutenant in the American Revolution, and 
James, the General, whose record of glorious service in the 
Revolution when he lost his life most gallantly striving 
for the liberty of the Colonies at a short distance from Mid- 
way Church, Georgia, has been fitly, though tardily, recog- 
nized by the erection of a monument near the scene of his 
death, and by the naming of a fort on Tybee Island and a 
county in this State for him. 

John, the son of the first James and a brother of General 
James, married Elizabeth (Pendarvis) Bryan, widow of 
Josiah Bryan who was the son of the Jonathan Bryan whose 
name is known through his service to Georgia throughout 
a long period of her history both Colonial and Revolutionary. 
The John of whom we are now writing and his wife 
Elizabeth had a son, known as Major John Screven, who 
married Hannah Proctor, daughter of Richard Proctor, son 
of Stephen and Hannah (Simons) Proctor. 

The last mentioned couple (Maj. John and Hannah) 
were the parents of Dr. James Proctor Screven, of Savannah, 
Mayor of the City, December 8, 1856, to October 19, 1857, 


and alderman from 1836 to 1839, and again from 1849 to 
1854, and President of the Savannah, Albany and Gulf 
Railroad which, after several changes in name, is a part of 
the Atlantic Coast Line Railway system. He was for many 
years the beloved commander of the Savannah Volunteer 
Guards, and on his death his son John succeeded him. 
Another son, Thomas F., became captain of one of the 
Companies of that corps when it was enlarged into a bat- 

John Screven was Mayor of the City of Savannah three 
times, and was President of the Georgia Historical Society 
and of the Georgia Society of Sons of the Revolution 
when he died. He had also been a Vice-President of the 
General Society of the Sons of the Revolution. 

James Proctor Screven married Hannah Georgia Bryan, 
daughter of Joseph and Delia (Forman) Bryan. Joseph 
was the son of Josiah Bryan who in turn was the son of the 
Jonathan Bryan of whom we have written above. Delia 
Forman, wife of Joseph Bryan, was the daughter of Gen- 
eral Thomas Marsh Forman, of Rose Hill, Cecil County, 

James Proctor and Hannah Georgia (Bryan) Screven 
were the parents of Colonel John and Captain Thomas For- 
man Screven who have only recently passed away, and of 
whom nothing need be said, as their lives were beyond 
censure, and are known to so many now living. They 
were both soldiers in the War of Secession with a record 
of which their relations may well be proud. Their lives, 
from a business and social standpoint, are all that could be 

The other children of James P. and Hannah Screven 
married, and their descendants are a numerous race, their 
offspring being well known people of this day bearing, 
besides the original family name, the names of other promi- 
nent families with which they intermarried. 

A son of General James Screven, Charles Odingsell 
Screven, entered the ministry and became a preacher of note 
in the Baptist Church, and married a widow Jones by whom 
he had a son, Rev. James O. Screven, also a Baptist minister. 



Through the courtesy of the author, Mr. Alexander R. 
Lawton, of Savannah, there lies on our table a copy of his 
address on "The Influence of Religious Persecution on 
Huguenot Colonization," delivered before the Huguenot 
Society of South Carolina, April 14th, 1916. 

We have read every word of it, and put it down with a 
feeling that the subject is treated in a manner entirely 
original, refreshing and edifying. It is a gem in its way, 
and deserves wide circulation. We have not space in which 
to specify its merits ; but must make room to remark on the 
concluding words of the writer. He pertinently asks the 
question : "What if Coligny had succeeded ?" then suggests 
some startling changes in history in the event of his success, 
which could only have presented themselves to the mind of 
a thinker. 

We feel also compelled, in bringing this short notice 
to a close, to quote the author's eloquent peroration which, 
at this time when our country has allied itself with England 
and France against Germany in the great world war is pecu- 
liarly appropriate : 

"Speculate as we may on what might have been, revere 
as we may the virile Huguenots whose blood runs in our 
veins, we are content with our British traditions and our 
British institutions ; but we are not sorry to reflect that if 
fate had decreed for our country a parentage that was not 
British, the affection and the sympathy which we zealously 
accord to those whose blood — the blood that is thicker than 
water — courses through our own veins, would be given to 
France, to beautiful, glorious France, where beauty is en- 
throned as one of the cardinal virtues, where patriotism is 
a passion. And how proud we should be of her today !" 

Since our March number was distributed we have re- 
ceived the following publications : 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 
April, 1917. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Maga- 
zine, January, 1917. 

The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, April, 1917. 

The Minnesota History Bulletin, November, 1916. 

The Bulletin of the University of Georgia, March, 1917. 

Our readers will, we are sure, be delighted to have in so 
agreeable language the account given in this number of the 


taking by the State authorities of Fort Pulaski, at the be- 
ginning of the War of Secession, and the capture of that 
stronghold by the Federal troops at a later period. We are 
fortunate in having this valuable contribution to the his- 
tory of those occurrences by one who took so active a part 
in both. Colonel Olmstead is still with us, and has the 
faculty of imparting, in a delightful manner, information 
on events in his active life. 

We wish him a long continuance of life and good health, 
and hope to be favored with other contributions by him to 
the pages of our periodical. 

The adjourned annual meeting of the Georgia Historical 
Society was held, as announced in our March number, on the 
21st of that month, when, in addition to the reports of the 
President and the Managing Committee of the Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Mr. Alexander C. King, of At- 
lanta, delivered the annual address. His subject was "Geor- 
gia's Influence on the Secession Movement," and it was 
treated in a scholarly manner. It was a foregone conclusion 
that his audience would be charmed, and his production was 
matchless in its historic, literary and intellectual features. 
The address has been printed in the proceedings of the So- 
ciety's seventy-eighth annual meeting. 

The exact limits of the boundary between our State and 
South Carolina, though defined by the Commissioners who 
marked them and by our Code, serve to keep some people 
in a quandary, and legal advice is sought whenever a doubt 
arises in the mind of interested parties. So many times the 
subject has been mentioned and ignorance shown by the 
replies given by laymen, that request was made for per- 
mission to use in our columns the strong legal document 
prepared by the Hon. George Hillyer in a case where the 
matter was ably argued, and with his kind consent it ap- 
pears in this number. It is worthy of careful reading, and 
will amply repay the reader. 

There are many places in Georgia which are little known 
outside of their immediate vicinity, but in which much his- 
tory has been made. Summerville, recently taken into the 
corporate limits of Augusta, has a record worthy of preserva- 
tion. Something of it has been told before, but in the article 
by Professor Lawton B. Evans many facts are given that 
prove the importance of the part she has played as well as 
the usefulness of the lives of some of her historic characters. 
The account is interesting and the story well told. 


On the twenty-sixth of April, Memorial Day, Mr. Otis 
Ashmore and the editor of the Quarterly visited Sylvania, 
in Screven County, by invitation. In compliance with pre- 
vious announcement Mr. Ashmore addressed the people on 
the importance of preserving history, and asked for the co- 
operation of the citizens with the Georgia Historical Society 
in the work of collecting and preserving material relating to 
the history of the whole State. The editor made a short 
talk, chiefly to the Confederate Veterans. 

They were cordially received, and found the people much 
interested, many of them expressing a desire to assist in the 
work and to become members of the Society, several mak- 
ing application for membership. 

After dinner, which consisted of all sorts of good things 
to eat, a trip was made, by automobile, over the points named 
in connection with the battle of Brier Creek, fought during 
the Revolution, and which Mr. Ashmore discussed in his 

The names of all the good people who were especially 
kind to the visitors are too many to be listed ; but Judge 
Overstreet, Mrs. E. K. Overstreet, Dr. G. M. Overstreet, 
and Messrs. W. M. Hobby, W. J. Walker and J. E. T witty 
deserve a place here. The last named has made and pub- 
lished a splendid map of Screven County, and presented a 
copy to the Historical Society. In a letter to the editor he 
pledges his support in these words : "I hope ere long to report 
to the Society something that will be of material advantage 

to it Mr. Hobby, editor of our paper here, who 

accompanied us on our trip to the old battle grounds 

has agreed to collaborate with me in the work." 


The recently organized "Telfair Art Association of 
Savannah" has for its chief object the establishment and 
maintenance of an art school, under the auspices of The 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

The proposed school is to be called "The Telfair School 
of Applied and Fine Arts," a name which indicates the wide 
scope of the school and expresses its obligation to Miss 
Telfair and to those who are carrying out the wishes of the 
donor in so liberal a spirit. 

The Association is composed of people interested in the 
movement from many different points of view, including 
artists and art lovers; public spirited citizens who feel that 


Savannah offers unusual opportunities to the student of 
art ; and those who wish to see the city advance along educa- 
tional and cultural lines. 

The fact that the South, in spite of her great industrial 
awakening, has no well established Art School between Bal- 
timore and New Orleans, seems to make Savannah the logical 
place and this an opportune time for the creation of one. 

The recent visit of Mr. Henry Turner Bailey of Boston, 
gave a great impetus to local interest in matters of art, and 
added enthusiasm to the plans for the Art School, by three 
separate lectures which he delivered at the Academy to large 
and delighted audiences. Mr. Bailey's subjects were "The 
Enjoyment of Pictures," "The Enjoyment of Colour," and 
"The Enjoyment of Common Things," making us under- 
stand more fully the relation of art to daily life. 

The Telfair Academy has subscribed generously to the 
school and gives the use of its Studios for classes. It affords 
still further encouragement and inspiration by the offer of 
its fine old building with its splendid collection of pictures 
and sculpture as the home of the new movement. 

While the Association has been obliged to abandon all 
hope of opening the Art School immediately on account of 
present war conditions, the interest in it is being kept alive 
and the preliminary arrangements are all completed; the 
school could be opened at any time that the Board of Mana- 
gers consider advisable. 

In the meantime a small but enthusiastic sketch class 
meets at the Academy twice a week to draw and paint from 
the model; the interest is thus stimulated and much good 
work is being accomplished. 



In the March number we answered "Anxious Inquirer" 
concerning the officers of Oglethorpe's regiment, and, in addi- 
tion to the names of those who were first commissioned, gave 
two more not mentioned in the list taken from the "Book of 
Army Commissions." Of course changes were made from 
time to time. We now add to those who should have a 
place on the roll of honor Lieutenants Charles MacKay and 
Cadogan, Ensign Gibbon, and Ensign Stuart who was first a 
Sergeant but was promoted to the rank of Second Ensign 
for distinguished service. Patrick MacKay is mentioned in 
such terms as to make it appear that he was probably an 



E. W. — I have seen it stated that Fort McAllister was 
built on a spot in Bryan County called "Genesis Point." 
This name seems an odd one for a settlement. Is there any 
story connected with its bestowal upon the place? 

The answer to this query is interesting. Soon after the 
settlement of Georgia two men in Charleston transacted 
considerable business here, and their name occurs on the 
records as "Jennys," "Jenys," and "Jennis." One of them 
acquired land in the Parish of Saint Philip, now Bryan 
County, and the property was named for him. In the Geor- 
gia Gazette for March 9, 1774, Thos. Stone offered a reward 
for the return of two horses to him at his place on the Great 
Ogeechee called "Jennis' Point." 

M. P. — I am told that Nathan Brownson, a Governor 
of this State, made a deathbed speech which was remark- 
able for its eloquence. Can you give me his words? 

Nathan Brownson died in Liberty County in the month 
of November, 1796, and his last words were "The scene is 
now closing ; the business of life is nearly over. I have, 
like the rest of my fellow-creatures, been guilty of foibles, 
but I trust to the mercy of God to pardon them, and to His 
justice to reward my good deeds." 

States Rights. — Kindly tell me where Governor George 
M. Troup is buried and whether there is a monument over 
his grave. 

Governor Troup died April 26, 1856, while on a visit to 
his Mitchell place, in Montgomery County, and was buried 
at Rose Mount, in the same county, next to the grave of his 
brother, Robert L. Troup. We have a photograph of his 
monument which is of granite, and has on it a suitable in- 
scription. It is enclosed by a wall of native sand-stone. 

Antiquary. — Tell me, please, something about the alpha- 
bet invented by an Indian for use among his people. 

George Guess, whose Indian name was Sequoyah, was 
a half-breed, and his alphabet was intended for use 
by the Cherokees. It consists of eighty-five characters, each 
representing a single sound. The inventor was born in 1770, 
and died in 1845. 



At the regular quarterly meeting of the Society held in 
Hodgson Hall on May 7, in addition to the routine business, 
Consisting of the reading and confirmation of minutes of pre- 
vious meetings, and the submission and approval of the 
financial reports of the Treasurer, the Chairman reported 
that the proceedings of the Seventy-eighth Annual Meeting, 
including the address of Mr. Alexander C. King, had been 
printed and distributed to members. The Corresponding 
Secretary made a verbal report of the result of recent visits 
made by him to Augusta, Atlanta, Athens, Macon, Columbus, 
Montgomery and Sylvania in the interests of the Society. 

At a special meeting of the Board of Curators held on 
April 13, 1917, the President appointed a committee com- 
posed of the Corresponding Secretary and the Librarian for 
the purpose of investigating the needs of a State Depart- 
ment of Archives and History and the best means by which 
such a Department could be established and maintained,- and 
to report the results of their investigation to the Society as 
early as practicable. The Corresponding Secretary read the 
report of the Committee, a copy of which follows : 

"Your committee appointed to investigate what steps 
should be taken by this Society for the purpose of having 
established by the Legislature a Department of Archives 
and History for Georgia, begs leave to make the following 
report : 

'There is unquestionably a great need for a Department 
of Archives and History for Georgia to preserve the perish- 
ing records of our State, and to make available the historic 
data now scattered and practically unknown. 

"The scope, organization, and cost of such a department 
will require careful investigation, and sufficient time should 
be taken to avail ourselves of alb the valuable experiences of 
other states in the establishment of similar departments in 
order that economy and efficiency may be secured. 

"We therefore recommend that the representatives of 
Chatham County in the General Assembly be requested to 
secure the passage of a bill at the next session of the Legis- 
lature, directing the appointment of a Committee to investi- 
gate fully the needs of a Department of Archives and History 
for Georgia, and to recommend to the Legislature an Act 
covering the scope, organization and cost of such a Depart- 
ment for our State." 

The report was received and the meeting unanimously 
voted that the Committee take the matter up with Repre- 


sentative A. A. Lawrence and enlist his aid in securing- the 
passage of an appropriate bill at the forthcoming session of 
the Legislature 

The Librarian submitted some correspondence that had 
passed between himself and the postoffice authorities in 
respect to the classification of and the postage rates to be 
paid for handling the Quarterly through the mails. It 
was unanimously voted that Senator Hoke Smith's advice 
be sought, with a view to having the Quarterly admit- 
ted to the mails as second-class matter. 

Mr. W. W. Gordon gave notice, in accordance with 
Article 15 of the Constitution, of his intention to move the 
amendment of Article 9 of the Constitution so as to provide 
for meeting the requirements of the Postomce Department 
in respect to the desired classification of the Quarterly 
as second-class mail matter. 

The following gifts were presented and ordered ac- 
knowledged : 

A photographic reproduction of "The Rape of Bethesda," 
a rare book of much curious interest, presented by Mr. 
Leonard L. Mackall ; "Thomas Jefferson, Architect," pre- 
sented by Mrs. T. J. Coolidge, Jr., of Boston ; a Map of 
Screven County, presented by Mr. J. E. Twitty, of Sylvania, 

It was reported to the meeting that the Curators had, 
at their regular meeting held May 4, elected the following 
new members : 

Dr. G. M. Overstreet, Sylvania, Ga. 

Mrs. E. K. Overstreet, Sylvania, Ga. 

Mr. W. J. Walker, Sylvania, Ga. 

Mr. W. M. Hobby, Sylvania, Ga. 

Mr. J. E. Twitty Sylvania, Ga. 

Mr. Andrew J. Cobb, Athens, Ga. 
Mrs. Mabel Gordon Leigh, London, England. 

The following names were proposed for membership 
and they were unanimously elected : 

Mr. Hunt Chipley, Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. Shepard Bryan, Atlanta, Ga. 

Rt. Rev. Warren A. Candler, Atlanta, Ga. 

Miss Mary Elvira Cook, Columbus, Ga. 

Rt. Rev. Frederick F. Reese, Savannah, Ga. 

Mr. A. W. Van Hoose, Rome, Ga. 

Mr. M. M. Parks, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Mr. Jos. H. Napier, Macon, Ga. 



Mr. M. Felton Hatcher, Macon, Ga. 

Mr. Jos. H. Hall, Macon, Ga. 

Malcolm D. Jones, Macon, Ga. 

Judge W. H. Felton, Macon, Ga. 

Mr. Eugene Anderson, Macon, Ga. 

Judge Dupont Guerry, Macon, Ga. 

W. T. Anderson, Macon, Ga. 

A meeting of the Board of Curators was held May 24th, 
when the following members were elected: 

C. V. Stanton, 
Harry D. Reed, 
John W. Bennett, 
J. L. Crawley, 
J. I. Summerall, 
Thos. A. Parker, 
A. M. Knight, Sr., 
Hugh J. Benton. 
A. G. Miller, 
J. L. Sweat, 
L. J. Cooper, 
Archibald Smith. 
Mrs. T. M. Green. 

Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Waycross Ga. 
Waycross, Ga. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Washington, Ga. 




Early in the morning of May 9th, Mr. Henry C. Cun- 
ningham, who held continuous membership in the Georgia 
Historical Society since the 3rd of September, 1866, departed 
this life. From the day of his election until within a few 
weeks of his demise he was an active participant in all of 
the Society's affairs. He was for many years a member of 
the Board of Curators. He took unflagging interest in the 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences of which the Society 
is the trustee. He will be greatly missed. It will be hard 
to fill the vacancy caused by his death. Truly it may be said 
that in him there was 

"A combination and a form indeed 
Where every god did seem to set his seal 
To give the world assurance of a man." 






VOL, 1-No. 3. 


Printed for the Society 
Savannah, Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year. 


Georgia Historical Quarterly, September 

Mrs. Nellie Kinzie Gordon. .By George Arthur Gordon 179 

William Mc Whir, an Irish Friend of Washington, 

. .... >/. .................. .By William Harden 197 

i\ugusta, Ga. : Centennial Address, 

........;..< By Joseph B. Gumming 220 

Topography of Savannah and Vicmity in 1806, 

By Dr. J, E. White 236 

Savannah in the '40's.. . .By Chas. H. Olmstead 243 

The Great Seals of Georgia, By H. R. Goetchius 253 

The Presbyterian Church in Georgia on Secession and 

Slavery. ..................... .-...'.. . ." 263 

Muster Roll of the ^Chestatee Artillery, 1862.. .. ... . . 266 

Muster Roll of Jo Thompson Artillery, of Atlanta, 1863 268 

The Screven Family— Concluded. .... .By the Editor 269 

The Attributes of America : Poem dedicated to Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, By a Member of the Georgia His- 
torical Society. ................................ 273 

Editor's Notes. 274 

Queries and Answers, . .'. '..... , . . 275 


Mrs. Nellie Kinzie Gordon, .-. Frontispiece 

Rev. William Mc Whir, D. ' D.. ... . . . ... 197 

Dr. Mc Whir's Silver Cup and Walking Cane. ...... . 204 

SlllllII* 1 









VOL. 1-No. 3. 


Printed for the Society 



Savannah, Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year, 





William W. Mackall, President. 

Thomas J. Charlton, Vice-President. 

Otis Ashmore, Vice-President. 

Alexander C. King, Vice-President. 

La wto n B. Evans, Vice-President. 

Otis Ashmore, Corresponding Secretary. 

Charles F. Groves, Secretary and Treasurer. 

William Harden, Librarian and Editor of the Quarterly. 


Otis Ashmore. 

R. Preston Brooks. 

Thomas J. Charlton. 

Henry C. Cunningham* 

Wymberley W. DeRenne. 

Charles Ellis. 

La wto n B. Evans. 

H. R. Goetchius. 

William W. Gordon. 

Alexander C King. 

Alexander R. Lawton. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Mackall. 

J. Florance Minis. 

William W. Williamson. 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman. 

Charles Ellis. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Williamson. 

Mrs. Anna B. Karow. 

*Died May 9, 1917. 




Vol. I. SEPTEMBER, 1917. No. 3 

A Sketch. 


Historians tell us that time is required to assign a true 
value to the meaning of events and the influence of indi- 
viduals; that contemporary comment is worthless, because 
the narrator is too close to the scenes he describes; that a 
proper perspective is lacking until, after the lapse of years, 
incidents may be grouped in their relation to each other, 
and the importance of the various actors justly estimated. 
But this rule has its exceptions. The mellow touch of time 
may mar and blur outlines which should be preserved sharp 
and clear. When a Woman-possesses, as did the Subject of 
this Sketch, a personality so vivid that it thrills, an origin- 
ality so striking that it startles, the impression made should 
be recorded while the spell of her charm is still fully upon 
those who knew and loved her. 

By heredity and environment she was a typical Amer- 
ican, a child of the great North-west. She possessed in a 
marked degree the characteristics of her pioneer ancestors, 
and a brief account of their lives and adventures is essen- 
tial to an understanding of her own active, tireless spirit. 

Her grandfather, John Kinzie, was of an adventurous 
disposition, and lived much on the frontier. He entered the 
Indian trade, and, in 1804, established a post at the mouth of 
the Chicago River. The original Fort Dearborn was built the 
same year. Mr. Kinzie erected the first house on the site 
of the present City of Chicago, on the north side of the 
river, just opposite Fort Dearborn. He won and held the 
confidence, respect and affection of the various Indian tribes 
and became an authority on all matters pertaining to them. 
In 'his journeys amongst them he frequently adopted their 
costume and passed for an Indian, 


When, in 1812, the garrison of the United States troops 
at Fort Dearborn marched out, and were all either massa- 
cred or made prisoners by their Indian escort, Mr. Kinzie's 
family was spared. He, himself, was not molested, though 
he accompanied the troops, hoping that his presence 
might prevent an attack by the Indians. His step- 
daughter, Mrs. Helm, wife of one of the two lieu- 
tenants at Fort Dearborn, who was then a girl of 
seventeen, was saved by one Indian when another 
was about to tomahawk her; and this incident is commem- 
orated in a bronze group, erected by George M. Pullman, 
which stands at the foot of 18th street in Chicago today. 

In 1816, John Kinzie returned to Chicago, which 
was his main trading post, with agencies all through the 
North-west. During the Indian disturbances, he and his 
family had many hair-breadth escapes. He was a man of 
energy, resourcefulness and courage. His counsel was 
sought by the soldiers and administrators, sent by the 
United States government to civilize that vast wilderness. 
He died in 1828, mourned alike by the Savages and the Set- 

His wife (Eleanor K. Gordon's grandmother) was, in 
many respects, as remarkable as her husband, and had an 
equally adventurous career. Her name was Eleanor Lytle, 
and, at the age of nine, the Seneca Indians made a raid on 
her father's home, which was at that time near Pittsburg, 
in western Pennsylvania. During the absence of Mr. Lytle 
the Indians captured Mrs. Lytle, little Eleanor, aged nine; 
a brother, aged seven, and an infant three months old. The 
infant was killed before Mrs. Lytle's eyes, but the chief of 
the band, an Indian named "The Big White Man," (whom 
some identify as the well known chief "Cornplanter,") pro- 
tected the other prisoners, and returned Mrs. Lytle and the 
boy, upon payment of a ransom. "Cornplanter's" small 
brother having been killed the previous year, he refused to 
surrender Eleanor Lytle, saying that he had adopted her 
as his little sister, to take the place of his lost brother. 
She was kindly treated, but remained a captive of the In- 
dians for four years, during which time her father made re- 
peated efforts to ransom her. Through the good offices of 
Colonel Johnson, a British sympathizer, who was very in- 
fluential with the Indians in western New York, "Corn- 
planter" was persuaded to attend a council near Niagara, 
and to bring Eleanor with him. When he saw the greet- 
ing between the child and her mother, he refused to remain 
for the council, and returned the little girl, without ransom, 


saying that if her affection for her parents could survive 
those years of absence she should remain with those for 
whom she cared the most. 

One year later, at the age of fourteen, this same little 
Eleanor Lytle married a British officer, Major McKillip, and 
six years after his death, at the age of thirty, she married 
John Kinzie. She accompanied him to Chicago and 
endured all the perils and hardships of a frontier 
life. She was noted for her calm courage in time of 
danger, for cheerful endurance of discomforts, and for her 
foresight and sagacity. She realized the future in store for 
Chicago and urged her sons to take up grants of land on the 
north side of the Chicago River, to which they were en- 
titled. They could not appreciate the importance of doing 
so, and sold, for small sums, many pieces of property, which 
are now the center of that great city. 

The oldest son of John and Eleanor Lytle Kinzie, was 
John Harris Kinzie, the father of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon. 
His life, from his earliest years, was intimately connected 
with the history of the North-west. He was born in 1803, 
and while an infant was carried in an Indian cradle. He 
was nine years old at the time of the massacre, and all its 
particulars came under his observation. The discipline of 
those striking events doubtless helped to form in him that 
fearlessness and self-control for which he was noted in af- 
ter years. He learned to speak Winnebago (which no white 
man before him had succeeded in doing), and he wrote a 
grammar of the language. He received the appointment of 
Government Agent for the upper bands of the Winnebago 
Indians in 1829, and the same year married Juliette Magill, 
of Middletown, Conn. His influence with the Indians, like 
that of his father, was great and far-reaching, and enabled 
him to render effective service to the Government in many 
ways, more especially in holding back the Winnebagoes 
from joining in the Black Hawk war. They had unbounded 
faith in his integrity and just dealing, while his success in 
all their athletic games commanded their admiration. He 
was especially noted for his skill at "La Crosse," and had 
beaten the swiftest runners of the Menomonees and Winne- 
bagoes at foot-races. He spoke no less than thirteen dif- 
ferent Indian languages. Until the day of his death it was 
to him that the various deputations came on their way to 
interview their "Great Father" in Washington, in order 
that "The Silver Man," as they called Mr. Kinzie, might 
give them the benefit of his advice. It was no uncommon 
thing for a dozen or more Indians to be camped out on the 


grass in Mr. Kinzie's garden, smoking their pipes, or play- 
ing their favorite gambling game of "moccasin." 

In 1835, the Illinois legislature appointed a Board of 
Trustees for the "Village of Chicago," of which Mr. Kin- 
zie was President. 

In 1861, he was appointed a Paymaster, with the rank of 
Major, in the United States Army. In the summer of 
1865, he obtained a leave of absence, and started for an 
Eastern health resort. A blind fiddler came into the car, 
asking alms. Mr. Kinzie put his hand in his pocket to get 
his purse. Before he could draw it out again, his head fell 
forward, and he died, with a smile on his lips. His last act 
was an epitome of his whole life. 

Juliette Magill (Mrs. Gordon's mother) doubtless 
owed many of the characteristics which combined to make 
her a remarkable woman, to those New England ances- 
tors, who were prominent in its early history. From such 
men as Timothy Dwight and Roger Wolcott, she 
inherited the courage, the perseverance, the brilliant 
wit, the strong good sense and personal attractiveness for 
which she became so noted, and which made her a social 
power in Chicago for nearly forty years. 

Mrs. Kinzie's first literary work was the account of the 
Massacre of 1812. She wrote this at the dictation of Mr. 
Kinzie's mother, and of his sister, Mrs. Helm, both of whom 
were eye-witnesses of all the facts they narrated. Her next 
book was "WAU-BUN, The Early Day in the North-west," 
followed by her first novel, "Walter Ogleby." At the 
time of her death Mrs. Kinzie was engaged in correcting 
the proofs of a novel called "Mark Logan," founded on the 
tragic fate of the handsome and ill-fated Winnebago Chief, 
Red Bird. It was published in 1887, seventeen years after 
Mrs. Kinzie's death. 

In 1870, Mrs. Kinzie joined her daughter and grand- 
children, who were spending the summer at Amagansett, 
on Long Island. On the evening of September 14th, she 
sent to the local physician for some two-grain quinine pills. 
He sent morphine pills, instead of quinine, in a paper with- 
out a label. Mrs. Kinzie took one, and by the time the fatal 
mistake was discovered it was too late for the most power- 
ful remedies to take effect. 

As soon as Mrs. Kinzie complained that the effect of 
the medicine was curious, Mrs. Gordon impulsively swal- 
lowed a similar dose. It was her way of finding out whether 
any harm threatened her precious mother. In her memoirs 
she writes : 


"I don't remember much about myself. I can recall 
how I would apply ice to my mother's head, or try some new 
way to rouse her. My cousin says I beat my hands to- 
gether, and cried out, 'I will not go to sleep. I will keep 
awake/ and stamped up and down the room like a caged 
animal. I did not go to sleep, but my mother did, in spite 
of all we could do." 

It is difficult to realize how stirring and exciting were the 
times in which Mrs. Gordon's parents lived. Danger 
of Indian raids was constant, and narrow escapes 
were numerous. Referring to one of these Mrs. 
Kinzie writes: "Of all forms of death, that by the 
hands of savages is the most difficult to face calmly ; and I 
fully believed that our hour was come." Fortunately, the 
Indians did not attack them. 

A scalp dance, witnessed by Mrs. 'Kinzie, is thus de- 
scribed in "Wau-bun:" "While they had been in 
our neighborhood, they had more than once asked 
permission to dance the scalp-dance before our door. 
This is the most frightful, heart-curdling exhibition that can 
possibly be imagined. The scalps are stretched on little 
hoops, or frames, and carried on the end of slender poles. 
These are brandished about in the course of the dance, with 
cries, shouts, and furious gestures. The women, who com- 
mence as spectators, becoming excited with the scene and 
the music which their own discordant notes help to make 
more deafening, rush in, seize the scalps from the hands of 
the owners, and toss them frantically about, with the 
screams and yells of demons. I have seen as many as forty 
or fifty scalps figuring in one dance. Upon one occasion 
one was borne by an Indian who approached quite near me, 
and I shuddered as I observed the long, fair hair, evidently 
that of a woman. Another Indian had the skin of a human 
hand, stretched and prepared with as much care as if it had 
been some costly jewel. When these dances occurred, as 
they sometimes did, by moonlight, they were peculiarly 
horrid and revolting." 

And this was the country to which Mrs. Kinzie brought 
her piano, when she came in a boat, rowed by Canadian voy- 
ageurs, to Fort Winnebago, in 1830! 

From the year 1800, until the birth of Mrs. Gordon in 
1835, the history of the Kinzie family might almost be de- 
scribed as the history of Chicago. Early in the year 1833, 
it had become so much of a town (it contained perhaps 
fifty inhabitants) that it was necessary for the proprietors 


of "Kinzie's Addition" to lay out lots and open streets 
through their property. 

Eleanor Lytle Kinzie (Gordon) was born, June 18, 
1835. The surroundings of her childhood, and the training 
given her by her parents, may be imagined from the de- 
scriptions in the foregoing pages. Her Mother, Mrs. Kin- 
zie, owing to the death of three of her boys while mere 
children, was most indulgent with the surviving 
sons, but on Nellie (as Eleanor was called) she 
expended all the energy of a New England parent. 
Believing that her only daughter was destined to 
marry some enterprising American, who would move 
still further west, and realizing the qualifications re- 
quired by a pioneer's wife, she gave Nellie a course of inten- 
sive training in the practical side of life, which was to stand 
her in good stead during the trying days of the Confederacy. 
Cooking, sewing, housekeeping,, nursing, gardening, 
clothes-making, shoe-making, — in fact everything which 
might be required of a woman separated from the conven- 
iences of civilization, were taught her with great thorough- 
ness. Being very quick to learn, deft with her fingers, and 
ambitious to succeed, she soon excelled in occupations rarely 
undertaken by those in more settled communities. But 
Mrs. Kinzie was not satisfied with a foundation of useful 
accomplishments. She wished her daughter to finish off 
her education with a polish, which, even if not essential to 
the frontier, would enable her to cultivate her mind, and 
enjoy her leisure moments. Accordingly, Nellie Kinzie 
was sent to Madame Canda's school in New York. There 
she became an expert pianist, an artist of some merit, and a 
linguist who spoke French and Italian fluently. She also 
wrote with facility, and won the principal prizes awarded 
for English composition, receiving the highest marks ever 
given. She found time to ride, dance and skate well, and, 
as she was extremely graceful, pretty, clever and vivacious, 
it is needless to say that she was a great favorite wherever 
she went. 

It seems hard to realize that Mrs. Gordon's girlhood 
stretched back to a period when she conversed with persons 
who had known and talked to Washington. One of these, 
Dolly Madison, she met on her first trip to the White House. 
The incident is thus described in her Reminiscences: 

"On our journey to Washington, we sat in front of two 
gentlemen, who were very civil to us, and took much notice 
of me. One was tall, with huge dark cavernous eyes. He 
asked me many questions about my school and my studies. 


When I said I liked music better than anything else he 
asked me whether I could play and sing. I said, 'Oh, yes ; 
I could do both/ He laughed, and said, 'Suppose you give 
me a song.' 'Of course/ I replied. Both the gentlemen 
were highly entertained, and the big-eyed man pulled me 
down onto his knee, and called me his 'Little canary bird/ 
Before we reached Washington we learned that my special 
admirer was Daniel Webster, and the other gentleman was 
Mr. Preston, the Secretary of the Navy. What I chiefly 
remember about my Washington visit was being taken to a 
reception at the White House. There I was introduced 
not only to the President, General Zachary Taylor, and to 
his daughter, Miss Betty Taylor, but I also had a most in- 
teresting talk with Mrs. Dolly Madison. She was seated 
in state, as it were, on a small sofa. She was quaintly 
dressed in a black brocaded silk, with elbow sleeves and 
black lace mitts. She had three little sausage-like curls on 
each side of her face, surmounted by a white lace turban 
with a spray of diamonds on one side. She was treated with 
great deference, and seemed to be enjoying herself hugely. 
President Taylor had a long chat with me. The President 
asked me what I most wanted to see in Washington. I 
told him I wanted most to see him, which amused him very 
much. I added that I should like very much to have a lock 
of his hair. He said he would certainly send me one, and 
sure enough it came next day. I kept it for many years, and 
it was finally destroyed in the Chicago fire, in 1871, as well 
as a charming personal letter from Gen. Robert E. Lee, and 
one from Gen. W. T. Sherman." 

It was just after her debut in society that Healy, the 
American painter, was visiting Mr. and Mrs. Kinzie in 
Chicago, and painted the portrait of Eleanor Kinzie which 
now hangs in the Gordon residence in Savannah. It shows 
a lovely oval face, with masses of chestnut colored hair, 
sparkling brown eyes, and an animation which even a paint- 
ing cannot suppress. 

Her intimates at Madame Canda's were Eliza Gordon, 
of Savannah, Ga., and Ellen and Florence Sheffield. The 
father of the Sheffields was the famous merchant of New 
Haven, Conn., who founded the Sheffield Scientific School 
of Yale University. Eliza Gordon's mother had moved to 
New Haven for the purpose of educating her two sons at 
Yale. As Chicago was too far distant for Miss Kinzie to 
return home during school holidays, she was accustomed to 
visit the Sheffields. And in the old Sheffield home, on Hill- 
house Avenue, Nellie Kinzie met her future husband, Wil- 


liam W. Gordon, then a Yale student in the class of 1854. 
Tradition has it that she was unaware of his presence in the 
drawing room, and that he first saw her sliding down the 
banisters. She much preferred this method to the slower, 
and more conventional, way of walking downstairs. On 
December 21, 1857, they were married at St. James Church, 
in Chicago. 

Mrs. Gordon promptly made an impression in her new 
home. She rode Capt. Chas. A. L. Lamar's horse "Black 
Cloud," when few men would attempt the feat, and in many 
other ways showed her spirit and fearlessness. 

In 1860, the great storm broke. The threatened Civil 
War became a certainty, and Mrs. Gordon was confronted 
with the necessity of making a momentous decision. Not 
only had she been born and educated at the North, but 
many of her relatives were in the United States Army. 
Gen. David Hunter had married her aunt, and her father was 
appointed first a Major, and later a Colonel in the United 
States service. One of her brothers held a commission in 
the U. S. Navy; the other in the Army. Mr. Gordon of- 
fered to send her and their two infant daughters back to 
her parents, but she made her choice for her Husband and the 
Confederacy without hesitation, and suffered all the agonies 
of four long and harrowing years. The War brought sor- 
row enough to those whose sympathies were undivided : it 
was doubly bitter for the Confederates, who gradually came 
to realize that theirs was a Lost Cause ; but the anguish of 
a woman, alone in a comparatively strange land, with her 
husband fighting on one side, and her father, brothers and 
uncle on the other, may be better imagined than described. 
During this period of poverty, privation, suspense and lone- 
liness, one of her brothers was killed, two of them were cap- 
tured, her husband was wounded, and her uncle, Gen. 
Hunter, was desperately wounded at the first battle of Ma- 
nassas. To the honor of her Georgia neighbors, be it said 
that only one attempted to taunt her about her Northern 
connections, and swift retribution followed. This lady met 
Mrs. Gordon just at the beginning of the war, and the follow- 
ing conversation took place : 

"I hear, Mrs. Gordon, that your brother is an officer in 
the Union Army, and all I have to say is, that I hope the 
first shot fired will kill him dead." To which Mrs, Gordon 
replied, "Thank you." 

A few weeks later this lady's brother, a gallant Con- 
federate officer, had the misfortune to be wounded by a 
bursting shell, a piece of which struck him in the back. 


Mrs. Gordon, meeting her at a dinner, where those present 
had heard the previous conversation, remarked loudly and 

pleasantly, "By the way, Mrs. ; I hear that your 

brother has been shot in the back; mine is very well, thank 

Some of her war experience Mrs. Gordon was per- 
suaded to write, but of that time she disliked to talk. Her 
friends of those days always contended that her cheerful 
spritely demeanor never deserted her, but she must have had 
some moments of desperate gloom, when making shoes and 
clothes for her little half-starved daughters, and wondering 
whether she would ever see her husband again. 

The following extracts from her war reminiscences, 
written for her grand-children, may prove of interest : 

"Fred Waring and my husband went to work together 
to equip and carry on to Virginia a cavalry company — the 
'Georgia Hussars/ to which they had both belonged for 
years. My husband's grandfather, Ambrose Gordon, and 
his father, W. W. Gordon, had each been in command of 
this troop, so there was a good deal of sentiment in- 
volved. There is no use expatiating on the sufferings of 
those left behind. Fortunately, no one realized what lay in 
the future, but thought two or three months soldiering 
would settle the matter, and that our boys would come 
marching home, like conquering heroes. The Hussars 
made a fine showing. Fred Waring was Captain, Willie 
was one of his Lieutenants. _ The Hussars' cook, William 
Fisher, was not only an excellent cook, but a wonderful for- 
ager. If there were chickens, or turkeys, or eggs, or but- 
ter within a radius of ten miles William Fisher was sure to 
find them, and forthwith they duly appeared upon the mess 
table. Luxury reigned in the Hussar camp for many 
months, till one sad day, when William announced with 
deep regret that he was ill and homesick, and that nothing 
short of Richmond and his Polly's care could save his life. 
I was at once notified that I must take immediate steps to 
provide these pampered officers with a cook in William's 
place. If there had been any other wife to whom I could 
have turned over this onerous duty I would have rebelled, 
but they were a miserable set of unmarried men, and I was 
their only dependence, so I flew around, interviewed dozens 
of cooks, and at last sent one up to the front who came with 
superlative recommendations as to his honesty and ability. 
Matters progressed in a fairly satisfactory manner at first, 
for the blessed William stayed an extra week (in spite of 
his dying condition) to show Tom, the new man, his ways 


and methods. Two weeks went by. The officers began to 
grow restive. Murmurs of discontent were heard. At last, 
my husband ventured to remonstrate. 'Tom,' he said, 'why 
in the world don't you give us any hot rolls for break- 
fast?' 'Lord! Mass Lieutenant,' said Tom, 'Ain't you know 
its too cold dis time a year for de bread to rise?' 'Why/ 
retorted my husband, 'William Fisher always gave us hot 
rolls up to the very day he left us.' 'Yas-sah, yas-sah/ 
replied Tom, 'dat's so, and ef yo wants me to do lak William 
do I can have hot rolls ebery day, too !' 'Well,' inquired my 
husband, little dreaming what a shocking revelation was 
coming, 'what DID William Fisher do?' 'He always take 
de bread to bed wid him to make it rise,' replied Tom, with 
perfect gravity. 'Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be 
wise.' No one again asked for hot rolls in cold weather." 

In spite of her ardent championship of the South, Mrs. 
Gordon was, at times, suspected (because she was a North- 
ern woman) of secretly sympathizing with the North. On 
one occasion "Mercer's brigade was up in Atlanta (with Wil- 
lie still on that Staff). The 63rd Georgia was also there — 
brother George's regiment (Col. George A. Gordon). 
He was sent for one day by Gen. Gilmer, of Sa- 
vannah (who was in command in Atlanta). He 
said a lady who was on her way through our 
lines to her home in Nashville had come to head- 
quarters to say she 'had been given a parcel to carry 
through the lines by Mrs. Willie Gordon of Savannah, and 
not knowing the contents, which might be important infor- 
mation to the Yankees, or even plans of fortifications, etc., 
etc., she had thought it safer to hand them in at headquar- 
ters.' Gen. Gilmer handed the parcel to Col. George Gor- 
don, and asked him to turn it over to Capt. Gordon, and as- 
sure him that he was satisfied it was all right. Col. George 
Gordon declined to receive the parcel, and said he would in- 
form Capt. Gordon of the circumstance, and let him inter- 
view Gen. Gilmer himself. Willie hurried to Gen. Gilmer, 
who tried to return the parcel to him. But Willie refused 
positively to accept it. He insisted that it must be opened 
and read. In vain the General declared that he could not open 
and read a lady's correspondence. Willie said he could ap- 
point some officer to do so, but that 'he felt it due to both 
himself and to me, that the parcel should be inspected by 
the military authorities.' Gen. Gilmer conceded the point 
finally, and made Col. Field, his Inspector, open the parcel 


and read its contents. My tirades against the United States 
and the Yankees generally, and my violent Southern senti- 
ments, must have rather amused him. The parcel was re- 
turned, marked 'This parcel can be forwarded by any flag 
of truce.' It reached its destination." 

"Early on the morning of the 21st of December, 1864, 
(the anniversary of my wedding), Sherman's troops entered 
Savannah. The city was wrapped in gloomy silence. No 
one was to be seen on the streets. Everything 
was so quiet, I ventured next day to walk down 
Bull street to mother's (her husband's mother), and it makes 
me laugh now to remember that I put a little pistol into my 
belt under my coat, intending to use it if anyone gave me 
any 'sass.' It was quite unnecessary. The soldiers most 
politely stepped out of my way as I passed, and I reached 
mother's house in safety." 

Frequently, during the War, Mrs. Gordon tried to help 
her Southern neighbors, and lighten their burdens. This 
was particularly the case during Gen. Sherman's occupation 
of Savannah. As was inevitable, some of her efforts were 
misunderstood. On this subject, her memoirs have the 
following : 

"After the War, brother George (Col. George A. Gor- 
don) was one day commenting on these various experiences 
of mine, and said T really think it would have been better 
if you had refused to take any steps in those matters.' T 
don't agree with you,' I replied. Tf I had refused they 
would only have said 'damned little Yankee, she will get 
everything she wants for herself, and won't do a thing to 
help anybody else,' whereas, now I have the satisfaction 
of having been of use to people, and I don't care a fig what 
any of them said or thought about me.' 'That is very true,' 
he replied. 'That is probably just what they would have 

Reconstruction followed the War. Mrs. Gordon's hus- 
band, having lost everything, a fresh start had to be made, 
accompanied by poverty, hardship and struggle. 

Having endured the horror of war, and the sadness of 
bereavement, Mrs. Gordon was next called upon to face the 
terrors of pestilence, namely, the yellow fever epidemic, 


which visited Savannah during 1876. Her husband re- 
mained in the city, nursing the sick. The children were 
sent away to a place of safety, but Mrs. Gordon went to 
Guyton, only thirty miles from Savannah, where many of 
the refugees from the plague-stricken city were taken ill, 
and a number died. There were no trained nurses in those 
days, and she nursed the ill and the dying, and comforted 
the bereaved, without thought of herself. One morning, as 
she was setting forth on her round of visits to the sick, a 
friend said, "I am going to tell Willie Gordon that you won't 
last much longer if you don't stop this nursing." "Add my 
epitaph," she replied, "killed by the accidental discharge of 
her duty." While this was not original, it made everyone 
laugh, and a laugh counted for much in those trying days. 

In December, 1880, Mrs. Gordon's daughter, Alice, 
aged seventeen, died in New York, while attending school. 
Mrs. Gordon was more deeply affected by this than any 
other previous event in her life. The collection of poems 
and essays which she published under the title of "Rose- 
mary and Rue," was in memory of this, the only child she 

When war was declared against Spain, in 1898, Mrs. Gor- 
don's husband was appointed a Brigadier General by Pres- 
ident McKinley. His brigade was stationed first 
at Mobile, Ala., then at Miami, Fla., then at Jack- 
sonville, Fla., and, finally, he was appointed a Com- 
missioner, together with Admiral Schley, and General 
Brooke, to supervise the evacuation of Porto Rico by the 
Spanish troops. Mrs. Gordon accompanied her husband to 
his various stations in the United States, and joined him at 
Porto Rico. The troops suffered severely from illness at 
Miami. Hospital facilities were totally inadequate, and the 
men were returned to their tents and camp fare while still 
half sick. To meet this situation, Mrs. Gordon organized, 
and, with the assistance of her daughter, conducted a large 
convalescent hospital. 

When Gen. Gordon was ordered to Porto Rico, Mrs. 
Gordon returned to Savannah to complete arrangements for 
the trip. As the train was about to pull out of the station, 
at Jacksonville, a number of sick soldiers were suddenly 
brought into the Pullman car. Some were so ill that they 
were passed through the windows on stretchers. Mrs. Gor- 
don finally located the man in charge — not a medical officer, 
and was told that the men were being invalided home from 
Fernandina to Indiana. "Why," she said, "that is criminal. 
Some of these men are dying. How dare they do such a 


thing?" Before she could prevent it, the train left for Sa- 
vannah. The passengers on the Pullman, fearing con- 
tagion, adjourned to the day coach. Mrs. Gordon had 
berths made up, secured a civilian physician from an adjoin- 
ing car, got ice and brandy, and, together with the phy- 
sician, did what she could to relieve the sufferings of these 
desperately ill youths. Two of the party were brothers. 
One was only slightly ill, but the other died in Mrs. Gordon's 
arms before the train reached Savannah. She had the re- 
mains brought to her own house, and made the brother 
come there also. The next day, funeral services were held 
at the house, and then the survivor, with his brother's body, 
was sent on to Indiana. The letter written by the 
lad's mother to the Stranger who had cared for her boys, 
when ill and dying, in a far away land, was one of the most 
beautiful tributes that Mrs. Gordon ever received. Four- 
teen years later, when Mrs. Gordon was traveling, in great 
sorrow, from the White Sulphur Springs to Savannah, it 
became necessary to ask some favor of the train conductor. 
To her surprise, he replied, "I would do anything on earth 
for Mrs. Gordon." "Why, how do you know me?" she 
asked. "I was conductor," he said, "on the train from Jack- 
sonville that night when you nursed the young soldier who 
died, and you wrote to the Pullman Company and told them 
how helpful I had been to you. It brought me promotion, 
and I have never forgotten it." 

In matters of public importance Mrs. Gordon took a 
deep and practical interest. She was one of the organizers 
of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Georgia, 
in 1894, and was the President of that society for six years, 
declining re-election. She also served two terms as Second 
Vice-President of the National Society of Colonial Dames, 
in that instance also declining re-election. She served one 
term as Honorary State Regent for Georgia, of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution. 

She organized the Society of the Red Cross for the 
State of Georgia, in Savannah, in 1906. 

She edited her mother's book, "Wau-Bun," and also 
wrote a short life of her grandfather, entitled "John Kinzie, 
Pioneer," and a sketch of the Chicago Massacre, called 
"Helm's Narrative." 

She was much interested in genealogy, and her friends 
were fond of telling her that an operation on her brain 
would disclose it to consist of a "Black Forest" of family 


The writing and receiving of letters was a great satis- 
faction to her, and she carried on an extensive and interest- 
ing correspondence throughout a long and eventful life. 

In art, music and literature she took a deep interest, 
and lent her aid and counsel whenever schools or clubs to 
encourage these were formed. 

Having traveled extensively, both in America and 
abroad, General and Mrs. Gordon enjoyed a wide acquaint- 
ance, and visitors to Savannah frequently brought letters of 
introduction, which resulted in their entertainment as guests 
at the Gordon Home on the corner of Oglethorpe Avenue 
and Bull street. Mrs. Gordon thus continued in her South- 
ern life the traditions of the Kinzie home in Chicago. 

'But Mrs. Gordon's sympathies carried her not alone 
into social and civic and artistic circles. As a staunch 
Episcopalian, and a loyal churchwoman, she was equally 
energetic and efficient in charitable work. Good deeds, per- 
formed may years previously, were continually being 
brought to light in the strangest way, as the following 
letter indicates : 

"Savannah, Ga., March 3rd, 1916. 
Mrs. W. W. Gordon, 
Dear Madam: 

I know that you will be greatly surprised when you 
have read this letter. On March 3, 1884, you did a great 
good in your charity work. There was a family living in 
Savannah. They did not have any money. The mother 
had to do washing to support her 18 months old baby, and 
through your help they were kept from starving. The 
father died March 4, 1884, and was buried the next day. 
The city was going to bury him, but you, with your noble 
heart, did not let the city bury him. You arranged matters 
so that his funeral was a decent and respectable one. It has 
just been today 32 years, and I know that you have forgotten 
all about it, but there is still one living that will 
never forget your kindness. The writer of this let- 
ter is that 18 months old baby, who wants to 
thank you for your kindness. If there is any way that I 
can show my gratitude to you, it will be a pleasure to serve 

She was intolerant of oppression, and quick to resent an 
injustice to the defenseless. When rowdy boys attempted 
to disturb the services at a negro church, she personally saw 
to it that the preacher and congregation received police pro- 


Her humor was proverbial. Those who met her 
always carried away a vivid recollection of her wit and bril- 
liancy. She was the centre of every group, and 
there was never a dull moment when she was present. Her 
amusing speeches carried no malice. They never hurt, or 
caused resentment, and she was totally incapable of petty 
spite. She was particularly clever at repartee, and her child- 
ren were fond of "chaffing" her, knowing in advance that 
they would draw forth some apt retort, for example : 

Mrs. Gordon attended in Rochester, N. Y., a reunion of 
her school friends at Madame Canda's. This was some 
forty years after their school days, and in describing the 
scene to her children, she said, "You know, it was perfectly 
awful. All had aged so much that no one knew anyone 
else, until I entered the room, when everyone exclaimed, 
'that is Nellie Kinzie !' " Her son remarked, "Mamma, that 
is an awful give-away on you." "Why?" she asked. "Be- 
cause," he said, "you have always told us that, in your youth, 

you were radiantly beautiful." "I'm not so d d ugly 

now," was the instant response. 

When her husband was stationed at Macon during the 
Spanish-American War, Mrs. Gordon called on a certain 
lady, who, after looking out of the second story window, 
sent word by the maid that she had gone down town shop- 
ping. On receiving this message, Mrs. Gordon said to the 
servant, "Well, you tell your mistress from me, that the next 
time she goes out shopping she better not leave her head 

When she was invited to attend the moving picture 
representation of "The Birth of a Nation," she replied, "No, 
thank you. I went through it all, and it was no 'twilight 

She declined an invitation to a suffrage meeting, saying, 
"I have always obtained what I wanted from the men with- 
out the vote, and it doesn't interest me to hear hens try to 

Her letters to the newspapers during her later years she 
always signed "Moir6 Antique." 

On one occasion, just as guests were arriving for dinner, 
the dumb-waiter, which a certain carpenter had repeatedly 
fixed, refused to work. She sent for him and upbraided 
him. He defended himself, saying, "Well, Mrs. Gordon, 
dumb-waiters are things as go by fits and starts." "But," 
she replied, "the trouble is, mine is all fits, and no starts." 
She also had occasion to reprove a plumber, who protested, 
saying, "Mrs. Gordon, don't you know your language is 


such that I could sue you for damages?" "If that's the 
case," came the instant reply, "I can at least damn you for 

Her energy and recklessness and impetuosity were just 
as pronounced as her sense of humor. Fear and fatigue 
were foreign to her. Once in New York she tried to stop 
a pickpocket, who was running towards her, and nearly suc- 
ceeded, while other pedestrians were giving the thief a wide 
berth. Finding a large rat in her room one day, she se- 
cured her husband's cavalry sabre, closed all the doors, 
chased the rat under a bureau, and killed it. On another oc- 
casion, while reading at night in her cottage at The Old 
Sweet Springs, she saw a large snake gliding across the 
floor. The snake reached the door, and was escaping, when 
she caught it by the tail, jerked it back into the room, slam- 
med a rocking chair on top of it, sat in the chair, and rocked 
until the snake was dead. During the European War, she 
crossed the ocean several times to see her daughters, who 
lived in England, the last trips being made in the summer 
and autumn of 1916. Someone tried to dissuade her, point- 
ing out the dangers of submarines, but her reply, though 
eighty-one years of age, was, "I am not afraid of any Ger- 
mans in the heavens above, or the earth beneath, or the 
waters under the earth." 

She took a deep interest in religious matters, and was a 
diligent student of the Bible, which she knew better than 
most church-goers. She also read regularly her Episcopal 
prayer book. It cannot be said that she was altogether 
reverent, for she found several amusing incidents in the 
Bible, and she wrote comments freely on the margin of both 
books. A characteristic notation, was her insertion of the 
word competent in the prayer, "Send forth laborers into thy 

Spiritualism fascinated her, and she was much disap- 
pointed at her inability to communicate with the departed. 
She said, "These spiritualistic books claim that it is the sub- 
conscious self that gets in touch with spirits. I suppose 
that is what's the matter with me. All of me is right here, 
living on the surface as hard as I can, all the time." 

A correspondent, who had never seen her, wrote a de- 
scription of what she supposed Mrs. Gordon was like, which 
was so far from correct that Mrs. Gordon was moved to 
reply as follows: 

"November 16, 1916. 

"I was greatly amused by the account you gave me in 
your last letter as to what you fancied me to be like, and I 


shall have to give you a correct sketch of myself, though it 
will be far from complimentary. 

"In the first place, I am only five feet, one inch in height, 
and weigh but 114 pounds, thus being far from the large, 
dignified person of your imagination. In fact, if I ever at- 
tempted to stand on my dignity I should surely fall off and 
break my neck. 

"Rudyard Kipling put me into one of his magazine 
stones, describing me as 'a little old lady with snapping 
black eyes, who used very bad language.' I wrote and 
thanked him, having recognized myself at once. 

"I have strong likes and dislikes. I love music and 
reading and sewing, embroidery and crochet. I hate ex- 
ercise and fresh air. I dislike being out of doors, either 
walking or driving, especially in an 'auto/ I always give as 
my prescription for retaining my youth, 'a strict avoidance 
of exercise and fresh air/ I love everything witty and 
clever. My strict observance of the Fifth Commandment, 
which tells us to 'honor our father and mother/ has resulted 
in my 'living long in the land/ according to the promise — un- 
less it is because the Lord don't want me and the Devil won't 
have me. !At any rate here I remain, very much against my 
will, for there is nothing I so sincerely desire in this world 
as to get out of it." 


Aged 81 years, 5 months.'* 

Such a many-sided personality is difficult to describe. 
Perhaps the words "Like a flash," best summarize her traits. 
In thought, word, and act, she was rapid and vivid as the 
lightning. She loved to shock conventional people, to star- 
tle the dull, and dazzle the brilliant. Nothing daunted her. 
She learned to bicycle when she was sixty, to typewrite when 
she was seventy, and she praticed scales on the piano when 
she was eighty, for fear her fingers would get stiff. When 
she was learning to ride a wheel, a hack suddenly stopped 
in front of her, with the result that her skirts became tang- 
led and she fell, cutting her forehead on the asphalt. This 
happened in front of the De Soto Hotel, and several people 
ran to her assistance. She waved them aside, walked, with 
the blood streaming from her face, to a near-by drug store, 
had the cut sewed up, and bicycled home. 

Last year, she went to England to visit her daughter, 
because, as she explained afterwards, she thought it was not 
safe for the latter to cross the Atlantic on account of sub- 


With her, action followed thought at once, and inevi- 
tably. Obstacles and difficulties merely stimulated her. A 
visitor described a poor family, without wood or coal or milk 
for the children, and bemoaned the fact that nothing could be 
procured because it was a legal holiday. At once, Mrs. Gor- 
don flew out of the room, without excuse, and presently re- 
turned, saying, "It's all right. I told the butler to stop the 
first wagon he saw, and have sent coal and wood from our 
own yard, and the oldest child is to come here for milk every 
day." Three years later, the child was still coming for the 
milk daily. 

She cordially detested anyone who was pretentious, or 
affected, or a bore. She did not "suffer fools gladly," or in 
any other way, if she could help it. She was untouched by 
modern theories, and yet always in sympathy with youth. 
All young people, especially young men, sought her society, 
and she loved being with them. She loved new things, new 
ideas, new inventions, and, as her memory was wonderful, 
she seldom forgot anything. She never allowed any fear of 
consequences to influence her. To any warning her in- 
variable answer was "I don't care," and she didn't. 

Perhaps her most salient characteristics were her origi- 
nality and freedom from self-consciousness. She never 
"posed," or tried to be brave or amusing, and this was one 
of her greatest charms. She simply, and spontaneously, 
sparkled with wit, which was as ready when talking to her 
servants as when entertaining a President. In time of ad- 
versity, as well as prosperity, the flame of her personality 
warmed all who came near her, but burnt and scarred none 
in spite of its vividness and intensity. One of her truest 
friends wrote of her : 

"She is the spice of life to me, the salad course at din- 
ner, a glass of red wine held to the light, a warm wide hearth, 
and so many other things besides. I love her full blooded 
ferocity; her never failing kindness; the big heart of her, 
and the quick tongue of her. I love her unswerving loyalty, 
the gallant spirit that has always taken the lofty paths, 
leaving the safe track to grovellers and cowards. She has 
always made me think of Wordsworth's 'Happy Warrior:' 

'The generous spirit, whose high endeavors are an upward 

That makes the path before him always bright. 
Who comprehends his trust, and, to the same, 
Keeps faithful, with a singleness of aim.' " 



She lived through a most eventful period of history. 
She remembered the Mexican War, and every incident of 
this present war was of absorbing interest to her, yet age 
touched her lightly, and in talking with her one often re- 
called the quotation — 

"Time cannot wither, nor custom stale, her infinite variety." 

No mere description can fully reveal her charm, but no 
one who knew her, ever forgot her, for 

"Nature made her what she was, 
And ne'er made sic another." 

Such a career is an inspiration. 

Valiant and useful, hopeful and radiant, her unquench- 
able Spirit lives on immortal. 


An Irish Friend of Washington. 


Senator George F. Hoar, in his "Autobiography of 
Seventy-Five Years," says : "In my younger days there 
were among my kindred and near friends persons who knew 
the great actors of the Revolutionary times and the time 
which followed till I came to manhood myself." Though 
born at a much later date than Mr. Hoar, this writer has had 
experience of a like kind. He knew and talked with one 
man whose intimate association with General Washington 
was a cherished recollection during the remaining years of 
his life. That man was the subject of this sketch, and it is 
hoped that a recital of his diversified experiences may prove 
of interest to some who turn over these pages. 

In the year 1759 there lived in the parish of Moneyrea, 
in Ireland, a prosperous farmer named James Mc Whir, who 
had married a young woman named Jean Gibson. Of the 
several children born to them William first saw the light of 
day on the 9th of September of that year, and the parents 
being persons of deep piety decided that one son should be 
brought up and educated with the settled purpose of enter- 
ing the ministry in the church of their ancestors, that is the 
Presbyterian, and the decision pointed to William as the 
one to be so honored. As a child he had the misfortune to 


be attacked by the smallpox through which he lost an eye, 
and nearly lost his life. Always unattractive in appear- 
ance, this loathsome disease made him more homely during 
the remainder of his long life than he otherwise would have 
been. He told this story in corroboration of the statement 
just made, and the pleasant manner in which he told it was 
evidence of the fact that he realized its truthfulness. He 
said he was stopped on the road somewhere in Ireland by a 
woman who, after scrutinizing his countenance, addressed 
him thus : "Sir, you are the ugliest man I ever saw ! Your 
face looks as if the D 1 had been thrashing peas on it!" 

The boy's early education was received at a private 
school near his home, from which he went to one of a higher 
order in Belfast. He had as a close companion at the latter 
an unruly lad, with results not calculated to develop the traits 
of character looked for in one set apart for preaching of the 
Gospel. At the age of nineteen he was sent to the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, where, as required by the Synod of Ul- 
ster of candidates for the ministry, he spent three sessions, 
but it is certain that even then he did not fully realize the 
importance of the promise he had made to his parents as to 
the way in which his future life was to be spent. Notwith- 
standing this, after his university course he was received 
under the care of the Presbytery of Killileah, in the County 
of Down, passing successfully through his trials and ex- 
aminations, and receiving his license to preach the Gospel 
on Christmas Eve, 1782; but his ordination by the same 
Presbytery took place on the 25th of September, 1783. 

Having mentioned the fact of Mr. Mc Whir's apparently 
thoughtless action in becoming a clergyman without the 
realizing sense of the sacredness of the calling, we will just 
here, rather out of place, mention another rather important 
matter occurring nearly thirty years after his ordination. 
The statement following is made on the authority, and in 
the words of, his step-grandson, the Hon. Edward J. Har- 

"An event now occurred in the life of Mr. Mc Whir, 
which, to those who have followed his history to this point, 
will be a matter of no little surprise. Notwithstanding he 
had always been a minister, in regular standing, of the Pres- 
byterian Church, he had been, even from the time that he 
commenced his education, privately a Unitarian. Having 
occasion to re-examine the Scriptures, about the year 1812, 
with a view to prove their Divine authority, he was led to 
take a new view of the doctrines which they contain, and, 
at no distant period, became thoroughly satisfied that the 


creed which he had before only professed to receive, really 
embodied the true sense of the Word of God. This change 
of religious opinion led of course to a corresponding change 
in his preaching, which did not escape the observation of 
those to whom he ministered." 

At the early age of about twelve years his attention was 
called to Jonathan Carver's "Travels Through the Interior 
Parts of North America," which he read with avidity. That 
book had a wonderful effect on the mind of the youthful 
reader, and the impression received of the character of the 
people of the country and the opportunity for there doing 
good and bettering his condition decided him to cross the 
ocean and make a home there. Having received the equip- 
ment for a professional career, and his mother having died, 
he sailed from Belfast for Philadelphia, with the consent of 
his father, shortly after his ordination. Possessed of letters 
of introduction to some distinguished people, he met with a 
cordial reception and received promises of aid in his search 
for a place where he could pursue his calling. 

In the case of Mr. Mc Whir, as in many others, his life 
work was to be of a different line from that which he set out 
to follow. Although always ready to preach, and really 
doing much in that way, he was, from the time of his land- 
ing in America until his death, pre-eminently a teacher of 
youth, and, as such, he had few who were his equals, fewer 
still were his superiors. 

He was no laggard. He wanted to do something, and 
the sooner the opportunity to get down to business came 
the better pleased he would be. He had, before leaving 
Ireland, had some assurance that there might be an opening 
for him at Alexandria in Virginia and a few weeks after his 
arrival at Philadelphia he received notice of his appointment 
as the head of an established and prosperous academy in the 
Virginia town. The institute was honored with the pat- 
ronage of General Washington whose two nephews were 
among its pupils, and then began the friendship between the 
young clergyman and the great soldier and statesman of 
which the former was justly proud and of which he boasted 
during the whole of his long life. Mr. Mc Whir's connec- 
tion with the academy at Alexandria lasted about nine years, 
during which time he saw much of Washington, visited him 
frequently at Mount Vernon, and corresponded with him to 
a considerable degree. The reverend gentleman's account 
of his first visit to the General described in his diary and 
more than once before made public, deserves a place in this 
sketch, and is as follows : 


"A few days after General Washington's return to 
Mount Vernon, I visited him in company with a countryman 
of mine, Col. Fitzgerald, one of Washington's Aides. At 
the dinner table, Mrs. Washington sat at the head, and Ma- 
jor Washington at the foot — the General sat next, Mrs. 
Washington on her left. He called upon me to ask a blessing 
before meat. When the cloth was about to be removed, he 
returned thanks himself. Mrs. Washington, with a smile, 
said, 'My dear, you forget that you had a clergyman dining 
with you today.' With equal pleasantness he replied, 'My 
dear, I wish clergymen and all men to know that I am not a 
graceless man. He goes on to say, 'I was frequently at Mount 
Vernon and saw him frequently at Alexandria, nor did I 
ever see any person, whatever might be his character or 
standing, who was not sensibly awed in his presence, and by 
the impression of his greatness. The vivacity and grace 
of Mrs. Washington relieved visitors of some of that feel- 
ing of awe and restraint which possessed them. He was 
uniformly grave, and smiled but seldom, but always agree- 
able. His favorite subject of conversation was agriculture; 
and he scrupulously avoided, in general society, topics 
connected with politics, or the war, or his own personal 
actions.' " 

The letters passing between Washington and Mr. Mc 
Whir were many. The latter, by his will left to his step- 
grandson, Edward J. Harden, as a specific legacy his writ- 
ing-desk, book-case, trunks, all of his papers, and one-half of 
his library. Among the papers were all the letters written 
to him by General Washington. It is unfortunate that, 
among the disasters caused by the War of Secession they 
were destroyed when Sherman's army took possession of 
Savannah. Let it not be understood, however, that this was 
the work of the enemy. It is supposed that the letters were 
among papers considered as family documents, and there- 
fore strictly private and confidential, left behind by the 
owner, with instructions that they be committed to the 
flames whenever the city should be entered by the Federal 
army. One of Washington's letters, relating to the edu- 
cation of his nephews while at Alexandria Academy, ap- 
peared in the Sparks edition of "The Writings of Washing- 
ton," vol. 10, page 37, but will bear repetition here : 

« Sir . "New York, 12 October, 1789 

"I have received your letter of the 18th ultimo, and am 
glad to learn from it that my nephews apply with diligence 


to arithmetic and English composition. These are two 
branches in which I have always thought them deficient and 
have ever been pressingly desirous that they should be made 
well acquainted with them. George may be instructed in 
the French language, but Lawrence had better apply him- 
self for the present to his arithmetic, writing, and composi- 

"As you have failed in your endeavor to obtain a math- 
ematical instructor, it is not probable that any success would 
attend an advertisement in a paper here. However, I shall 
have one inserted. I can give no particular opinion re- 
specting the boy whom yoU represent to be an uncommon 
genius. But I would cheerfully give any reasonable en- 
couragement towards the cultivation of talents which bid 
fair to be useful. 

"I am, Sir, etc." 

At the time the foregoing letter was written the re- 
cipient had been in charge of the Alexandria school about six 
years. He remained there three years longer, and that 
proves the fact of his long and intimate association with the 
man who had led the American armies to victory in the 
seven years struggle for independence. It was then not six 
months since Washington had been inaugurated as Pres- 
ident of the United States for the first term. Who was the 
boy represented as "an uncommon genius?" That we may 
never know; but we may indulge in the belief that 
both of the gentlemen did not let the matter drop, but that 
they saw to it that the talented youth was substantially as- 
sisted in having his talents cultivated. 

In the absence of proof to the contrary, we may suppose 
that Mr. Mc Whir's leaving Alexandria was caused by the 
desire to do better in a financial way. Indeed, we have the 
statement from one who doubtless heard him say it, that 
"his expenses of living in Alexandria were too great to jus- 
tify the expectation of being able to lay up any part of his 
income" and that accordingly he "was inclined to listen to 
an application" to go elsewhere. 

While at Alexandria he probably had little opportunity 
to preach, as we have no record of such service at that period 
of his life. It would seem that he had a desire to make some 
use of the education and preparation for the work of a pas- 
tor through which he had gone, for, upon invitation from a 
warm friend to visit Augusta, in Georgia, in 1792, with a 
view of taking charge of a church and school there, he de- 
termined to look the field over, and made the journey on 


horseback. He was not satisfied with the life at Alexandria, 
but was not pleased with the prospect that confronted him 
on his arrival in Augusta. He returned to Alexandria, but 
only for a short time. Convinced that a change was de- 
sirable, he went to Savannah, and thence to Bryan County, 
to visit some friends, and while there received a call from 
the citizens of Sunbury, then a place of some importance, to 
take charge of both the Church and Academy, then vacant. 
He accepted the call, and then began the long life of honor 
and usefulness in a field for which he was peculiarly fitted 
and which he filled admirably for many years. 

He was a man of remarkable energy, so much so that 
he almost broke down through the combined efforts in teach- 
ing and preaching, and after five years of constant labors 
and exercising of the brain he was forced to retire to his 
plantation nearby, which he had been enabled to purchase 
through the success he met with and to which he gave the 
name of Springfield. He was not, however, allowed to enjoy 
the pleasure of retirement for any length of time. At the 
urgent request of neighbors and friends, he opened a select 
school at Springfield which increased beyond his expecta- 
tion. Here also he preached the Gospel on Sundays, and 
again, after a few years, he had to give himself a rest. 
Shortly after his removal to his plantation he married the 
widow of Colonel John Baker of Revolutionary fame. He 
never had children of his own, but treated those of his wife 
with all the love and kindness that he could have shown 
had they been his offspring. 

His ability to teach lay particularly in his knowledge of 
the Classics. He was a thorough Greek and Latin scholar, 
and he had a remarkable talent for imparting to his pupils 
the principles upon which those languages are founded, 
so that a large percentage of them left him at the close of 
their schooling well grounded in those branches which were 
his specialties. 

He was very careful in the selection of his assistants. 
In order to secure the best that could be had, it was his cus- 
tom to examine all applicants so strictly that many who 
would have been glad to secure a position were unwilling to 
be put to the test through fear of being rejected. It is said 
that he related to a friend the following incident : 

One of the objects of his visit to the old country in 1820 
was to secure an assistant for his school at Springfield, and 
he inserted advertisements in several newspapers, but he 
was about to sail for America without having succeeded in 
finding one who met with his requirements in all particulars. 


The day before the date of the sailing of the vessel from 
Liverpool, while the schoolmaster was engaged in packing 
his trunk, a young man presented himself as an applicant, 
but Mr. Mc Whir told him he was too late ; that he did not 
have time to examine him; and that he would choose the 
assistant in the United States on his return there. The 
young man was very much disappointed saying he was anx- 
ious to go to America and had set his heart on obtaining the 
chance offered in the advertisements he had seen, and asked 
to be examined then and there. Seeing anxiety stamped 
upon the countenance of the youth, Mr. Mc Whir stopped 
the work upon which he was engaged, put the applicant to 
the test in all branches except Latin, thinking that then the 
strain would tell on him, and that the trial would result in 
his break-down ; but, greatly to his surprise, after picking 
up a book lying among the articles to be placed in the trunk 
and handing it, opened at a certain page, to him, and direct- 
ing the gentleman to put into Latin the English words indi- 
cated, the task was promptly and accurately done, and then 
and there the assistant was secured and sailed the next day 
with the head-master for his new home beyond the sea. 

As a sample of the way in which Mr. Mc Whir set to 
work to get the help he needed, an advertisement of that 
sort, taken from a newspaper of 1799, is here given : 


"I will give one hundred guineas a year to a gentleman 
of Character and abilities, who is disposed to remove to the 
flourishing and fertile State of Georgia, and engage as an 
Assistant in my Academy. 

"He must write an elegant hand, be a complete ac- 
countant, and well acquainted with the practical branches 
of the mathematics. 

"The situation is as healthy as any in this, or perhaps, 
any other State in the Union, an undisputable proof of which 
is, that my family consists of nearly fifty white persons, and 
almost twelve months have elapsed since any Physician has 
been called to visit it. 

"Letters, post paid, directed to me, Sunbury, Georgia, 
will receive a decisive answer in less than forty days from 
their date, if they contain satisfactory proof as to the char- 
acter and abilities of the applicant. 

Sunbury, Georgia, April, 1799. WM. Mc WHIR." 


He was always ready, notwithstanding the fact that he 
never had a regular charge as pastor, except for a 
short while at Sunbury, to be used in pastoral 
work and in the pulpit. He frequently preached to the con- 
gregation in the old Midway Church and in Savannah and 
elsewhere. His services in performing the marriage cere- 
mony were often in demand, as the newspapers of the time 
testify. By holding meetings in the Mcintosh County 
Court House, nearly twelve miles from Darien, about the 
year 1809, he was instrumental in organizing a church. 
That church was finally moved to Darien where Mr. Mc 
Whir had preached some time before the transfer was made. 
In both places he supported himself almost entirely, as his 
teaching paid him well, wherever he had a school. 

After relinquishing the charge of the Sunbury Academy 
for some years, and having met with the loss of some four- 
teen thousand dollars, through the great storm of 1804, at 
the urgent solicitation of the people of Liberty County, he 
again became the principal of that institution, and succeeded 
in bringing it up to the standard it maintained during his 
former incumbency. His health becoming impaired, he 
again gave it up in a few years, but for a third time retired, 
with the intention to abandon teaching as a profession, 
though long afterwards receiving pupils whom he taught 

In his life in Liberty County he was closely associated 
with a fellow countryman from Ireland, the Reverend Dr. 
Murdock Murphy, the regular pastor of Midway Church, 
and the friendship of these two men was sincere, affectionate, 
genuine, and of lasting duration. In the year 1815 Dr. Mur- 
phy presented his friend with a drinking cup which is now 
owned by this writer. It is in shape just like an old-fash- 
ioned tumbler, and, besides the date of presentation, 1815, 
bears on the outside these three significant inscriptions : 










and on the bottom : "Peace and Plenty." 

The writer has also the walking cane of Mr. Mc Whir. 
It is not known where or how the original owner obtained it ; 
but it is a curiosity in its way, and was probably carried by 
him wherever he went for many years, perhaps including 
his visits to General Washington, at Mount Vernon. The 
gold head has engraved on it, in monogram, "W. Mc W." and 




it has three silver bands, on which appear respectively the 
words "Faith," "Hope," "Charity." 

About the year 1819, he went to New York, to test the 
merits of the Lancasterian system of instruction, at that 
time the subject of much interest, in which cause he was 
aided by the distinguished Judge Ambrose Spencer and by 
the more distinguished De Witt Clinton, then Governor of 
New York. And just here it is perhaps the proper thing to 
quote what others have said concerning his qualifications 
and successful career in the matter of teaching. Says one 
well fitted to express an opinion on the subject: 

"The name of no man who ever lived in Georgia was 
more intimately identified with the cause of education, un- 
less the late venerable Moses Waddel be an exception. As 
a teacher, his chief merits were thoroughness of instruction 
and the most exact discipline, such as would, in these days, 
be esteemed too rigorous. He never enjoyed much repu- 
tation as a preacher, owing, no doubt, to the want of ready 
eloquence and the almost entire absence of that faculty of 
the mind called imagination. Nature and education seemed 
to have fitted him for the school-house." 

Another has placed these words on record : 

"Two generations sat at the feet of this venerable pre- 
ceptor. Fathers and sons in turn responded to his nod, and 
feared his frown. Although 

'A man severe he was, and stern to view/ 

so impartial was he in the support of whatever was just and 
of good report, and so competent and thorough as a teacher, 
that for more than a quarter of a century his numerous 
pupils found in him, above all others, their mentor, guide, 
and helper in the thorny paths of knowledge. Strongly did 
he impress his character and influence upon the generations 
in which he lived, and his name and acts are even now well 

Mr. Mc Whir's wife died on the 16th of December, 1819, 
and it so affected him that he was advised to take a long 
rest from his labors and to get away from the scenes of his 
prolonged and happy married life. He therefore took that 
opportunity to pay a visit to his only brother, then living 
in Ireland, and to look upon the last resting place of his 
parents. His diary, kept during this long trip, is in the pos- 
session of this writer, and contains much interesting matter 
concerning places he visited, and persons he met, and some 

♦This was in connection with the Sunbury Academy. 


extracts from it will now be made. Just before leaving the 
United States he had attended the meeting of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America, as a Commissioner from the Presbytery of Har- 
mony, of which he was a member. He was proud of his 
connection with the General Assembly, and in the diary 
mentions the fact that on several occasions while abroad he 
spoke, on invitation, of the action of that body on various 

He arrived at Liverpool on Sunday, July 16, 1820, 
stopped at the Waterloo hotel, and in the evening went with 
the proprietor and his wife to a church for the blind, con- 
cerning which he wrote: "Here my heart was rejoiced to see 
120 of those to whom, as Milton expresseth it, 'Light, the 
prime work of God, is extinct,' and who 'are dark amid the 
blaze of noon,' enlightened by the glorious rays of the Gos- 
pel, and comforted by the kind hand of Christian charity, 
and cheered with the hope of a blessed immortality. Never 
was I more delighted with music than in hearing their mel- 
odious voices unite in celebrating the praises of Him who 
hath called them from darkness to marvelous light." 

The next day he called upon Mr. Robert Bolton who did 
not wait long to return the visit, but exchanged the compli- 
ment next day and persuaded Mr. Mc Whir to be his guest 
during his stay in the city. During Mr. Bolton's visit, Mr. 
Maury, the American Consul called and spent an hour with 
the reverend gentleman. While at Mr. Bolton's he "dined 
with a company of the very first stamp which he had invited 
on my account ; among them was Mrs. Mather, and her two 
amiable daughters, distant relatives of the great and good 
Cotton Mather of America." Again, he remarks,"Mr. Bolton, 
I ought to have mentioned, conducted me to the Athenaeum, 
the first public library ever established in England, and that 
which has given rise to similar institutions in London, Bris- 
tol, Bath, and other places. This library consists of up- 
wards of 10,000 books, many of them very rare, valuable 
and ancient; some manuscripts, before printing was in- 
vented, and some modern works, bound more elegantly 
than any I ever before have seen. The books are not per- 
mitted to be taken out of the library, but there are elegant 
reading rooms to which the members have access the whole 
day. This causes the books to be much more clean than 
they would otherwise be." 

His account of the great Liverpool dock is interesting. 
He thus wrote on this subject : 


"Mr. Bolton also walked with me all around the New 
Dock, a most astonishing work which is carried on with 
great spirit by the Corporation of the City. It is 500 yards 
long, very broad, and at least 40, perhaps 50 feet deep, some 
parts of it cut out of solid rock, and where it is not the sides 
and bottom are lined with hewn stone, neatly and closely 
cemented with mortar, or bound with iron." 

He had letters of introduction to the Rev. Mr. Raffles 
whom he heard preach and who asked Mr. Mc Whir to ad- 
dress the scholars of his Sunday School. He called the 
place of worship a chapel, and explained that "Presbyterian 
places of worship are not honored with the appellation of 
churches." His health was not at that time at all good, and 
he decided "to visit the celebrated waters of Cheltenham, 
150 miles from Liverpool, to try their efficacy," but before 
going he spent an evening "with Mr. Priestley, a kinsman 
of Dr. Priestley, a very pious, Godly man, with whom I was 
much pleased, as well as with his amiable lady. He in- 
formed me that Dr. Priestley was the only person of the 
name that he knew of who was of Socinian principles, and 
that he lamented that he was not as good a theologist as 
philosopher." That was on the 24th of July, 1820. 

On the 26th he dined with three gentlemen, two of whom 
he named, Mr. Sherry and Dr. Stewart, and said of them 
"They are all men of science, especially the former (name 
not given) and Dr. Stewart are men of profound literature. 
Much, very much, is to be gained by their society ; and they 
were both very solicitous in their inquiries about the state 
of religion, the progress of the arts and sciences, etc., in 
America. And having so recently visited several of the 
United States, and been in the principal Atlantic cities, the 
information I was able to give them, from actual observa- 
tion, was more interesting, especially as I had attended 
Congress for some days, and had myself the honor of being 
a Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church of the United States. Dr. Stewart very po- 
litely offered to introduce me to the great and good Dr. 
Chalmers, should I visit Glasgow. This I considered a very 
great favor, and thankfully acknowledged it as such." 

On the 27th he set out from Liverpool for Cheltenham, 
expecting to stop in Birmingham, and his descriptions of 
places on the way are truly interesting. On the 28th he 
rested at the last named place, of which he said : 

"After breakfast took a walk to view the place which is 
large and prosperous, and entirely a manufacturing town. 
The streets are narrow and by no means clean. Butchers' 


shops are in every street, and here and there vegetable and 
fruit stalls scattered up and down the streets. The smell 
is intolerable, and such filth, in a southern climate, would 
assuredly create yellow fever. 

"I first visited the Eagle Foundry, the oldest estab- 
lishment in Birmingham, where castings of the largest size 
are made. I saw how it was done. While I was present some 
small articles were cast. Some single pieces weigh from 3 
to 4 tons. Here I met with Mr. Thos. Gibson, one of the 
largest manufacturers of almost every kind of iron ware. 
He makes iron wheel-barrows, gates, fences for fields and 
gardens, chairs, settees, porches, and porticos for houses, 
bridges of almost any size, etc., etc. He very obligingly 
showed me the whole concern, and took me to a place where 
the prospect both of town and country, was really grand 
as well as beautiful. Elegant houses, placed in good order 
in that quarter of the town, were surrounded by beautiful 
seats highly improved, with stately houses at equal dis- 
tances, every one of which had attached to it a fine garden 
and orchard, and in many places fine meadows and lawns 
covered with sheep, and in some places fat cows with udders 
distended with milk. Beyond these were rising hills and 
lofty mountains, raising their towering tops to the clouds — 
yea, far above the clouds of smoke and vapor which arose 
from the innumerable furnaces, founderies, and potteries in 
and about Birmingham." 

On the 29th, he entered this record in the journal: 
"At eight in the morning I set out for Cheltenham, an 
outside passenger, that I might better see the country, 
which is very hilly indeed, rather mountainous and naturally 
barren; but mostly under cultivation and in many places 
rendered productive by manure and high cultivation. We 
stopped several hours at a very fine town named Worcester. 
I was so unwell I could not eat dinner. But exerted myself 
to view the Cathedral, one of the most ancient buildings in 
England, and very large and magnificent. It is upwards of 
300 feet long, proportionably wide, and more than 70 feet 
in the story. Within its walls and under its roof rest the 
ashes of several Kings. And, as the custom of old was, 
the upper part of the tomb is a likeness of the deceased in 
polished marble, in full dress, or clad in armour agreeable 
to the fashion of the times, laid prostrate on the grave or 
tomb, in full size. And curious indeed are some of the 
dresses, and wonderfully ponderous the armour of ancient 
times. I lament now that I did not allow myself more time 
to take down some of the superscriptions and have a more 


accurate account of this very ancient and venerable edifice. 
The pulpit, its staircase railing and canopy, are hewn out of 
one piece of solid marble. My curiosity led me to ascend it 
and examine it minutely. And really when I reflected on 
the antiquity of the building, its magnificence, and the 
length of time that it had been devoted to the worship of 
Him who is and was and is to come, the same yesterday, to- 
day and forever — Himself without variableness or shadow 
of turning, amidst all the changes and vicissitudes of this 
world, I was struck with solemn awe, and think I was in 
proper frame of mind to worship the God of my fathers to 
whom that sacred place no doubt had been the gate to 
heaven. True, worship little better than idolatry had often 
been performed within these walls ; but dare we say that if 
the hearts of the worshipers were sincere, in the sight of the 
all-seeing, heart-searching and rein-trying God, that the 
sacrifice was not acceptable? I dare not say so, because the 
Sacred Oracles forbid me to judge unfavourably in this case." 

The same night he arrived at Cheltenham, and in the 
morning of the next day, the 31st, he went to the springs of 
which he had this to say : 

"After breakfast I strolled out and accidentally directed 
my course to the celebrated Springs. And I can candidly 
say that in my whole life I have never beheld a more charm- 
ing place. I shall not attempt to describe the elegant 
buildings, fine gardens, and delightful shady walks which 
all at once presented themselves to my astonished view. I 
say astonished, for no person had given me any intimation 
of the elegance of the place, and the high state of improve- 
ment to which it had already attained ; for it is only a place 
of yesterday, although it is now become so famous and so 
much noted for salubrity, gaiety, and fashion. Hither the 
nobility, as they are called, dukes, lords, earls, and such 
sort of folks come for health, more for pleasure, and 
some fine ladies and gentlemen to exhibit themselves. The 
men have something in them which I cannot describe — very 
different from American gentlemen. The ladies are much 
more affable, but not so handsome as the men. I did not 
see anything to incline me to think with Guthrie that a well- 
bred Englishman is the finest gentleman in the world. And 
among one hundred and thirty or forty persons in one 
house, at such a place, where so much brilliancy of dress was 
displayed, some intellectual excellence was to be expected; 
but I saw nothing of it. There was no appearance of pro- 
fanity ; neither was there of religion. Amongst other great 
men the Duke of Gloucester was there. I often saw him. 


He appears to be very simple, and indeed it is said he really 
is so." 

The first Sunday he spent in Cheltenham he was so ill 
that his physician forbade his accepting an invitation to 
preach for a Mr. Brown, but he went to church, and this is 
his record of the manner in which he joined in the service : 

"I attended Divine service, and, for the first time in my 
life, received the sacramental bread and wine on bended 
knees. Oh that the humble posture of my body may have 
assisted me to humble my soul before God, under a deep 
conviction of sin, and that I may be enabled to walk in new- 
ness of life to the glory of God ! ! !" 

On the 10th of August he talked to an audience on the 
subject of religious societies in America, including in his ad- 
dress the progress made and the interest taken in Sunday 
School work. His hearers were, from his account, very 
much interested, and somewhat surprised, by certain state- 
ments from his lips. He ended his record of the incident 
with this paragraph : 

"I told them that the very first people in our country 
send their children to Sunday Schools, both by way of ex- 
ample and to learn lessons of piety and habits of religious 
observance of the Sabbath ; and the sons and daughters of 
our most wealthy citizens found their only claim to nobility 
on the glorious privilege of being employed by the King 
of Kings and the Lord of Lords to train up His own child- 
ren for glory, honor and immortality, and thus be prepared 
to enjoy their heavenly inheritance. Some of the supercil- 
ious Royalists do not like to hear this ; but I felt it to be my 
duty to say the truth, and have nothing to hope or fear from 
them, only from neglecting to tell them the truth." 

The next day, the 11th, he made note of the fact that his 
physical condition, which he had hoped would be bettered 
by the use of the Cheltenham waters, had not improved, and 
added : 

"In the course of the day I received a letter from the 
Honorable Mr. Maury, enclosing an introduction to the 
American envoy extraordinary in London, and another to a 
Mr. Williams ; but all this did not make me feel well." 

He had a delightful experience on the 12th of August, 
1820, described by himself as follows : 

"Today a little after twelve it was proposed to me by 
a very agreeable party to make one with them to go about six 
or seven miles into the country to see the remains of a Ro- 
man Villa, as it is supposed, which had been discovered 
about two years ago in the parish of Great Wilcombe in the 


county of Gloucester. And I am rejoiced that the jaunt 
was proposed to me. For it really afforded me much pleas- 
ure. The day was fine, the road good, the country through 
which we passed beautiful, highly cultivated, teeming with 
plenty, and in many places the reapers busily employed in 
cutting down as fine wheat, barley, peas, oats, etc., 
as my eyes ever beheld. And the company was 
truly agreeable and social, three ladies and four 
gentlemen, one lady from the East Indies, one 
from France, daughter of Dr. Thomas, and the 
other an English lady, all well bred and intelligent. One 
gentleman, a physician from the Indies, another an officer 
belonging to the Bengal Engineers, the other a gentleman 
from the West Indies, an invalid, and myself from the U. S. 
of America. 

"The Roman Villa, interesting itself from its antiquity, 
becomes more so from the situation in which it is placed, 
which is truly romantic. It is situated on the brow of a 
hill, not very lofty itself; but surrounded on all sides by 
mountains, high and fertile, affording fine pasture which 
is everywhere covered with fine fat sheep. In many places 
are delightful fields of grain, on places so steep that one 
would scarcely suppose it possible to cultivate them on ac- 
count of their declivity. Several of the apartments of this 
supposed Villa have been cleared of the rubbish which had 
fallen upon them, and in many places mosaic pavements of 
small pebbles, or rather rocks, of various colours, white, 
blue, gray, and perhaps mixed colours, in which are repre- 
sented beasts, birds, fishes, crabs, etc., are very plainly to be 
seen. Small thatched roofs are placed over these beautiful 
pavements and on the old walls which appear to have been 
a little repaired before the covering was put over them. We 
gazed with delight upon these ancient remains of ingenious 
mechanism. We are informed that some pieces of ancient 
Roman coin were found in digging up the ruins, which 
leave no doubt on the minds of those who have seen them, 
that they are remains of Roman buildings. Baths, both 
hot and cold, are very plainly to be traced in the ruins. 

"The mind is struck with reverential awe when behold- 
ing the workmanship of hands which many centuries ago 
have mingled with the clods of the valley, and the works 
themselves, together with their possessors, entirely un- 
known. And this naturally leads us to reflect that we too, 
must soon go hence and be no more seen among men, and 
that the places which now know us, shall know us no more. 


We returned a little before 6 P. M., all much pleased with 
our excursion, as well as with each other." 

The delightful experience of suddenly, and without pre- 
vious notice, meeting a friend in a foreign land, and in the 
midst of entire strangers, is thus noted in his journal under 
date of Sunday, August 13, 1820. 

"I got out of bed in time to make preparation to go to 
the Spa, and also prepare for public worship. While I was 
sitting at breakfast with some friends, a young gentleman 
came up to me and said, 'Am I addressing Mr. Mc Whir?' 
I said, 'that is my name,' and who was it but a son of Cap- 
tain Stiles, of Savannah, who had come to Fisher's late the 
evening before. I was as glad to see him as if he had been 
a relative, and he apparently overjoyed to see me. There 
was not a person in the house whom either he or I had ever 
seen before, only that we had seen each other, and in the 
evening a brother of Mr. Stiles who had been traveling in 
France, in company with his brother, arrived at Fisher's." 

The same day his diary ended with this entry: 

"This evening after tea, the boarders assembled to- 
gether to hear me read the 'Narrative of the State of Religion 
in the United States,' as published by the General Assembly 
in May last. I was listened to with great attention, and 
concluded with prayer, and when I had done, many of the 
ladies and gentlemen, both old and young, surrounded me, 
shook hands, and thanked me for the information I had given 
them, which afforded them so much gratification. And most 
assuredly it afforded me sacred pleasure to see so much in- 
terest taken by so gay an assembly in a matter of such high 

On the 15th he gave an account of a trip to the town of 
Gloucester : 

"I took a trip to Gloucester, an ancient town 9 miles to 
the west of Cheltenham and about the same size. There is 
in it also a Spa well and elegantly fitted up. The water 
seemes to be saline, and very similar to the Cheltenham 
water. We visited the Cathedral which is said to have been 
built in 1300, or thereabouts. It is evidently very ancient 
and very magnificent. Its length 444 feet, breadth 90, and its 
height very great. We went to the top of the steeple by 
277 steps, the climbing of which exhausted me much. Here 
lie the remains of many ancient Kings and Nobles of civil 
and ecclesiastical dignity, in tombs ornamented with ele- 
gant sculpture and statues in the costume of the times in 
which they lived and died. In this town is a Gaol which is 
said to be the best in the Kingdom, but unfortunately it was 


the time of the Assizes, and we could not be admitted to 
see the inside of it. It stands on the bank of the river 
Severn which runs along the western side of the town of 

"We visited the Pin Manufactory which is very curious 
indeed. Men, women and boys are all engaged in making 
this small ware, for small wages. None of them can earn 
more than 6 pence a day, although they work from six in 
the morning till eight at night. The woman who puts the 
pins in paper told me that she gets only 2y 2 pence for putting 
24 sheets of pins in paper. This really requires diligence to 
make anything at all." 

While Mr. Mc Whir was on this foreign trip, and when 
in and about the City of London, the trial of England's 
queen, Caroline, was in progress, and he was in the great 
excitement which existed at that time. His remarks rela- 
tive to the event are not without interest. These are his 
words : 

"17th. Was an important day at London. This day 
came on the trial of the Queen for adultery. A trial, in the 
opinion of some, big with the fate of the Nation. The pub- 
lic mind being very much excited, I, even as a stranger, felt 
no small interest on this interesting occasion. That the 
happiness of a people, the very foremost to support the 
Gospel, should be endangered by the imprudence, to say the 
least of it, of two individuals, neither of whom is remark- 
able either for piety or prudence, is to be lamented." 

On the road from Bath to London he passed through a 
delightful section of country, at one time observing a large 
number of deer which forced him to wish that some of his 
friends in America, who were sportsmen, could see them 
and "have a crack at them," he added, "But this would have 
been almost as bad as treason, indeed worse than to curse 
the King at the present moment while the Queen's trial is 
going on in the House of Lords." On the same trip, on 
the 23rd of August, he had the experience which he thus de- 
scribed : 

"Betwixt Bath and London we passed nearly 40 stage 
coaches drawn by four horses each, apparently going at the 
same rate with us, and we traveled the 108 miles, from a 
little after 6 A. M. till a little after 5 P. M., and stopped 15 
minutes to breakfast and 30 minutes to dinner, besides 
changing horses about nine or ten times. 

"At last we entered the gate of the great City, but be- 
fore we had proceeded far, were obliged to stop, until an 
immense multitude, such as my eyes never before beheld, 


would pass. All were trying to see who could get 
nearest the Queen, who was returning in state, from the 
House of Lords where her trial was going on from day to 
day. Her Coach passed close by us and we had a full view 
of her, but Lady Hamilton, who was in the coach with her, 
concealed herself. We were stopped by the multitudes 
passing rapidly along, for almost two hours, crying with 
loud voices 'God Save the Queen!' 'God bless Queen Car- 
oline!' 'Long live our beloved Queen!' Hats everywhere 
waving and handkerchiefs streaming in the air, and every 
minute from the crowds 'Hats off!' 'Hats off!' I whispered 
to a gentleman near me in our coach, 'Suppose we, as loyal 
subjects of his majesty George the 4th, say aloud 'God save 
the king !' He replied that 'he supposed it would hazard our 
lives.' And this I firmly believed. But even if it had not, 
my loyalty to his majesty was not so great as to have spent 
my breath in this way. 

"About 7 o'clock the torrent of the crowd seemed to 
have passed and we began to move forward with some 
thousand others, some in coaches, some in post chaises, gigs, 
and on horseback, but more on foot, who had, like ourselves, 
wished to go on, when lo ! another crowd presented itself to 
our view rending the air with huzzas of 'Clear the way for 
the loyal subjects of Her Majesty coming with an unani- 
mous address from !' Then we were obliged to 

come to a full stop, until I know not how many coaches, 
each drawn by four beautiful horses, and containing some 
four and some six gentlemen with ribbons in their breasts, 
passed us, after which we at last got to the coach Inn." 

On the way to London from Bath he saw things which 
drew from him expressions of admiration as follows : 

"On our way to London we passed through a country 
the hills of which are chalk, covered over in most places with 
earth, some deep and some shallow. In one place you see 
at a great distance the figure of a very beautiful monstrous 
white horse on the side of a fine green hill. I could not tell 
what to make of it at first view, nor did I like to ask, till a 
passenger asked me if I saw it. I answered yes, and he 
told me that the gentleman to whom the estate belonged 
had employed an artist to have the earth removed from the 
surface of the chalk rock in that form. We also passed an- 
other, but by no means well done. We passed the house in 
which the great and good Mr. Addison lived and died, a few 
miles from London. And not far from his former seat is 
the residence of Dr. Herschel a few rods from the road we 
were traveling. We very plainly saw the huge platform on 


which he erects his telescope from time to time to view yon- 
der worlds entirely invisible to the naked eye and of which 
the greatest astronomers are only able to discover as much as 
is sufficient to convince them more fully how little they know 
even of those heavenly bodies which with great exertion they 
are enabled to discover. 

"We passed through Hounslow Heath, which is a beau- 
tiful place, uncultivated and unfenced. I believe it is what 
is here called a royalty; but what in America is called a 

"All along the road, for six miles before we come to the 
City, as far as the eye can see is thickly inhabited and culti- 
vated like a garden, indeed the greater part is laid out in 
gardens, or fields which are planted with garden stuffs. 

"About 15 miles from the City Winsor Castle presents 
itself to view. A great mass of ancient Gothic buildings, 
apparently verging to decay ; unless they are soon repaired, 
it is said they will be entirely useless as many of them al- 
ready are." 

Mr. Mc Whir did not return to America until autumn in 
the year 1821. In the meantime he went to Scotland, where 
he met Dr. Chalmers, and attended the sessions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and he visited 
Ireland, his native land, and staid in the place of his birth 
and saw the graves of his parents. 

He briefly described some of the sights of London, but 
we will not here quote further from his diary, except what 
he said as to a visit to the theatre in London and his ac- 
count of the resting place of father and mother at Moneyrea. 

One evening, having nothing else to occupy his time, 
he decided to witness a dramatic performance, and he en- 
tered this description on the pages of his journal : 

"This evening presented the best opportunity of effect- 
ing an object which I had long contemplated, namely, to 
visit the theatre, that I might really see and hear and know, 
from actual observation, whether the stage be really as cor- 
rupt, immoral and as dangerous as divines and moralists 
have represented it to be ; or whether, from the too general 
character of theatrical performances, as well as the tenor 
of many of the pieces which they exhibit on the stage, rigid 
moralists had not represented the thing in worse characters 
than it deserved. Perhaps candor would here oblige me to 
say that curiosity also somewhat induced me to go, not hav- 
ing seen a theatrical performance for more than 40 years, 
except such as had been executed either by my own pupils, 
or those of other academies. * * * These, and the like cir- 


cumstances, inclined me to hope that on actual observation 
I might find it not quite as bad as it is said to be. But here, 
alas! I was miserably disappointed. I saw virtue and re- 
ligion turned to contempt and ridicule ; the very best senti- 
ments of the best authors selected for profane mockery; 
and the most dangerous sentiments of the most deistical 
writers approved and applauded. Dueling, or murder, is 
represented as being honorable; seduction as laudable; 
falsehood and even perjury as venial; and, in one word, in- 
tegrity as dishonorable. I really cannot see how any mod- 
est woman or man can dare to go to these scenes of 
abomination and afterwards look each other in the face." 

Not included in any regular order in the book in which 
he recorded the account of his travels, but on a separate 
page, he wrote the following: 


"Such was my lameness for several months after my 
coming to Moneyrea, that I could not visit the tombs of my 
fathers notwithstanding my strong desire so to do. 

"But the 1st of February, 1821, I stopped at the meet- 
ing house, put up my horse, and went into the graveyard to 
spend an hour or two in the mansions of the dead. In 
solemn silence I passed from tomb to tomb, with eager 
steps, until I came to that under which lay the dust of my 
beloved parents. This drew many sighs from my heart, 
and tears from my eyes. But oh, how my heart was re- 
joiced when I read the character of my departed father, 
drawn on his tomb in a few words which I know to be the 

" 'Sacred to the Memory of Jas. Mc Whir of Montogh, 
who departed this life Jan. 13th, 1800, aged 75 years, in whom 
Piety, Justice and Charity were remarkably united/ 

"My Mother also, who had been long afflicted, was 
spoken of as being piously resigned to the will of her Heav- 
enly Father and very charitable to the poor. 

"This afforded me more pleasure than if they had be- 
queathed me a great worldly inheritance. 

"And almost every day, I hear from their contemporaries 
who yet remain, something or other in their praise. 

"A few days ago an old lady of more than 70, said to me, 
'Mr. Mc Whir you have traveled a great deal and seen 
many places and known many persons, will you answer me 
one question?' I said I would if I could. 'Did you in all 
your travels ever know two better men than James and 
Robert Mc Whir?'" 


The number of persons taught by the subject of this 
sketch, especially those who afterwards became prominent 
in the affairs of the State and in other parts, is enormous, 
and a list of them, if it were possible to make one, would be 

In August, 1872, Mr. William Hughes, County Surveyor 
of Liberty County, gave to the Hinesville Gazette, a list of 
the scholars who attended the Sunbury Academy in the year 
1807, when Dr. Mc Whir was the principal of that Academy, 
and Mr. James E. Morris was his assistant. 

Mr. Hughes mentioned the fact that at that time he and 
Judge William Law were the only survivors of those men- 
tioned, when the latter was 79 years old, and the former 
about four score years. 

The following is the list: 

Abigail James, Adam Somersal, Alex. Mcintosh, Alex. 
Mclver, Am'da Axson, Ann Maxwell, Ann Myers, Ann Pea- 
cock, Artemas Baker, Audley Maxwell, Caroline Fabian, 
Edward Footman, Elizabeth McCall, Elizabeth Jones, Eliza- 
beth Peacock, Elizabeth Wilkins, George Forrester, Hannah 
Maxwell, Hester Elliott, Hester Mcintosh, Harriet Croft, 
James Baker, James Bowen, James Bulloch, James McCall, 
James Mcintosh, Jr., John Baker, John Bulloch, John Cald- 
well, John Glass, John Jones, John Law, John Maxwell, 
John Mcintosh, John Pomeroy, Lach'n Cuthbert, Lach'n 
Mcintosh; Louisa Croft, Louis Latouche, Lucretia Cook, 
Maria Baillie, Mary Axson, Mary Law, Mary Mcintosh, 
Mary Osgood, Mathilda Elliott, Peter Goulding, Preserved 
Alger, Richard Cuyler, Richard Pomeroy, Samuel Lines, 
Sarah Maxwell, Sarah Wood, Susan Myers, Thomas Baillie, 
Thomas Baker, Thomas McCall, Thomas Stone, Thomas 
Winn, Wm. Baker, Wm. Cooper, Wm. Cuyler, Wm. Grum- 
ball, Wm. Hughes, Wm. James, Wm. Jasper, Wm. Law, 
Wm. Mcintosh. 

In 1824 he was persuaded that the need of the people 
of East Florida in the matter of religious instruction was 
great, and he went to St. Augustine where he organized a 
church and Ordained elders, and finally had the pleasure of 
seeing a suitable house of worship erected there. Then, 
always on the lookout for the opportunity of laboring in the 
cause of spreading the Gospel, he supplied vacant churches 
in the Counties of Bryan, Liberty, and Mcintosh from 1827 
to 1835. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was con- 
ferred upon him in 1832 by Franklin College, now the Uni- 
versity of Georgia. 


In 1838 he sold his Springfield home in Liberty County ; 
and from that time to 1847 he resided in Bryan County with 
his very dear friend Major William J. Mcintosh. In the last 
named year he moved to Savannah and fixed his home in 
the family of his step-grandson, Edward J. Harden. 

i Until within a short time of his death he performed 
the duties of a volunteer colporteur of the American Tract 
Society. It has been said of him that "until within the last 
ten or fifteen years of his life he preached occasionally, 
chiefly in destitute places, and at his decease he was prob- 
ably the oldest Presbyterian minister in the United States." 
The same writer mentioned this interesting fact: "His 
correspondence * * * was very extensive, and em- 
braced within its range several distinguished men, amongst 
them Gen. Washington, Dr. Chalmers, and Sir John Sin- 

Dr. Mc Whir died at the residence of Roswell King, 
Esq., in Liberty County on Friday, the 31st of January, 
1851, in the ninety-second year of his age. For many years 
before his death he was affectionately called by those who 
knew him "Father Mc Whir." 

His will was made on the 11th of December, 1847, in 
Savannah, and the preliminary item is in these character- 
istic words : "In the name of the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Spirit, three Persons but one God, I, William Mc Whir, 
Minister of the everlasting Gospel of Christ, and Member of 
the Old School General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, Do make this my 
last will and testament." The first regular item is "I com- 
mit my spirit to God who gave it and my body to the earth, 
hoping for a glorious resurrection through the merits of 
His Son Jesus Christ, and desiring that my body be buried 
at Sunbury with my dearly beloved wife, in a manner not 
too ostentatious, to be judged of by my Executors, the place 
of interment to be west of the resting-place of the late Dr. 
(Adam) Alexander, about eight or ten paces." 

Within a year or two after his death a monument was 
erected over the resting place of husband and wife, with 
suitable inscriptions for both. His inscription is here given : 



to the memory of 

Rev. William Mc Whir, D. D., 

who was born in the County Down, Ireland, 

and died in Liberty County, Ga., 

31st January, 1851. 

In 1783 he came to the United States 

and settled at Alexandria, Va., 

whence he removed to Georgia 

about the year 1793. 

His long and eventful life 

was devoted to the cause of Christianity 

and education, and his labors to promote these objects 

were eminently successful. 



On Occasion of Celebration of Municipal Centennial of the 
City of Augusta. 


One hundred years! A century! How great! How 
small ! What a mere span compared with the life of the 
human race, even when measured by the Mosaic account 
which attributes only six thousand years to man's presence 
on this planet! What a mere needle's point besides those 
eons, which in the belief of the learned of this age have 
elapsed in the building of the everlasting hills, in fixing the 
shores of old ocean, in hollowing the river's rock-bound beds ! 
Oh, the littleness of a hundred years, measured by the great 
facts of nature, which represent time too long for our minds 
to grasp or our thoughts to hold! Even in our habits of 
thought we belittle a century soon after it has drifted back 
into the boundless past. We are apt, for instance, to think 
of William the Conqueror and Richard the Lion Hearted as 
practically contemporaries ; yet a century and more rolled 
between them. Coming down nearly to our own times, we 
are prone, of course in a careless way, to regard our original 
thirteen states as belonging to the same period. Yet be- 
tween the oldest and the youngest there was a stretch of 
one hundred and twenty-five years. How little is a century ! 
And yet how great! A single one of many solemn facts 
attests its greatness. In its course it removes from beneath 
the sun and the stars, from under the bending sky, from city 
and from country, from hill and field, from the banks of 
rivers and from the riverless prairies, from the ocean's shores 
and from the ocean's waves — from every habitation and 
haunt of man, it removes, by the time it has run its course, 
every mortal whom it found at its beginning. If nothing 
else could be said of the greatness of a century than that it 
sweeps away before its close every mortal it found at its 
opening, we would say great and awful is a century of 
time ! 

While any subject might be selected for my discourse 
without violating any express condition of my commission 
to speak to you on this Centennial occasion, I feel, neverthe- 
less, that there is an implied undertaking on my part to 
make Augusta my theme. 

When I approach it, I find myself perplexed in deciding 
how to deal with it. Shall I transport myself, in imagina- 
tion and by the aid of records, to that point in Augusta's 


history, the centennial of which we are here to celebrate, 
and I live for a time only in it? Shall I, by the aid of tra- 
ditions and of contemporaneous documents, and confining 
myself to the one point of view, present a sketch of the place 
and its people as they were then ? This were easy and safe 
but meagre. Or shall I endeavor to lead you down the path 
of a century through all the story? This were long and 
tedious. Indeed, the subject is one which I find difficult 
and tiresome, for it holds nothing of thrilling, soul-stirring 

I trust that none of my hearers have come here expect- 
ing anything like a consecutive and detailed historical 
sketch of Augusta. To any such I must say at the outset 
that their expectations will not be fulfilled. I shall not say 
that they will be disappointed, for nothing, methinks, could 
be more interesting, even to the degree of dreariness, than 
a minute recital of the uneventful history of a small town 
during the course of a hundred years. Such is the drama 
of human life, that in no year of the hundred have there not 
been episodes and experiences of more absorbing interest 
to the actors therein than the history of wars or famine or 
pestilence or any of the tragedies in the lives of States. But 
their interest lived and died with the actors in them, the 
memory of them has perished, and, even if it could be re- 
vived, it would invoke no interest from the living of today, 
absorbed, as they are, by the concerns of the all exacting 
present. Certainly, too, there have lived in Augusta in the 
century, the close of which we are now celebrating, citizens 
in all walks of life, in all its avocations, of peace and of war, of 
whom any city may be proud. But if I should undertake to 
speak of them, what could I do in the compass of this oc- 
casion but present to you a catalogue of names? Homer 
could make a catalogue interesting and even poetic, as when, 
in the close of the second book of the Iliad, he gives a list 
of the ships that sailed from Greece and her islands and the 
men they carried to the siege of Troy, and called the long 
roll of the defenders of that devoted city. But a less than 
Homer should not undertake such a feat. 

The way, in part at least, in which I shall endeavor to 
comply with the expectations of the occasion, will be to 
present to you pictures of Augusta at various periods of her 
history, and, as if a hundred years were not field enough, 
I will go back to her very origin one hundred and sixty- 
three years ago. 

The first thing to do for the infant then just beginning to 
live was. to name it,, and the loyal Oglethorpe gave her the 


name of the Princess Augusta. Augusta, unlike some of 
her neighbors, has not been moved to change her name be- 
stowed by her father in her infancy. Atlanta, for instance, 
commenced life as "Marthasville." Of course she could not 
be expected to tolerate long so plain a name as that, sure to 
be corrupted into "Marthysville." Its rusticity could not 
comport with the fine airs and metropolitan ways she was 
soon taking on. She must have a name suggestive of great- 
ness, vastness, expansion as wide as ocean or at any rate as 
far as to the shores of ocean. Think of the great and bril- 
liant "Gate City" covering all her glory with the name of 
"Marthysville !" But Augusta, whether because her 
name had been chosen more wisely at the first or because 
she is proverbially conservative and slow, has been satis- 
fied to retain the name she received from her sponsors in 

Let us take a glimpse of this infant in her cradle. The 
striking feature of the little Augusta was then, as it is now 
and ever will be while waters seek the sea, the noble river 
which bathes her northern limits. Not only was it and is it 
and ever will be it, her great feature, but it was her cause. 
Because a water highway could connect her with Savannah 
and thence with the mother country and the world, Augusta 
came into existence. How beautiful was her tutelary river 
then ! The axe had not denuded its banks. The plowshare 
had not reduced its hillsides to red powder to stain forever 
its then crystal waters. The willow and the reed dipped 
into its stream on either bank, lining with emerald both 
sides of an unpolluting conduit for its waters. Noble forests 
came down to its very edge and spread their shade far over 
its bed. Between such banks and in such shadow flowed a 
vast volume of water, clear and cold as the springs from 
which they took their source. Over rapids the beautiful 
river came with a roar, or through long stretches it flowed 
in impressive silence. But ever, in roar or in silence, the 
same clear limpid water, a suggestion of which is given us 
dwellers in this age sometimes in a long autumnal drought, 
but the perfect beauty of which is lost forever. In this 
glorious stream abounded such fish as rejoice in clear 
waters. The fresh water mussel, to which mud is death, 
was found in myriads, furnishing food for man, and a pearl 
of no mean beauty as an ornament — for woman. No wonder 
that the Indian haunted the shores of this magnificent river 
as of a Pactolus, a river of gold for all his wants. Not 
strange that along its banks the school boy still finds the 
frequent Indian arrow head. No wonder that the archaeolo- 


gist unearths on its islands the populous Indian burying 
ground — for where men live their graves soon outnumber 
their habitations. 

The existence of the rapids a few miles north-west of 
this spot, presenting an impassable barrier to further navi- 
gation of the river except by the canoe of the Indian de- 
termined the general site of the town. The high bluff, 
emerging here from the alluvial lowlands decided its par- 
ticular location. 

But why, it may be asked, was this settlement made at 
all at that period? There were thousands of square miles and 
millions of acres of fertile, finely watered and nobly timbered 
lands between Savannah and this bluff below the rapids, 
sufficient to provide the increasing population for genera- 
tions with ample farms and plantations. Why was this 
extensive intervening region left unpeopled by the white 

Again, what was to be the business of this isolated and 
remote settlement? 

Both questions may receive one and the same answer. 
It was the trade with the Indians. Pelfry, skin of every 
kind, including even that of the buffalo, which were in 
those days a not distant neighbor to the spot where we are 
now assembled, was the staple of a brisk trade with the 
aborigines. I read in the sketch which our fellow towns- 
man, Mr. John North, has lent me, of the half-breed Ger- 
man Cherokee Indian, Se-quo-yah, or George Guess: 
"Augusta was the great center of this commerce, which in 
those days was more extensive than would now be believed. 
Flatboats, barges and pirogues floated the bales of pelf to 
tide water. Above Augusta trains of pack horses, some- 
times numbering one hundred, gathered in the furs and car- 
ried goods to and from remote regions." 

While there was a strong element of romance and ad- 
venture in this trade, the threading of the primeval forests 
by mere paths, the constant association with nature pre- 
senting here a novel and virgin aspect, the floating down a 
beautiful stream of limpid waters between banks covered 
with noble and variegated growth, gorgeous with flowers 
and musical with the song of birds — so different from the 
dusty beaten paths of commerce in this prosaic day, alas ! I 
fear that these sentimental features of the situation had no 
effect on the keen traders of that day. Trade is trade. Its 
ultimate objective is money making. It is successful only 
when it brings profits. It is most successful when its pro- 
fits are greatest. Primitive nature, grand forests, noble 


rivers, song birds, the jasmine, the wild honeysuckle, the bay 
and magnolia about its paths do not modify its essential 
spirit. So we find our trader, who gave importance to in- 
fant Augusta, plying his avocation not for the romance 
which in that age accompanied it, but for colossal profits. 
I read in the same sketch as follows: "The trader imme- 
diately in connection with the Indian hunter expected to 
make one thousand per cent. The wholesale dealer made sev- 
eral hundred. The governors, councils and superintendents 
made all they could. It could scarcely be called commerce. 
It was a grab game." 

History repeats itself! The poor Indian was the real 
producer in this business. With tireless foot, with scanty 
food, with, at the first at least, ineffective weapons of the 
chase, in sunshine and storm, through forest and across 
streams, by day and by night, he pursued the beasts of the 
woods. His labor, his fatigue, his hunger, his privation, at 
last have the reward of a skin stripped from the deer or the 
buffalo. More weary leagues to get his pelf to the trader. 
There the fruit of the toil and danger of the chase is ex- 
changed for a few colored beads, a yard of cheap calico, or 
at most a few ounces of powder and a scanty weight of lead, 
and the trader has closed a transaction — "made a deal" — 
which pays him one thousand per cent, profit. 

Thus history repeats itself. Then, as now, trade fur- 
nished greater rewards than production. Then, as now, the 
producer toiled for its benefit more than for his own. 

The chapter in Augusta's history which I have thus far 
considered, extended from its first settlement in 1735 to the 
outbreak of the Revolution. During this period it grew 
steadily, but its population even at the end of the period was 
probably not high up in the hundreds. 

If anything of man's work of this first period remains, 
I do not know it, except a few streets and their names — Cen- 
tre, Broad, Ellis, and Reynolds. 

The Revolutionary history of Augusta is most interest- 
ing. But I shall. not dwell on it, for the reason that less than 
a year ago at this same place, and in the hearing of sub- 
stantially this same audience, an eminent citizen of the State 
delivered a most eloquent and exhaustive oration on that 
subject. Nothing of interest, whether of matter or style, of 
form or of substances, could be added to that masterly pre- 
sentation by Hon. Emory Speer. It was heard by you at 
the time with deep interest, and doubtless abides fresh and 
vivid in your memory. I shall only say in passing that the 
little town witnessed deeds of valor by friends and foe not 


surpassed on more imposing theatres. It also witnessed 
acts of barbarity, not only by Indian allies, but by men of 
our own race, not outdone by the alleged horrors of the 
Cuban war. For, my hearers, war is war, war is cruel, war 
is barbarous, war makes fiends of men, whether they be 
Spanish or Anglo-Saxon, whether they strike for conquest 
or for freedom, whether they fight to impose or to shake the 

The next division in the history of Augusta covers the 
years between the close of the Revolutionary war and the 
end of the century. I shall call this the "Tobacco Age." 
Up to the war, it may be said with substantial accuracy, 
that the life of Augusta, its reason to exist, was the Indian 
trade. The little agriculture which existed near and around 
it was for the purpose of home support. Nothing left it for 
export except the peculiar yield of the forest. Nothing 
came to it from beyond the woods seaward, but the articles 
to be exchanged for these sylvan products and a few staples 
for consumption by its meager population and on a few out- 
lying, not distant plantations. But by the end of the Rev- 
olutionary war the yield of the forest had greatly dimin- 
ished. Its denizens themselves were fewer. They were al- 
ready feeling the pressure of deadly civilization, and, de- 
pressed in spirit, were retiring towards the setting sun. 
The red man was still not an infrequent figure in the little 
town. The deer skin — but no longer the buffalo robe — In- 
dian ponies and various simple articles of Indian handiwork 
were still brought to Augusta for sale or barter. But this 
commerce had shrunken to a very slender rivulet compared 
with the great stream which a few years earlier had flowed 
through the little town. But now, first to supplement and 
then to replace this waning traffic, came the tobacco busi- 
ness. As we are informed by that conscientious and ac- 
curate historian, who to our great sorrow departed from 
our midst a few years ago, Charles Colcock Jones, the set- 
tlers from Virginia brought them the seed and the cultiva- 
tion of this plant. The industry soon attained in soil and 
climate admirably adapted to it, large and flourishing pro- 
portions. Government tobacco warehouses were estab- 
lished at various points in the interior of the State west and 
north-west of Augusta, and were presided over by govern- 
ment inspectors. To these warehouses the tobacco was 
brought by the producers of the contiguous country, was 
inspected, weighed and packed in hogsheads, all under gov- 
ernmental supervision. The market where this tobacco was 
to pass from the hands of the producer into the hands of 


the merchant was Augusta. How did it make the journey 
from the interior warehouse to this mart? Some of it, in 
districts contiguous to the Savannah, floated down the river 
in boats, the precursors of the Petersburg merchantmen of 
the present day. But the most if it made the trip in a mode 
v/hich, as far as my knowledge goes, was peculiar to this 
trade and absolutely unique. The day of pack horses, suf- 
ficient for the transportation of loads of small bulk but com- 
paratively large value, as pelfry, was passed. The wagon 
roads of the country were few. The wagons themselves 
were not numerous. So, as Col. Jones tells us, "the hogs- 
head or cask being made strong and tight and having been 
stoutly coopered, was furnished with a temporary axle and 
shafts to which a horse was attached. By this means it 
was trundled over the country roads to market." 

Thus for a while Augusta was, as greatness went in that 
day, a great tobacco market, and whether nurtured by skins 
or tobacco it continued to grow. Under the conditions of 
transportation of that age it could not but grow. A navigable 
river flowing past its doors to the ocean gave it an immeasur- 
able advantage over any place not similarly situated. What 
would have become of poor little "Marthysville" having no 
river, without the railroads? But the lordly Savannah was 
to Augusta as the Thames to London, the Tiber to Rome, 
and the Nile to all Egypt. So, by the end of the century 
Augusta had grown to be a very flourishing town of about 
2,000 inhabitants. 

It was in this tobacco age, but when it was waning, and 
at the opening of the next period, which I shall call the cot- 
ton age, that the event occurred of which we are now cele- 
brating the 100th anniversary. In January, 1798, the Legis- 
lature incorporated the freeholders residing in a certain area, 
which may be roughly described as lying between the river 
on the north and Telfair street on the south, and between 
Elbert and Marbury streets on the east and west. The 
charter then granted has never been repealed. We live un- 
der it at this day. Movements have been made from time 
to time of late years to substitute a new charter for this ven- 
erable instrument; but they have come to naught. It has 
been built upon and enlarged in some particulars to meet 
the wants of a later civilization, but in its essential parts it re- 
mains as it was in the beginning. A most liberal and com- 
prehensive "general welfare" clause, which provided: "The 
said City Council shall also be vested with full power and 
authority to make such assessments on the inhabitants of 
Augusta, or those who have taxable property within the 


same, for the safety, benefit and convenience of said city, as 
shall appear to them expedient," has served the city a good 
turn on many an occasion, when progress in public works 
would otherwise have been arrested for lack of some spe- 
cific authority from the Legislature to the City Council. 
But this provision of the charter has lost much of its benefi- 
cent elasticity since the constitution of 1877. 

I trust that this audience will, at this point in my re- 
marks, permit me the indulgence of a gratified feeling by re- 
minding them that the first executive of the city, intendent, 
as that official was then called, inaugurated on the occasion 
which now, after the lapse of one hundred years, we are cele- 
brating, was my grandfather, Thomas Cumming, then 
just completing his thirty-third year. For thirty-six years 
thereafter he resided in Augusta, leading and closing here a 
life which, I trust I may be pardoned for speaking of as that 
of the good and just man, "vir integer vitae scelerisque 
purus," the good citizen, seeking no office, but avoiding no 
public duty. He was not only the first intendent of the 
city ; he was also the president of its bank, and held that of- 
fice from the foundation of the bank until his death in 1834, 
the old Bank of Augusta, chartered in 1810, and pursuing 
its honorable and prosperous career until swept away, like 
so many hitherto solid institutions, by the great war be- 
tween the states. If a breath of reproach ever attached to 
the name of this good citizen, it has not reached the ears of 
his descendents of this day, who still in the fifth generation 
cherish his memory and seek in it inspiration for unambi- 
tious and faithful citizenship. 

The next period in the history of Augusta I shall call the 
"Cotton Age." By the opening of the century, near whose 
close we are now standing, the cotton gin had come into 
common use. With climate and soil adapted the best in the 
world to the cultivation of cotton, with this product itself 
more universally adapted than any other to all the uses for 
which cloth is needed, whose place in preceding periods was 
supplemented and inadequately supplied by the fabrics of 
wool and flax and silk, its cultivation had been discouraged 
previously by the impracticability of separating the fibre 
from the seed. Where this result was effected at all it was 
accomplished slowly, laboriously, expensively and scantily 
by hand. Whitney's cotton gin produced a stupendous in- 
dustrial revolution. It is a fact of no small interest in con- 
nection with the history of Augusta that Whitney manu- 
factured his gins at a little factory, the power of which was 
furnished by the little Rocky Creek on the plantation of the 


late Mr. John Phinizy, now almost included in the present 
boundaries of the city. 

At once the kingdom of a new and great monarch, King 
Cotton, rose to power. Practically all the cultivable land in 
Georgia and Carolina was speedily embraced in his wide do- 
main. The comparatively feeble forces of tobacco and in- 
digo were promptly subdued and banished into the unre- 
turning past. This great potentate made rapid and ex- 
tensive inroads on the primeval forest. In the service of 
this great king roads were opened ; and at the right season 
of the year, in the beautiful autumnal weather, when the 
skies were at their bluest, when the air held a light haze, 
softening and mellowing the landscape, when the forests 
were glorious in their robes of turning leaf, these roads 
were crowded with the royal progress of the king from the 
interior of his realm to the great outer world. Right merri- 
ly did his majesty descend from his rural seats to his busy 
mart. In those days, when the railroad was not, fine teams 
of mules were the motive power of land transportation. 
Great care was taken in their selection and pride felt in 
their equipment. A part of the equipment was a bow of 
bells, raised high over the withers of at least the leaders of 
every team. These were not the dull little tinklers of the 
horse car, heard only when that now almost obsolete affair 
is close upon the foot passenger ; but bells — bells that rang 
loud, clear and musical on the still autumnal air. And thus, 
with music along his route, coming up from the valleys 
and resounding from hill top to hill top, King Cotton came 
marching down. 

Let us pause here and unroll a map of this period before 
our mental vision. Our map shall have no regard for State 
lines. It will be in the form of nearly half of a circular disc, 
whose base line shall run through Augusta as its centre. 
This half circle shall have a radius of 200 miles, and shall 
sweep around the city from a point 200 miles north-east of it 
to a point 200 miles south-west. Throughout this region 
cotton is raised. In this truly vast area where is there a 
cotton market but Augusta? Atlanta, Macon, Columbus, 
Chattanooga, Athens were unborn. Where could the cot- 
ton come for a market but to Augusta? 

All roads led to our little city. As the traveler even of 
this day still occasionally encounters the old Roman mile- 
stone in every part of Europe, with the Roman inscription 
"S. P. Q. R.," "Senatus populusque Romanns," reminds us 
of the time when all roads led to Imperial Rome, so through- 
out the region I have sketched all the milestones, to have 


their truest significance, should have marked the distance 
to Augusta — Augusta on the Savannah. 

Where could the cotton come except here? Why must 
it, of necessity, under the conditions of that age, come hither? 
Oh, the river, the river ! Our Thames, our Tiber, our Nile ! 
It beckoned it to its banks and solicited it to embark on its 
bosom. Here, then, it was in fact collected. Hence, in the 
first years of this century, in flat boats and barges, and later 
by steamboats, it was floated down the river to Savannah, 
where it found itself at the gateway of the outer world. So 
already at the commencement of the century one hundred 
thousand bales of cotton found a market in Augusta, and 
one hundred thousand bales represented then many times 
the amount of money enclosed in the same number now. 

This period was Augusta's most prosperous. Without 
rivals, without competitors, she collected on the banks of 
her fostering river the wealth producing crop of a vast trib- 
utary, and gathered in its magnificent proceeds. For the 
boats, at first barges and flatboats, and then several distinct 
fleets of steamboats, which took the cotton to the port, 
brought back the hardware, the groceries, the dry 
goods, the furniture, in a word all the necessaries 
and luxuries of life of that age, for consumption 
in that extensive back country, from which the 
cotton was drawn. The wagons which brought the 
staple to Augusta, marched back with the same 
merry chimes, laden with the merchandise I have mentioned 
for the use of the producers of the cotton — master and 
slave — in the interior. How easy then for the merchant of 
Augusta to grow rich. It is true the one thousand per cent, 
profit of the Indian trader was a thing of the past. Even the 
three or four hundred per cent, of an earlier generation of 
Augusta merchants had ceased. Still his profits were very 
large. And they came so easily. How little of wear and 
tear was in his life ! How different from the strain on the 
faculties of the business man of this day ! His at first week- 
ly, then semi-weekly mail was received. It was then his 
business to write in reply a few of those formal, ceremon- 
ious, stilted letters of the priod, which he subscribed, 
"With great esteem and distinguished consideration, I have 
the honor to be your obedient, humble servant." This 
done with great deliberation, not to say solemnity, and the 
letters turned over to a clerk to be copied by hand, there was 
nothing to make even a ripple of excitement in the business 
life of your solid merchant of that age until the arrival of 
the next weekly and semi-weekly mail. Our tormentors, 


the three or four daily mail deliveries, and those fiends of 
modern life, the telephone, the telegraph and the "ticker," 
afflicted him not. What steadiness of nerve, what sweet- 
ness of temper, ought not your merchant of that time to have 
had! What piety, too, for with his leisurely, easy going 
life, he could attend church Sunday, and was not obliged to 
make that day one of literal and absolute rest of body and 
brain to repair the ravages of six days of physical and mental 
tension. The fortunes of that period are in a large measure 
what Augusta is living on at this day. The struggles of 
these later times have been considered successful if they 
have been able to keep the accumulations of that period 
from being worn away by the attrition of many years of 
"hard times. " 

The next period of Augusta's history I shall call "The 
Manufacturing Age." The immediately preceding period, 
which I have just been speaking of as the "Cotton Age," 
was not only the time of Augusta's greatest prosperity to 
her own people, but also of her greatest relative importance 
to the rest of the world. At that time she dominated com- 
mercially a wide territory, in which she found not a single 
rival. She possessed in the Savannah river a magnificent 
highway of the only kind then used for heavy traffic, be- 
tween herself and the outer world. In the last quarter of 
that period, it is true that a new kind of highway, one, as the 
future was to show, of stupendous potentialities, was ex- 
tended to her doors from the sea. I refer to the old South 
Carolina Railroad. But this rather added to than subtracted 
from Augusta's relative importance ; it diverted no com- 
merce from her, and it increased the facilities of that which 
she already had. 

But all this was soon to change. About 1840 the Geor- 
gia Railroad became a potent factor in Augusta's history. 
Its tendency, so long as it was merely a local road, extending 
100 miles or so into the interior, was not so much to bring 
trade to Augusta — for that trade already came by the wagon 
roads — as to build up rival markets in the interior. More- 
over, Macon, Columbus, Athens and other places in the in- 
terior began to divide with her the commerce of a back 
country, which was once all her own tributary province. I 
shall not dwell tediously on this evolution of a new situa- 
tion. Suffice it to say that the relative, if not absolute, de- 
cline of Augusta was apparent. At this time thoughtful 
and public spirited citizens realized the fact that something 
must be done to invigorate her languishing life. The 
scheme which commended itself to them was the construe- 


tion of a canal to furnish water power for manufacturing pur- 
poses. The result was the old Augusta Canal, constructed 
between 1845 and 1847. This project did not at first meet 
with unanimous approval. Respectable and conscientious 
citizens opposed it on honest grounds of public policy. I 
shall not weary you with the details of that struggle. I 
shall not even pause, though sorely tempted to do so, to say 
a few words of affectionate eulogy of that private citizen, 
the originator and master spirit of the enterprise, who in the 
midst of an exacting professional practice, and with the 
cares of a large family, gave, as president of the Board of 
Canal Commissioners, several years out of the prime of his 
life to unselfish and gratuitous devotion to this public work. 
This old canal was a slight affair compared with the present 
work, which was brought up from its former small estate 
to its present magnificent proportions, under the adminis- 
tration as Mayor and largely by the wise measure of our 
venerable fellow citizen, Mr. Charles Estes, who still abides 
with us.* Neither was the first effort at manufacturing on 
the canal successful, but it failed not from any inherent er- 
ror in the general idea of making Augusta a manufacturing 
centre, and the failure brought no discouragement to this as- 
piration. The old canal accomplished its purpose. It di- 
rected the business thought of Augusta into an additional 
channel. Previously nothing was considered but commerce. 
Naturally, for trade had made Augusta one of the most 
favored places in the country. When that trade began un- 
mistakably to withdraw from her, it is not strange that she 
became alarmed and felt the forebodings of death. But 
since the advent of the Manufacturing Age a new stream of 
life has been coursing through her veins. 

The next period in the history of Augusta was "The 
War Age." Short it was, compared with the shortest of 
other periods, but not to be measured by its duration in 
years as to the place it will hold in her history. It is true 
that Augusta, unlike in this respect many Southern towns, 
knew not the actual tramp of hostile armies ; but she knew 
and felt the exaltation and the bitterness of war in every 
other aspect of the dreadful scourge. How glorious, too, is 
her war record! Of the military companies forming her 
volunteer battalion in the peace time preceding the war, the 
Clinch Rifles, the Oglethorpe Infantry, the Irish Volunteers, 
the Richmond Hussars, the Washington Artillery, all went 
promptly to the field with full ranks and took their places 

* Mr. Estes was born February 2, 1819, and died March 26, 1917, a 
few weeks after his 98th birthday. 


in the earliest organizations of the Confederacy. But these 
old and already historic companies were but a fraction of 
those which Augusta sent to that great conflict. There were 
at least ten other companies which came into life with that 
crisis. All these were at "the front," and most of them from 
the beginning to the end of the struggle. That meant that 
there were men constantly falling in their ranks and new 
men going to take their places. Besides this, not a few 
young men of Augusta for one reason and another joined 
military organizations elsewhere. I think I am safely with- 
in bounds when I say that first and last Augusta sent two 
thousand of her sons to the battlefield. How many of these 
were numbered among the "unreturning brave I" How 
many returned only on their shields ! 

But that was not all. There was the front and there 
was the rear. There was the field where the men battled, 
and there was the home where the women waited. There 
were the brave hearts in the camps, and the aching hearts 
by the firesides — not in a few homes, but in all. There were 
mingled sorrow and pride, grief and joy — sorrow for the 
fallen, pride for the hero. Grief for the death of dear ones, 
joy for their glorious memory ! We who are still living and 
were living then know that that was the period of Augusta's 
highest as well as intensest life. We know that that was 
the time when the sordid, the selfish, the commercial in us 
was subdued by our higher nature. While we live we can 
attest with our tongues the nobility of Augusta in her war 
period. But in a few more mornings such witnesses will have 
taken on the silence of the tomb. Well then is it that en- 
during monuments commemorate that period of Augusta's 
history. They will ever be her most glorious memorials. 
As the stately shaft in her principal thoroughfare towering 
heavenward is the loftiest of all her monuments, so it marks 
the culmination of her spiritual life. In the time to come 
great railroad systems may rear huge habitations for them- 
selves on her soil. Successful commerce may build them- 
selves palatial exchanges within her borders. Learning may 
here construct for itself some vast temple, dedicated to books 
and science. Religion itself may here uprear ostentatious 
fanes. But while God and man rate the spiritual above the 
material, self-sacrifice above self-indulgence, duty above 
success, so long will the private soldier of the Confederacy, 
fronting the eternal east from the top of that noble column, 
be a type and memento of Augusta's highest life. Spare it 
ye forces of nature ! Disturb it not, thou dreadful earth- 
quake! Pass it by, ye destroying cyclone! Blast it not, 


thou deadly lightning! Touch it not, ye frosts, with in- 
sidious fingers ! Guard it, ye spirits of air and earth, that it 
may speak to distant ages of Augusta's noblest and highest 
life ! 

But one other period remains — the period stretching from 
the close of the war to the present day — which I shall call 
"The Iron Age." Primarily I so denominate it for the rea- 
son that it is the period when the iron road has become a 
tremendous factor, an upbuilder or destroyer, in the history 
of towns and cities. Augusta, like all other industrial cen- 
tres, has felt the influence of this force, whose enormous de- 
velopment is a thing of this post bellum period. I make 
bold to believe that that influence has been on the whole 
beneficial to Augusta. I cannot explain her steady and sat- 
isfactory growth on a contrary supposition. But I would 
not discuss that intricate question on an occasion like this. 
Suffice it to say that she has become and is a very important 
railroad centre, from which distribution can be made in all 
directions, inward and outward, to the land and to the sea. 

But I have called this period "The Iron Age" for an- 
other reason. There has ever been among the myths of the 
human race a belief in a golden age. The characteristics 
of that mythical period are ease and plenty, love and peace, 
life blessed with good things acquired without effort, and 
crowned with tranquil happiness. Those same traditions 
have ever taken note also of an "Iron Age." That age has 
always been the then present. The dwellers in every period 
have regarded it as an iron age. Pressed with the hard con- 
ditions, the bitter struggles of life, they have been prone to 
regard the past and the future as more to be desired than 
the present. Their thought has been : Life was easy in the 
past; it will be happy in the future. In the past it was 
golden in its beauty and excellence. Now it is iron in its 

Very justly, I think, we may call this latest period of 
Augusta's history an iron age in a business sense as com- 
pared in the same sense with the golden past. The strug- 
gle for business success in these latter times has been severe. 
The conditions, not merely locally but generally, have been 
unfavorable. Notwithstanding, to her credit be it said, she 
has gone ahead. She has taken no step backward, but many 
forward. She has grown, and she has taken to herself in 
nearly every particular the fruits of a progressive civili- 
zation. But why should I prolong this already too tedious 
discourse by speaking of this phase of her history to those 
who not only know it, but have made it? 


Thus, with no design on my part to distribute Augusta's 
life up to the present hour into seven ages, like Shakes- 
peare's division of man's life, I find that it has naturally and 
of itself fallen into those parts. And now, one lingering 
look backward and I am done. 

We dwellers in this age, looking over this relatively 
long period, have just grounds, as citizens of Augusta, to 
be gratified at the retrospect. From the day she came into 
life, an isolated outpost of the white race, a speck of civili- 
zation in the wilderness, down to the present hour, her 
course has been respectable, honest, honorable. True, no 
brilliant "boom" period with its inevitable reaction finds 
a place in her history. But her progress has been steady 
and her advance always held nullum vestigium retrosum. 
The little settlement at the head of navigation, perched on 
the very bank of its river of life, has gradually spread far 
and wide over the adjacent plain and climbed the sides of 
its circumscribing hills. In the bitter times of war, she has 
risen heroically to the fullest measure of patriotic duty. 
In the long periods of blessed peace she has been conspic- 
uous for her civic virtues — the chiefest of which are law 
and order and financial integrity. Of these, she now reaps 
the rich reward in credit unsurpassed and in respect un- 
feigned. In time of pestilence, which has twice visited her 
habitations, she has had the fortitude for the trial and has 
uttered no cry for help. When swept by devastating 
floods, she has found in her own stout heart and in her own 
reserved resources, strength to meet the ordeal, and has de- 
clined, not churlishly but proudly, all proffered assistance 
from without. All this she has done without the blare of 
trumpets or the beating of drums or the waving of flags. 
Quiet, self-contained and self-sufficient, she has maintained 
her steady way onward and upward. Our fathers and our 
fathers' fathers planted wisely, and if from that far shore 
whither they went long since, their vision could revert to 
this time and this expansion of their work, they would know 
that those who came after them have been true to their trust 
and their opportunities. 

Why, then, should I withhold high-sounding words in 
speaking of Augusta? Why should I hesitate and falter at 
the epithet "great?" Wherein consists the greatness of a 
city? Not in population. Athens, the light of whose great- 
ness in art and arms shines on and on down ages, would 
have been engulfed in the population of any of a thousand 
cities of inglorious Cathay. Sparta and Thebes, great and 
immortal, how slender were they in population ! Rome was 


already great when her citizens were less numerous than our 
own. It is the quality, not the number of citizens that makes 
the greatness of a city. The patriotic in war — the law abid- 
ing and honest in peace — the constant in adversity — on these 
firm foundations is built a city's greatness. 

Then, oh, Augusta, strong in this test, call thyself 
"Great!" For once sound a loud trumpet, blow a clear 
clarion blast to the world, proclaiming in tones not to be 
challenged, thy real merits ! And hope for thyself — aye, se- 
cure for thyself — excellence in all the time to come. My 
people are of the same blood and lineage as of old. Civic 
virtue is prized as much now as in the days of our 
fathers. The soil that nourished them is equally generous 
to us. The atmosphere in which they lived lives of industry 
and usefulness, many of them through four score years, 
plays about your heads. The same beneficent sky bends 
over us. And our river ! With it my story began, and with 
it will end. Oh, our river! Shorn of much of thy pris- 
tine beauty, thou art strong and beneficent still, thou great 
and lordly Savannah! Thou everlasting traveler from the 
mountains to the sea, didst lure the little Augusta to nestle 
on thy banks. Here thou didst nourish her infancy. Thou 
didst give her strength as she grew. In time thou didst 
bring her wealth. Thou art still beneficent to her, furnish- 
ing her drink, for her fighting the fire fiend, for her turning 
the wheels of her factories. Let no man think thou art not 
also still the guardian and protector of her commerce, not 
dead but sleeping. At any threat of danger to 
her prosperity, thou mayst awake and, as of old, 
show to thy beloved city how powerful thou canst 
be in her behalf. For thy God-built highway all 
the works of puny man are impotent to abolish or 
annul. Augusta's fostering river still flows by her gates 
and will do so forever. Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis 


A Report to the Georgia Medical Society, May 3, 1806. 


Few things are more common and few more painful to 
most minds than the practice of making apologies, as it im- 
plies on the part of the person making them an error, an 
omission, a neglect, or a carelessness, which, though some- 
times pardonable, is frequently reprehensible. 

The following report is offered as a compliance in part 
with an obligation imposed by the Society on Doctor Schley 
and myself nearly twelve months since, and imperfect as it 
now is, I have thought it best not longer to delay it, and thus 
deservedly incur more censure. For not doing it sooner, 
I have to observe that I have been for a consid- 
erable time waiting for my colleague to prepare his 
portion of the report, and for replies to some queries ad- 
dressed to a gentleman of this place, which, though often 
promised, I have not yet had furnished me. 

The city of Savannah is built on the south side of the 
river of the same name, about seventeen miles from its 
junction with the Atlantic ocean. Its site is a level and ele- 
vated sandy plain, in length from East to West Broad 
Streets about 1300 yards, and in breadth 475. Its course 
N. W. 77° 30' and N. E. 12° 30'— variation of the compass in 
1805 was 6° 30' east. 

The plan of the city is highly judicious, being laid out 
into large squares, and the streets intersect each other at 
right angles. The width of the streets is perhaps one of the 
most objectionable parts of the plan; the central streets di- 
viding the wards, not exceeding 75 feet, and the two others 
in each ward being only 37y 2 feet. The wards are subdi- 
vided into Tythings which are divided by a lane 22j/ 2 feet 
wide. These are also objections to the general plan, as they 
serve as receptacles for filth. The squares laid out at a late 
period are each 275 by 270 feet, including the streets, except 
Jefferson, Lincoln and Price streets, each 50 feet wide. 
East, West and South Broad streets are 100 feet wide. 

The distance from the line of the Bay, the top of the 
Bluff, is calculated according to the curve of the river, and 
varies from 175 feet at East Broad street, to 250 feet at West 
Broad street. The height of the Bluff varies considerably, 
and in many places the ascent is almost perpendicular. 
About the lower end of the city it is 35 and 40 feet high, de- 


creasing to about 30 feet at Abercorn street and continuing 
(with little variation) of this height to West Broad street, 
from thence to Farm street distance 800 feet, the decrease 
in the height of the Bluff is about a foot in every 100. From 
Farm street to the marsh on the western side of the city the 
descent is very gradual, and the distance on an average about 
500 feet. Persons who have resided many years in the city 
have observed a visible increase in the height of the Bluff, 
arising from the action of all winds between N. W. and S. E., 
which blow the sands from the bottom to the top. 

From the west boundary line of the old city to the Fort, 
the Bay is planted by a double row of trees at about twenty 
feet distance from each other, forming a pleasant walk in the 
summer months, adding to the beauty of that part of the 
city, and contributing to its healthiness in a considerable 
degree. These trees as also most of the others, very gen- 
erally planted in the city, are what are generally known by 
the name of the Pride of China or India, by botanists entitled 
Melia Azedarach, are admirably calculated for our soil and 
climate. They are easily reared, speedy in their growth 
and afford a thick and almost impervious shade to the rays 
of the sun. 

To the members of this Society these slight geograph- 
ical observations may appear unnecessary, and probably 
thought unconnected with the subject of this report. But 
it may be observed that to gain a correct knowledge of med- 
ical topography, we should possess some information re- 
specting the face of the country, its elevations and de- 
pressions; the quantity of and proportion of low and high 
grounds ; the number and magnitude of streams, and various 
other local circumstances. In relating facts and detailing 
alterations which have been produced by the art and indus- 
try of man, or by fortuitous causes, in the face of a country, 
we should not confine our views solely to the present mo- 
ment. To those who succeed us, it may be satisfactory to be 
informed what was, and they may be enabled to calculate 
what may be. The knowledge of apparently trifling cir- 
cumstances in the geography and topography of a country 
when taken in the aggregate, frequently lead to important 
deductions, unfold facts, which otherwise would remain ob- 

Excepting that part of the city which lies below the bluff, 
it is not in general very compactly built, and with few ex- 
ceptions, the buildings are of wood. The common south of 
the city extends nearly east and west the whole length of it, 
and south about half a mile to the woods. Like that part 


now built on, this is almost a perfect level ; the evenness of 
the surface being only interrupted by a few excavations and 
ridges ; the remains of ditches and parapet and other walls 
formed for the defence of the city during the revolutionary 
war. These are now almost effaced in most places on the 
south side of the city, but at the east end contiguous to the 
old fort they are still very considerable, and the fortified 
lines may almost be traced. 

Spring Hill, so called from its being the source of some 
never failing streams of water, is the most considerable emi- 
nence within the limits of the town. One of these springs 
supplies a distillery with water, which is afterwards dis- 
charged into the neighboring low grounds. Between Spring 
Hill and Savannah River there are several hollows, or gul- 
lies but they are not of such a nature as to influence the med- 
ical topography of the place. There are two tan yards at 
the west end of the city, contiguous to each other, and vats 
for a third have been made but not yet applied to their in- 
tended use. South of these, about two hundred yards from 
Spring Hill are the places for slaughtering cattle. 

The depository for the dead is a large square inclosure 
within a high brick wall, about seventy-five yards from the 
buildings on South Broad street and a little south of this is 
the burial ground for negroes and other people of color. 
While the neatness and spaciousness of the former, together 
with the attention which is properly bestowed on the inter- 
ment of the dead, is worthy of commendation, the extreme 
carelessness (bordering on an indelicate want of feeling to- 
wards a race of unfortunate beings) which is too commonly 
evinced in burying the negroes, merits the harshest censure. 
The fact is known, that their bodies are sometimes scarcely 
covered to a depth sufficient to prevent the depredations of 
turkey-buzzards and other carnivorous animals. Decency, 
humanity, that sacred respect which we should pay to the 
remains of the deceased, and a proper regard for our own 
health, exclaim against the practice.* 

Contiguous to the woods bordering the south common 
are some small ponds which are generally dry in the sum- 
mer season unless it proves to be very rainy. 

♦Subsequent information has induced me to modify the remarks in 
this passage. The negroes have a place of burial allotted them — are 
permitted to bury their own dead, and if improperly done, the censure 
should attach to them exclusively, if my information be correct. The 
indelicate interments I have noted "were of some Africans and to their 
masters belong the shame and dishonor of such acts. 


The soil of the city is sand, free from any admixture of 
loam or clay, which last is only partially found at the depth 
of several feet. The water which is used for drink and cul- 
inary purposes within the city is pure, cool and healthy. 
It is about the temperature of 68° of Far., and is found at 
different depths, varying from sixteen to twenty-four and 
twenty-five feet, increasing nearer the Bay, being greater at 
the Fort, and least at the western end of the city. Though 
it lathers easily with soap, and does not, I believe, hold in 
solution any mineral particles, it sometimes affects strangers 
(producing diarrhoea) who have been accustomed to the 
softer water of springs, wells and rivers. This effect 
seldom lasts long. There are, perhaps, but few places situ- 
ated like Savannah, and so near the ocean, in which the water 
is more cool and pleasant. Does this arise altogether from 
its filtration through the sand? 

As imperfect as this sketch is, it would be still more so 
if the situation and nature of the contiguous country was 
not to be noticed. Whether it was contemplated that the 
view should be extended beyond the narrow limits of Sa- 
vannah, I know not, but it is so evident that there is such an 
intimate union between the medical topography of the ad- 
joining lands and the state of the atmosphere, consequently 
influencing disease and health, in fact it is so clearly ascer- 
tained that they are the principal sources of those causes 
which produce great disease, that no apology is required for 
taking a slight view of them in this report. 

Hutchinson's Island, situated immediately in front of the 
city, extending several miles above, and some distance be- 
low, is a low piece of land, and is sometimes overflowed both 
from freshets and high tides. It divides Savannah river in- 
to two branches, and the greater part of it is cultivated in 
rice. The land on the north side of the back river is similar 
in its situations and adapted to the same culture. The dis- 
tance from Savannah to the Carolina shore is a little more 
than a mile. Adjoining the east and west boundaries of the 
city the ground was originally swamp, but it is now con- 
verted into rice fields. 

About S. W. and S. E. from the precincts of Savannah 
there are considerable swamps principally remaining in a 
state of nature. Their precise extent I do not know, not 
having had it in my power to get the requisite information. 
Both sides of Savannah River from the city to the ocean con- 
sist of extensive swamps which still remain uncultivated, ex- 
cept for a few miles on the south side. The land above the 
city on the main is also cultivated in rice. 


From what has been stated a few deductions may be 
drawn, and I claim the indulgence of the Society while I 
make such remarks as, springing from the nature of the sub- 
ject, present themselves to my mind. First, the plan of the 
city, exclusively speaking, particularly in a climate like ours, 
is calculated for healthiness, it admits of a free ventilation 
in all parts of it except below the bluff, where the influence 
only of winds from N. W. to N. E. are felt. 

Second, situated on a plane consisting of sand which re- 
tains the heat of the sun's rays and refracts them strongly, 
and possessing few declivities to carry off superfluous mois- 
ture, it might on the first view be imagined that these cir- 
cumstances alone would make it unhealthy. But the loose- 
ness of the soil is in some measure a preventive of those ef- 
fects which otherwise might ensue from its levelness, when 
heat has acted for a considerable time on vegetable and ani- 
mal matter with moisture. It admits the absorption of 
water with facility, hence it never stagnates more than a few 
hours unless after a very inordinate fall of rain or in places 
where the ground is hard on the surface. 

Third, while the nature of the soil on which our city is 
built does not permit the stagnations and consequent putre- 
faction of water, it is favorable for the collection of animal 
and vegetable filth. To remove these a scavenger is ap- 
pointed, but the duties absolutely belonging to his office are 
unfaithfully performed, and much matter that should be re- 
moved is suffered to collect and remain on the open lots, 
squares and principal streets of the city. Evils are the con- 
sequence of this carelessness, and they will become more ex- 
tensive in their influence in proportion as our city becomes 
thronged with inhabitants. 

Fourth, it would be laying a partial stress on a real evil, 
if I were not to notice the filthy state in which most of our 
yards and back buildings are kept. This comes in general 
more immediately under the cognizance of the eye, and I 
dare to say that there is no one here who has not, 
and who does not daily witness the fact. It needs not 
the power of reasoning to elucidate the mischief which is the 
offspring of domestic uncleanliness, and it is not a matter of 
much surprise that evils are deservedly the result. 

Fifth, the experience of ages, and the observations of 
discerning and enlightened men in almost every country, 
particularly by Lancisi in Italy, all tend to confirm the truth, 
that trees contribute to purify the air, and wherever planted 
by nature or art between mill-ponds, swamps, or marshes, 
and dwellings, towns or camps, oppose a partially success- 


ful barrier to the progress of impure exhalations.* The ad- 
vantage then to health in the sickly months, of the trees 
planted on the Bay, is evident, but as tending to arrest the 
miasmatic particles from the immense and prolific source of 
them in their front their power is but feeble. t Their num- 
ber should be increased, and as being equally neces- 
sary, the line should be continued to the west end 
of the city in front, and also extended along its 
eastern, southern and western sides. This subject 
merits the attention of our corporation, and a few 
hundred dollars thus expended would add to the beauty of 
our place, the convenience, pleasure, and health of our 

Sixth, from the slight view which has been taken of the 
nature and extent of the low grounds in the vicinity of our 
city, it will be observed that it is nearly surrounded by 
swamps, marshes and rice fields, consequently when long 
acted on by a hot sun, producing putrefaction, and an emis- 
sion of mephitic particles, a vitiated air must be the effect, 
and diseases the inevitable product. 

Seventh, as acknowledged as is the influence of states 
of the weather upon the diseases which accompany and suc- 
ceed them, it is plainly a melancholy fact that from the na- 
ture of our climate, and the existence of causes riveted to it 
and to the soil in the vicinity of Savannah, it must ever re- 
main unhealthy. From time immemorial these causes have 
been known to produce multiplied diseases, and how much 
greater and more septic the exhalations are in the months 
of September and October, after the rice fields have been 
drained and the rice cut, and when to hot days succeed cool 
nights, with great dews fraught with the poison extricated 

♦In the works of the author just mentioned there are several letters 
confirming the truth of the salutary effects of forests, and containing 
multiplied reasons against the destruction of some woods in the 
Papal Territories, which has been proposed to be destroyed. Quota- 
tions might be multiplied on this head. 

tThe fact is well supported that the atmosphere of the open sea, 
and also over large bays and lakes whether the water be fresh or salt, 
is favorable to health, unless contiguous to unhealthy shores. Doctor 
Lind has limited the influence of marsh exhalations to three leagues. 
This must vary from circumstances. The- quantum of poisonous mias- 
mata must be in proportion to the extent of the surface from whence 
they issue. Thus, though the exhalations from a source of a quarter 
of a mile or even a mile square may be so blended with the air as not 
to extend their deleterious influence to the distance of one or three 
miles, particularly if there be an intervention of woods or very ele- 
vated ground. We may very readily conceive the reverse will fol- 
low where there is an extent of marshy surfaces for twenty or more 
miles. Such parts as are covered by the diurnal motion of the tides 
are much less injurious. 


during the day, let the increase of diseases say — let the fatal- 
ity in those months declare.* 

Eighth, if it should be asked what are our most healthy 
winds, I would reply that as their purity depends on the na- 
ture of the ground over which they blow, I believe the south- 
ern and western are most so. The salubrity of the former is 
lessened from the immense quantity of various filth im- 
properly deposited on the south common and all the winds 
from the north-west to the south-east inclusive, sweeping in 
their progress an extensive surface of swamp and rice fields, 
necessarily take up those particles which lessen their purity 
and are unfriendly to health. Local circumstances then, 
whether they be of a natural or fortuitous nature, influence 
the healthiness of winds, and hence a north or a west wind 
may be salubrious in one place, but the reverse in another. 
This, I repeat, is solely determined by the nature of the 
ground they last pass over. It is a fact commonly noticed 
that winds which prevail here in the last summer and first 
autumnal months from the east, though coming from the 
ocean, are peculiarly unhealthy, produce an almost immedi- 
ate sense of oppression and lassitude, and very commonly 
produce relapses. An explanation of this has been already 

♦The pernicious effects which ensue from the exposure of the 
muddy surface of low grounds to the action of the sun might be pre- 
vented, for it is well known that while marshes, mill-ponds, rice fields, 
etc., are covered with water to a depth sufficient to prevent its pu- 
trefactions, they are not injurious. But as soon as they are drained 
evaporation takes place from the very mud, and this increased by the 
putrefaction of vegetables and small animals which may have found 
support in the water. The destruction of vegetables in cultivated or 
uncultivated low ground produces similar effects as draining them. 
Tworeasonsmay be assigned for this: First, because the shade of vege- 
tables protects in a great degree the moist ground from the rays of 
the sun, and secondly, the experiments of Mr. Ingenhousz and others 
have shown that vegetables purify the atmosphere by absorbing the 
noxious portion of it, and during sunshine emitting pure air. Hence, 
the propriety and evident good which results from bordering marshes, 
and mill-ponds with as many trees as possible, particularly such as 
are of speedy growth as the willow; and, hence, also, the evils of 
draining rice fields to get off the crop might be avoided by overflow- 
ing them again, and letting the water remain until frost. 




Nothing gives clearer idea of the advance made by a 
community or state than a detailed recital of its condition in 
the more or less remote past. 

The comparison between the limitations of one period 
and the expansion of a later day ; between the quiet, sleepy, 
little town and the bustling, thronging city; between the 
sparsely settled country and the great commonwealth with 
its teeming population and varied industries, is always an 
absorbing subject for contemplation. Indeed, this it is that 
gives the charm to History. No part of "Macaulay's Eng- 
land" is more engrossing than that portion of his first chap- 
ter in which he so graphically describes what our old Mother- 
land was in the days of which he wrote ; what the manners 
and customs of the people, what their amusements, their oc- 
cupations, their surroundings. Side by side with all this, 
place our knowledge of the great Empire of the present day, 
and we arrive at a comprehension of its history that the dry 
record of dynasties and wars, parliaments and ministerial 
changes — important though they all may be — could never by 
itself impart. 

Reflections of this character have induced the writer to 
believe that a few reminiscences of Savannah as it was in his 
early boyhood may not prove uninteresting to the readers 
of the Quarterly. The city of today was then but little 
more than a town of very moderate proportions. Accord- 
ing to the United States Census of 1840, its entire population 
amounted to only 11,214 — of these, 5,888 were white and 
5,326 colored. 632 of the colored people figured as "free per- 
sons of color," the remainder were slaves. The same census 
reported the population of the great city of New York as 
312,710, and Boston 85,000. 

In the U. S. Census of 1850 Savannah is put down for 
15,312, an increase of 4,098 in 10 years, or, a little over 36*^ 
per cent. — a fair indication of healthy growth. 

The river marked the northern boundary of the city. 
On the east there was a fringe of houses beyond East 
Broad street and beyond them a grassy slope, (site of "The 
Trustee's Gardens" in Colonial times) and the remains of 
an old earth-work erected, I believe, during the war of 1812. 
This last gave the name of "The Fort" to the entire locality. 
A few industrial plants, a shipyard, sawmill, cotton press, 
etc., extended a little further down on the river front. The 


Ogeechee Canal bounded the city on the west though the 
area built upon did not reach its banks ; a broad common in- 
tervened, a grazing place for cattle and a favorite resort for 
ball-players — not the scientific baseball of the present day 
but a more modest game conducted, however, with the same 
amount of noisy enthusiasm. The section west of West 
Broad street was known then, as now, as "Yamacraw" and 
between the boys who lived there and those of "The Fort" 
there was bitter and ceaseless rivalry which not unfrequent- 
ly resulted in black eyes and bloody noses. Beyond the 
canal there was nothing save very low land, partly cultivated, 
and marshes making in from the river. The splendid collec- 
tion of railroad terminals, warehouses, mills and factories 
of one kind and another that now bear testimony to the 
city's prosperity in that quarter, had then no existence. 
None of them were even dreamed of ; he would have been 
called a visionary indeed who had ventured to predict them. 
On the south, Harris street was the limit in 1840 excepting 
in the eastern and western suburbs. I distinctly remember 
standing in 1846 or 7, at the corner of Oglethorpe Barracks, 
where the DeSoto Hotel now stands, and seeing no buildings 
south of me but two which had recently been erected, the 
residence of Mr. John N. Lewis on the S. W. corner of Bull 
and Charlton streets, and that of the Gallaudet on Jones 
street where the headquarters of the Y. M. C. A. were so 
long located in later years. Toward the south-east was the 
old county jail and its enclosed yard occupying ground on 
which the handsome Low and Cohen residences were after- 
wards built. From Harris street to Gaston the city common 
extended, a broad grassy stretch of land much frequented in 
the summer season by sportsmen for shooting night-hawks. 
At Gaston street the pine forest began and continued in- 
definitely to the south except where broken by a negro cem- 
etery, and the stranger's burial ground, situated, if memory 
serves me, just south-east of the City Hospital. 

Running east and west through this forest and crossing 
Bull street near where the fountain now stands in Forsyth 
Park, was a very wide deep ditch dug to carry ofT surface 
drainage water to the lowlands lying to the eastward; the 
White Bluff road crossed this by a wooden bridge. 

Reference has been made to the old jail; I can recall 
having been taken there by my nurse, when a very small 
boy, to carry some message she had been charged with, to 
a gentleman then imprisoned there for debt. There comes 
before me a dim recollection of a large room the door of 
which had to be unlocked to let us in. It was occupied by 


eight or ten impecunious gentlemen, all more or less "en dis- 
habille" all smoking pipes, and several of them busy with 
cards. It seems to have been the custom to release such 
prisoners on parole under certain circumstances and limita- 
tions. There stood in Wright Square, for a great many 
years, a stone bearing the cabalistic letters, "J. B." My 
youthful mind was long puzzled as to their meaning until 
told that they stood for "Jail Bounds," and that the stone 
marked the point beyond which the paroled might not pass. 

There were many features about the old town that would 
seem queer to the present generation. For one, the 
fact that there was not a paved street throughout its length 
and breadth, while in some of them there were even no side- 
walks. Every street was a bed of heavy sand through 
which wheeled vehicles had to plough their way as could 
best be done. With every high wind clouds of dust were 
stirred up to the great discomfort of pedestrians and of 
housekeepers. The first attempt to remedy this state of af- 
fairs was the building of a plank road from the Central Rail- 
road depot down West Broad and Bay streets to the wharves 
beyond East Broad, thus connecting our only commercial 
feeder from the interior of the State with the shipping that 
was to carry away cotton and other products to northern 
ports and to Europe. This road was considered a great ad- 
vance in civilization and there was an inclination among 
Savannahians to boast of it. 

It did not last very long, however; exposure to the 
weather and the heavy traffic over the planks soon made a 
new road necessary and this time it was of cobble stones. 

The water supply of the town was drawn entirely from 
wells. An old-fashioned wooden pump was located in each 
one of the public squares and at the intersection of the 
broader streets, such as Bull and Broughton. There 
were also wells in some private yards but to these 
the general public did not have access. It goes without say- 
ing that the water was more or less polluted by drainage 
from the surface and there can be no doubt that for a great 
many years this was a serious detriment to the health of the 
city and contributed largely to its reputation for sickliness, 
a reputation that stuck to it long after the causes for it had 
been removed. 

The lighting facilities were even more primitive; they 
consisted of a single oil lamp at each pump, "only this and 
nothing more." In these, whale oil was burned, the illumi- 
nating power of which was exceedingly limited ; beyond a lit- 
tle circle around the pump there was Cimmerian darkness on 


such nights as the moon did not happen to be shining. 
Looking back upon the manner in which those who lived in 
that day were supplied with these two necessities, water and 
light, it is difficult to understand how they got along, yet 
get along they did, and doubtless no less happily than those 
of us now who have all that modern science can give to 
meet those two great wants. 

The communications of Savannah, by sea, with ports 
along the coast were fairly well kept up by steamboat lines 
to Charleston on the north and Darien, Brunswick, St. 
Mary's, Jacksonville, Palatka, etc., to the south. Sundry 
lines of sailing craft, barks and brigs mostly, furnished the 
only means of reaching New York by water, and they were 
freely patronized in the summer months by persons of leis- 
ure, seeking relief from the hot Southern climate. The 
names of some of these vessels will be remembered by our 
older citizens : The ship Hartford ; barks Exact, Peter De- 
mill and Isaac Mead ; brigs Macon, Wilson Fuller, Philura, 
Excel, Augusta, etc. 

They were staunch sea-going craft, well commanded 
and comfortably provided, but small affairs after all, the av- 
erage being only about 330 tons. To Philadelphia there was 
a line of schooners averaging a little under 200 tons each. 

In 1848 on resolution of the City Council, a census of the 
city was prepared by Mr. Joseph Bancroft, and published 
for general information. In this pamphlet the following an- 
nouncement appears: 

"The Steam Ship Packet Line, 
Between Savannah and New York." 

"Of this projected line, one ship is already launched and 
in process of completion, and will be on the route between 
this port and New York in September, and a second one is 
contracted for, to follow her, and will be ready in March 
next. The two will form a weekly communication next sea- 
son. These ships are about 1200 tons each, unsurpassed in 
strength, in beauty of model and solidity of machinery. All 
the latest improvements will be in them which experience 
has suggested, and they will be entitled to succeed. They 
will cost $170,000 each, and are partly owned in Savannah." 

"Padelford & Fay, Agents in Savannah, 
Samuel L. Mitchell, Agent in New York." 

A steamer of 1200 tons does not seem a leviathan in 
these days, yet everything in this world is relative, and I 
doubt if any one of the great floating caravanseries with 


which we are now familiar, ever received a more enthusi- 
astic welcome at its port of arrival than did the wooden side 
wheel steamship Cherokee and her consort the Tennessee 
as, in accordance with the above prospectus, they sailed up 
the muddy waters of the Savannah. There was, on each oc- 
casion, a tremendous crowd on the wharf to meet the new 
boats, and a rush to get on board as soon as the gang plank 
was adjusted that was like a Caruso night at the Metropoli- 
tan Opera. 

Mr. Bancroft's census gave some very interesting fig- 
ures concerning shipments from the port during a series of 
years. From these we learn that the total exports of cotton 
were as follows : 

In 1839 199,176 Bales 

" 1840 284,249 " 

" 1841 147,280 " 

" 1842 222,234 " 

" 1843 280,826 " 

" 1844 244,575 " 

" 1845 304,544 " 

" 1846 186,306 " 

" 1847 234,151 " 

Comparing these figures with later ones, it will be seen 
that in 1913 the year before the outbreak of the present war, 
the exports of cotton from Savannah were as follows : 

To foreign ports 1,121,780 Bales 

Coastwise 586,912 " 

Total 1,708,692 - 

Under the heading "Pauperism," Mr. Bancroft had this 
to say, which is good reading for all who love the old city, 
and suggestive reading to any northern friends who may still 
regard our "peculiar institution" as "The sum of all the vil- 
lainies." He says: 

"On this subject, in published statistics of places, it is 
usual to give some particulars. In many cities of our coun- 
try the subject is a fruitful and almost a frightful one. But 
Savannah is blessed in almost an exemption from this calam- 
ity of human nature, and little or nothing can be said of its 

"Under her peculiar institution her slaves are taken care 
of. The free blacks are generally in comfortable circum- 
stances ; and, for the relief of the poor and destitute whites 


in her midst, institutions abound which charge themselves 
with alleviating their wants. A beggar is rarely seen in her 
streets, public charity is always ready, and private charity 
never lacketh." 

The Fire Department of that day prided itself on effi- 
ciency and probably it would have borne favorable compar- 
ison with that of any one of the smaller cities of the United 
States. The Department proper was composed entirely of 

A Chief Fireman, two or three assistants and two of- 
ficers for each engine company. I do not know whether 
these gentlemen were paid or not, but it is my impression 
that their services were entirely voluntary, a free-will of- 
fering to the public welfare. 

There were some eight or ten fire engines, two or three 
hose carts and a hook-and-ladder truck, all of which were 
drawn and worked by hand power. Each engine was man- 
ned by a company of colored men in whom there was a great 
spirit of emulation and pride of organization. The com- 
pany that reached a fire first was considered to bear the 
honors of the occasion, the individual members of the com- 
pany not being slow or mealy-mouthed in giving expres- 
sion to their appreciation of that fact. In working the 
brakes and in returning from fires the men invariably burst 
into song, as is the custom of the race whenever rhythmic 
effort is put forth, such as rowing, marching, etc. The en- 
gine houses were located in the public squares, and near most 
of them cisterns were dug and kept filled with water. These 
furnished the only supply, except where fires happened to oc- 
cur sufficiently near the river for that limitless source to be 
drawn upon. 

Alarms were given from the steeple of the Exchange 
building on Bay street where a watchman kept ward day 
and night, to sound the alarm by loud and rapid ringing of 
the great bell whenever smoke or flame in any quarter of the 
old town advised him that help was needed. That one man 
held the place now filled by a thorough and complex tele- 
graphic system; in the not unsupposable case of his having 
fallen asleep, it will readily be seen that a fire might have got- 
ten beyond control before the summoning of aid. When the 
Exchange bell spoke, officers and men of the various com- 
panies dropped their individual employments and made the 
quickest time possible to the engine houses but nothing could 
be done there until men enough had gathered to drag the 
heavy machine. The few first moments lost from this 
cause were worth hours afterwards. 


The city was divided into four fire districts by the inter- 
section of Bull street and Oglethorpe Avenue, (or South 
Broad street as it was then called) these were numbered 
respectively 1, 2, 3, and 4. Districts 1 and 2 were north of 
Oglethorpe Ave., 3 and 4 to the south of it, and when an 
alarm had been sounded, after a pause the watchman indi- 
cated the particular district in which the fire was occurring 
by so many distinct strokes of the bell. If, for instance, 
there were three of these the captains of the engine com- 
panies would know they were wanted somewhere east of 
Bull and south of Oglethorpe. This was a tolerably large 
area to search through, especially when it is considered that 
the men were dragging a heavy engine through sandy 
streets while uncertain as to just where was the scene of 
trouble. Still, the old department did its work and did it 
faithfully and well. Citizens could only compare it with 
similar organizations in other places and they found no 
cause for dissatisfaction in the comparison. 

The military spirit of Savannah in the 40's as expressed 
by its volunteer organizations differed not at all from what 
it has always been from the first settlement of Oglethorpe's 
Colony down to the present time. Of the commands exist- 
ing at that period several dated back to the early years of 
the century, and one as far back as 1786 — only three years 
after the close of the Revolution. All of them served with 
honor in the Confederate Army and all, with but one ex- 
ception, the Phoenix Riflemen, are still in vigorous life, in 
line to do their part in the great war that is upon the nation. 
That particular company expanded into a regiment — the 
63rd Georgia — in 1862, laid down its arms with Gen. Jo- 
seph E. Johnston at Greensboro, N. C, in April, 1865, and 
was not subsequently re-formed. But one feature of the 
city's martial life has definitely passed away, the annual pa- 
rade of the "unterrified" militia. Under the old State laws, 
every citizen between certain ages was called upon to per- 
form military duty at least one day in the year, and the 
gathering of these warriors was surely a unique occasion — 
the Kaiser would turn gray could he see one now. The of- 
ficers were duly commissioned by the State and paraded in 
the full uniform of the United States Army, but of the rank 
and file, so far as appearance went, the least said the better. 

The town was divided into militia districts or "beats," 
as they were called, the boundaries and numbers of which 
were coincident with those of the Fire Districts. Within 
these limits all citizens of the prescribed age, who 
were not members of volunteer companies or other- 


wise legally exempt, were summoned to appear at 
the arsenal on a specified day prepared to serve 
their country. In case of default the one sum- 
moned was further required to make satisfactory ex- 
cuse before a magistrate's court or bear whatever fine "His 
Honor" might inflict. The companies bore the names of the 
beats from which they were drawn as 1st Beat, 2nd Beat, 
etc., and they paraded on separate days, except upon such 
occasions as when the entire brigade, (which included the 
volunteer commands) might happen to be ordered out by the 
Brigadier General. The arsenal stood on Whitaker street 
on the ground now occupied by the western end of the Post 
Office building — it was only pulled down a few years ago. 
On the upper floor were stored the arms and equipments pro- 
vided by the State, but drawn originally from the Federal 
government. A sorry lot they were — old flint and steel 
muskets dating back at least as far as the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, some of them, perhaps, even longer. Bayo- 
nets and ramrods were missing from a great many, and a 
general air of antiquity was over them all. The equip- 
ments, belts, cartridge-boxes and bayonet scabbards, all 
more or less dilapidated, furnished fit complement to the 
wonderful army of ancient weapons. For the yard of the 
arsenal were three or four old siege guns, (two of which, I 
believe, now adorn the front of the Armory of the Savannah 
Volunteer Guards). It is impossible to say how long they 
had been there, but I remember observing that a good sized 
mulberry tree had grown up between the cheeks of the car- 
riage of one of them. On parade days the men assembled 
outside the building, and when the doors were opened a gen- 
eral rush was made for the room where the arms were kept, 
and each man equipped himself for the day. The line was 
then formed on President street and the martial column pro- 
ceeded to the south common to take in such portion of the 
Tactics of General Winfield Scott as its officers were able 
to impart. Crude and ludicrous as were these attempts at 
soldiering, they were far in advance of what took place all 
through the country districts on "Training Day," as one 
can readily see by reference to Judge Longstreet's "Georgia 
Scenes." An interesting and unique figure in those days 
was a genuine Revolutionary hero, Mr. Sheftall Sheftall, 
who lived in a wonder dwelling on the north side of Brough- 
ton street between Whitaker and Barnard. The old gen- 
tleman when a young man had served in the Continental 
Army with faithfulness and honor. To the end of life he 
clung to the costume of 76 — the long coat, flapped waist- 


coat, knee breeches, low quartered shoes with large silver 
buckles, and the cocked hat, which gave him the name by 
which he was generally spoken of — "Cocked Hat Sheftall." 
On any fine day he could be seen taking his constitutional 
up and down the long piazza that ran in front of the house, 
and report had it that so regular was he in this that he wore 
out two or three sets of flooring in his tramps. The old 
veteran passed away on August 15, 1847, and was escorted 
to his last resting place by all the military of the city on the 
following day. 

Politics ran very high in those far off days ; of course 
the colored people had no votes and the whites were nearly 
equally divided between the Whig and the Democratic 
parties. There was much bitterness of expression 
on both sides in every campaign and the vicinity 
Of the court-house on each election day was the 
scene of many personal conflicts, but as every- 
where else in our favored land, the white dove of peace 
always put in an appearance on the following morning. I 
was too young to have any memory of the Harrison presiden- 
tial campaign though there comes to me a faint memory of 
a certain suit I wore adorned with log-cabin buttons, that 
being the distinctive badge of the Whig party in that famous 

The Whigs had their headquarters in a large two-story 
wooden building known as Lyceum Hall, and situated on the 
south-west corner of Bull and Broughton streets. The Dem- 
ocrats were more modestly housed on the corresponding 
corner of Barnard and Broughton. Lyceum Hall was a 
favorite place for public entertainments of one kind and an- 
other, a popularity which it shared with the long room of 
the City Exchange and with Oglethorpe Hall on Bryan street 
just across from the Merchants National Bank. 

In 1844 Henry Clay visited Savannah by invitation. 
He arrived by the Central Railroad and was escorted from 
the depot to the house of the Hon. John McPherson Berrien, 
by a long cavalcade of gentlemen riding by twos. At every 
other corner or so the procession was stopped and 
the riders with bared heads gave three cheers for 
"Harry of the West," as Mr. Clay was affection- 
ately called by his followers. Judge Berrien was 
a representative of Georgia in the United States 
Senate for many years, and held the office of Attorney Gen- 
eral in the Cabinet of President Jackson. He was a gentle- 
man of cultivated mind and polished manners; the honor 
and dignity of our old commonwealth were worthily sus- 


tained by him in a body where sat some of the greatest men 
whom America has ever produced. His house is still stand- 
ing on the north-west corner of Habersham and Broughton 

On the day after his arrival Mr. Clay addressed a large 
crowd of citizens from the balcony over the Bryan street en- 
trance of the old Pulaski House. I was present upon the oc- 
casion, it being my habit at that period of life to see every- 
thing that was going on. Some three years afterwards I 
heard Daniel Webster speak from a platform erected around 
the Greene Monument in Johnson Square. It has ever been 
a satisfaction to me to have seen these two distinguished 
men. I have clear recollection of their personal appear- 
ance, but, of course, was not old enough to understand their 

Many have been the changes in the old town since the 
days here written of, but none more marked than in the sys- 
tem of education for the young. Indeed there was no pub- 
lic system then, nor had a single one of the splendid 
school buildings been erected that now adorn the city. True, 
the old Chatham Academy was in existence, but only pay 
schools were conducted in it by private individuals, though 
the Academy itself was under control of a Board of Trus- 
tees. There were a number of private schools scattered 
here and there throughout the town but only one free school 
— it was located at the corner of Perry and Whitaker streets 
and the majority of its scholars were the boys of the Union 

The character of the private schools, however, was of 
a high order, and what was taught in them thoroughly 
taught. The curriculum had not the ambitious breadth 
and universality of the modern school course, yet it is 
doubtful whether the average pupil of today can claim to 
be so faithfully grounded in ''the three R's," or in the basic 
work of English and classical education as were the boys 
and girls who studied under Henry K. and James Preston, 
Wm. T. Feay, Rev. George White, and others, their con- 

Here then, may end this brief retrospect. It has been 
pleasant to look back upon the day of small things — to com- 
pare the Savannah of seventy or eighty years ago with the 
beautiful and thriving city that the industry, zeal and pa- 
triotism of its citizens have made it. 

The contrast may well fill the heart with bright hope for 
the future. 




For a long time little was known of the origin and mean- 
ing of those important symbols of state sovereignty. In 
1894 Prof. Ashmore of Savannah, who is Corresponding Sec- 
retary of the Georgia Historical Society, prepared and pub- 
lished a fairly full history of the five great seals of Georgia. 

In 1912 Governor Joseph M. Brown, who is a student 
of history, and especially of matters pertaining to Georgia 
history, gave to the Atlanta Constitution an exceedingly in- 
teresting story of the first great seal of Georgia. Neither 
Prof. Ashmore nor Governor Brown makes reference to the 
difference in the great seal and the executive seal. The 
great seals are described in full by both writers. 

The law provides that the great seal shall be kept by 
the Secretary of State, and it is his duty to attach the same 
to all grants and to certified copies and transcripts of public 
documents in his office when so ordered by the Governor or 
the General Assembly. 

The executive seal is kept in the office of the Governor. 
It differs in form from the great seal, being designed only 
in part like the original seal as adopted by the state in 1799. 
The device is an ordinary seal having the column from the 
great seal on which is the legend, "Moderation." The soldier 
with the drawn sword appears by the column and there also 
appears the escutcheon of the United States, the shield and 
eagle. The executive seal is used and attached by the Gov- 
ernor to commissions which he issues and other current pa- 
pers and orders on which the stamp of his official authority 
is required to be placed. 

It will be noticed that Prof. Ashmore relates how Gov- 
ernor Jenkins saved the executive seal of the State in 1868. 
He fails to relate the equally interesting story of how Col. 
N. C. Barnett, deceased, who was Secretary of State for near- 
ly half a century and preceded Gen. Phil Cook, father of the 
present Secretary, Phil Cook, prompted by equally 
as great patriotism, saved from corrupt republican hands 
the great seal of Georgia. 

Here is that story : 


Colonel Barnett, being Secretary at the time of Sher- 
man's invasion, of course, the great seal was in his keeping. 
He determined to save it at all hazards, and preferred to take 
the responsibility upon himself. However, being afraid 
that the Yankees anight kill him, he wished someone else to 
know where it was, so he secretly carried it home and gave 
it to his wife. She placed it in a tin box and buried it un- 
der her house. When Sherman reached our capital, which 
was then Milledgeville, he had the Secretary of State ar- 
rested and commanded him to give up the great seal of state. 
This Colonel Barnett refused to do, saying that he would 
die first. They put him in prison, but were never able to ex- 
tort any information as to the hiding place of Georgia's 
treasure. It is considered remarkable that they did not 
torture him to force his secret, but it is supposed that his 
brave spirit and dauntless bearing over-awed them, for he 
was one of nature's noblemen, physically and mentally, and 
no fear of death or suffering had power to make him quail. 

After Sherman laid Georgia to the sword and torch, the 
Republicans took charge of the state government. Bullock 
was their Governor, and they needed a state seal with which 
to authorize their fraudulent acts and papers. So they had 
one made by description as near like the original as they 
could get it. Now, a strange thing came to pass. This re- 
construction seal of the reconstruction period bore upon its 
obverse face the bar sinister, for the soldier standing between 
the pillars of "Justice" anc [ "Moderation" held his sword in 
his left hand instead of in his right, as upon the original. 
The irony of fate marked that bogus seal and stamped fraud 
upon its face. 

In 1910 the Secretary of State reported to the General As- 
sembly that the great seal of Georgia was so worn by long 
use that it was practically of no service, and it was found on 
investigation that as far back as 1868 the General Assembly 
had ordered that the great seal be re-engraved and renewed. 
^Nothing was done with this action of the General Assembly 
because of want of an appropriation, but in 1914 the General 
Assembly adopted a resolution authorizing a new seal, to be 
prepared as an exact copy of the old one in every respect ex- 
cept that the year "1776" was substituted for 1799. An ap- 
propriation was made under this resolution and the present 
great seal of Georgia is a facsimile of the one described by 
Prof. Ashmore and later by Governor Brown, except that 
the year 1776 stands in place of 1799, as on the old seal. 

The following is the sketch of the great seals given in 
1894 by Prof. Ashmore : 


Great Seals of Georgia — Five of Them Marking Five Epochs 
of Her History. 

The Colonial Seal the First — A Description of It — The 
Royal Seal, the Larger and More Beautiful. The Revolu- 
tionary Seal — The Seal of 1799. The Confederate Seal — 
Some Interesting Facts Concerning It. 

Some recent official duties connected with the Georgia 
Historical Society having called my attention to the great 
seals of our State, I have thought that a brief history of them 
might not prove uninteresting to the public. It is a matter 
of much surprise to find so few of our people, even of our 
public men, have much accurate information about these 
seals, and, what is worse, our State histories, which should 
be the conservators of historic truth, contain some glaring 
errors concerning them. The great seal of a state symbol- 
izes its highest authority, and being used as an attestation 
upon only the most important public documents, it is nat- 
urally invested with a sacred sentiment of inviolable honor 
and moral obligation. 

Georgia has had in all five great seals, corresponding 
to five great epochs in her history. The first, which may be 
called the Colonial seal, was adopted by the trustees about 
the middle of July, 1732, when the charter was obtained 
from the crown of England for colonizing Georgia. It was 
brought over by Oglethorpe in 1733 and used until 1734. 

This seal was formed with two faces, one for legisla- 
tive acts, deeds and commissions, and the other, the common 
seal, for grants, orders, certificates, etc. The device on the 
one was two figures resting upon urns, representing the riv- 
ers Savannah and Altamaha, the north-western and south- 
eastern boundaries of the province, between which the 
genius of the colony was seated with a cap of liberty on her 
head, a spear in one hand and a cornucopia in the other, with 
the inscription "Colonia Georgia, Aug." On the other face 
was the representation of silk worms, some beginning and 
others completing their labors, which was characterized by 
the motto, "Non Sibi, Sed Aliis." This inscription not only 
proclaimed the disinterested motives and intentions of the 
trustees, but suggested that the production of silk was to be 
reckoned among the most profitable employments of the 

The side of the first seal described was adopted as the 
seal of the Georgia Historical Society with only a change in 
the inscription. The inscription "Colonia Georgia, Aug," 
was replaced by the motto on the other side, "Non Sibi, Sed 


Aliis," and the words "Georgia Historical Society" were ad- 
ded. It is a matter of much regret that no picture or im- 
pression of that side of this seal containing the silk worms 
is known to exist, though persons now living remember to 
have seen impressions of it upon old land grants. There are 
doubtless among the papers of some of our old families cop- 
ies of this old seal, but long and diligent inquiry has failed, 
so far, to discover one of them. The writer would be glad 
to communicate with anyone who may have one of these 
old seals in his possession. For the sake of Georgia history, 
it should be rescued from oblivion.* 

The Royal Seal. 

In 1752 the trustees surrendered their charter to the 
crown, and Georgia became a royal province. On June 21, 
1754, a new seal was adopted by the Lords Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations, and approved by the king, George 
II. This, which may be termed the royal seal, was the 
largest and the most beautiful of all the seals which Georgia 
has ever had. It was 4>4 inches in diameter and made of 
silver. It was of equal size with those sent to North and 
South Carolina, and similar in some respects to them. On 
one face was a figure representing the genius of the colony 
offering a skein of silk to his majesty, with the motto "Hinc 
Laudam Sperate Coloni," and this inscription around the cir- 
cumference, "Sigillum Provinciae Nostrae Georgiae in 
America." On the other side appeared his majesty's arms, 
crown, garter, supports and motto, with the inscription 
"Georgius II., Dei Gratia Magnae Britanniae Franciae et 
Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, Brunsvici et Luneburgi, 
Dux, Sacri Romani Imperii Archi Thesaurarius et Princeps 

The designs upon this seal were strikingly appropriate, 
and the workmanship and finish were executed with exquis- 
ite taste. It is a matter of some surprise that no print or en- 
graving of this seal has ever been made, indeed no writer 
upon Georgia history seems ever to have had access to an im- 
pression of it, though a brief and imperfect description of it 
may be found in most of our state histories. 

A few weeks ago the writer, with a desire to rescue, if 
possible, this historic relic from oblivion, made a systematic 
search for it among the private papers and public documents 
of the city of Savannah. The search was finally rewarded 
by the discovery of the long lost seal among the papers of 

♦Since the statement above was first printed, copies have been 
found, and all danger of total loss is averted. 


Mr. William Neyle Habersham, of this city. This generous 
gentleman has presented it to the Georgia Historical Society, 
by whom it will be preserved as a curious historic relic of 
colonial times. 

Realizing the fact that no print or engraving of this 
beautiful seal had ever been made, the writer had both sides 
of it photographed, and from the photographs appropriate 
engravings have been made in New York. These engrav- 
ings, together with engravings of all the great seals of Geor- 
gia from 1732 to 1894, appeared for the first time in 
a new school history of Georgia by Superintendent Lawton 
B. Evans, of Augusta. 

The Revolutionary Seal. 

The royal seal was used till 1777, when Georgia united 
with her sister colonies in that great final struggle which 
gained for us our independence and established Georgia as 
a free and sovereign state. Upon the adoption of a new con- 
stitution on February 5, 1777, the great seal was changed to 
one of smaller size and less artistic in design, 

On one side was a scroll, whereon was inscribed, "The 
Constitution of the State of Georgia/' and the motto "Pro 
Bono Publico." On the other side appeared an elegant house 
and other buildings, fields of corn and meadows covered 
with sheep and cattle; a river running through the same, 
with a ship under full sail and the motto, "Deus nobis haec 
otia fecit." Wax impressions of this old seal may still be 
found attached to old land grants made from 1777 to 1799. 
Several very good ones are in possession of the Georgia His- 
torical Society. 

Seal of 1799. 

In 1798 a constitutional convention was called and 
among the changes made in the fundamental law of the State 
was another change in the great seal, which was adopted 
Feb. 8, 1799. 

On one side of this seal was a view of the seashore, with 
a ship bearing the flag of the United States, riding at anchor 
near a wharf, receiving on board hogsheads of tobacco and 
bales of cotton, emblematic of the exports of this state ; at a 
small distance a boat landing from the interior of the state 
with hogsheads, etc., on board, representing her internal 
traffic ; in the back part of the same side, a man in the act of 
ploughing, and at a small distance a flock of sheep in dif- 
ferent pastures, shaded by a flourishing tree. The motto on 
this side was "Agriculture and Commerce, 1799." The oth- 


er side contained three pillars supporting an arch with the 
word "Constitution" engraved within the same, emblematic 
of the constitution supported by three departments of the 
government, viz : the legislative, judicial and executive ; the 
first had engraved in a wreath upon it, "Wisdom ;" the sec- 
ond "Justice," and the third, "Moderation." On the right 
of the last pillar was a man standing with a drawn sword, 
representing the aid of the military in defense of the consti- 
tution, and around the margin the motto "State of Georgia, 

The words wisdom, justice and moderation were orig- 
inally ordered to be placed upon the base of the pillars, but 
the artists finding this impracticable, a subsequent act of the 
legislature authorized them to be placed in the wreath. 
The act directed that this seal be made of silver and the size 
of two and one-quarter inches in diameter, and that the old 
seal should be broken in the presence of the governor. This 
was used as the great seal of the State for sixty-two consec- 
utive years, until the secession convention of 1861 ordered 
that the next legislature, which should assemble immediate- 
ly after the rising of that body, should change the great seal 
of the State. 

The Confederate Seal. 

Pursuant to this order the legislature, by an act ap- 
proved December 14, 1861, appointed a commission consist- 
ing of S. S. Stafford, G. N. Lester, B. H. Bigham and the Sec- 
retary of State, "to prepare a new great seal for the State of 
Georgia, and to make all necessary preparations and arrange- 
ments to bring the same, as agreed on by the said commis- 
sion, into use." Strangely enough the records concerning 
the further use of this seal are almost completely silent. 
There is not recorded in the acts of the subsequent legisla- 
tures any report of that commission, though on Dec. 14, 1863, 
the sum of $2,000, or so much of it as might be necessary, 
was appropriated to pay the commissioners for preparing 
the new seal. 

There is no record, however, that the appropriation was 
ever used. Unfortunately every member of the commission 
is now dead and the details of their action cannot be ascer- 
tained. It appears, however, from impressions of this seal 
in the office of the Secretary of State, that it differed little 
from the seal of 1799. The only changes were: First, the 
date, 1861, was placed amid the brilliant rays of a new rising 
sun under the arch of the constitution, evidently symboliz- 
ing the birth of a new independence ; second, the man with 


the drawn sword, representing the military in defense of the 
constitution, was removed ; third, the date, 1799, at the bot- 
tom, was replaced by the date, 1776, representing the birth 
of our first independence. 

Several of our state histories give this last date as 1779, 
which is certainly wrong. I have before me a recent im- 
pression of this seal furnished by the Secretary of State and 
the date is clearly 1776. The proportions of the devices up- 
on this seal were slightly different from those on the old 

In 1865 the Confederate cause went down with the sur- 
render of Lee on April 9th, and Georgia once more occupied 
a new attitude to its constitution and to the new order of its 
political affairs. And now comes the strangest part of the 
history of the great seal of the State. The legislature of 
1865-'66 passed an act approved Feb. 5, 1866, which reads 
as follows: "That the seal prepared by the committee 
under the act assented to on the fourteenth day of Decem- 
ber, 1861, be and the same is hereby adopted as the seal of 
the office of the Secretary of State/' 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, this is the only 
act concerning the great seal of the State passed since the 
war. Neither the acts of the legislatures since that time, 
nor the journals of the constitutional conventions of 1865, 
1868 and 1877, say one single word about the re-adoption 
of the old seal of 1799, and yet all the codes since 1866 de- 
scribe as the great seal of the State the old seal of 1799 which 
was used up to 1861. It would appear that with the down- 
fall of the Confederacy, the seal of 1799 was readopted with- 
out enactment. It is certain at all events, that the present 
seal is the old seal of 1799 and that it has been used ever 
since 1872. It will be observed also that the old Confed- 
erate seal was by the act of February 5, 1866, made the of- 
ficial seal of the Secretary of State and it is today in use in 
that office. It must be remembered that it is not the pres- 
ent great seal of the State, which is also kept in the same of- 

It is rather a curious fact that the old Confederate great 
seal is still in force in the office of the Secretary of State, but 
it is nevertheless true. 

A Patriotic Incident. 

In 1868 while Charles J. Jenkins was Governor, Georgia 
was placed under military rule and our state government 
passed into the unfriendly hands of that rapacious horde that 
made the reconstruction period memorable. The country 


was overrun by carpet-baggers, scalawags and negroes, and 
intelligence and political virtue were for a time to be at the 
mercy of ignorance and bitter partisan misrule. Governor 
Jenkins was forced to retire, and to deliver the government 
into the hands of his military successor. But at this crisis 
Governor Jenkins took the executive seal of the State, to- 
gether with $400,000 of the people's money, carried them 
north with him and locked them up in a vault for safe-keep- 
ing. Here they remained until 1872, when Georgia's own 
people once more obtained possession of the State govern- 
ment and placed James M. Smith in the executive office. It 
was then that the noble Jenkins in a speech of matchless elo- 
quence and patriotism before the General Assembly re- 
stored to Georgia the executive seal of the State and the 
money, which he had for four dark years held as a sacred 
trust for his people. For this patriotic act the General As- 
sembly unanimously ordered that a facsimile of the executive 
seal be made of gold, appropriately engraved and presented 
to Governor Jenkins. A resolution of gratitude and thanks, 
characterized by the loftiest sentiments of patriotism and 
honor, was also extended him. The occasion of the return 
of the executive seal of the State to her own people at this 
time forms one of the most touching and memorable in- 
cidents in the history of Georgia. 

The golden facsimile of the seal presented to Governor 
Jenkins and a beautiful framed copy of the resolutions are in 
the possession of the Georgia Historical Society at Savan- 

Thus it will be seen that the great seals of a state not 
only mark the great epochs in its political history, but they 
symbolize a nation's honor, and around them cluster the 
sacred sentiments of a people's faith and patriotic devo- 

"The following is Governor Brown's letter published in 
1912 and addressed to the Atlanta Constitution : 

"The enclosed advertisement was found in an old copy 
of the Louisville Gazette, dated February 26, 1799, when 
Louisville was the capital of Georgia. I secured several 
copies of this old paper from a collector several years ago. 

"I have never before known how the figures 1799 came 
on the great seal of Georgia and nobody seemed to be able 
to give any information as to when or by whom the great 
seal was designed. 


"I have copied it exactly as printed and punctuated and 
suggest that you reproduce it without making any changes 

"In the paper, the 's,' except when terminal, resembled 'f/ 
"I send it to you as you carry the great seal at the head 
of your editorial page." 

How Advertisement Appeared. 

"The advertisement in The Louisville Gazette, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1799, is reproduced in all the quaintness of its dic- 



Executive Department of Georgia, Louisville, Feb. 23rd, 

The Act, entitled "an act for altering the Great Seal 
of the State of Georgia" passed the 8th day of February, 
1799, being taken up and considered : It is 

ORDERED, That a premium of thirteen dollars be 
given for the best drawing of the device for the great seal 
of this state, in pursuance of the second section of the said 
act — the device being as follows, towit : 

"On the one side, a view of the seashore with a ship 
bearing the flag of the United States, riding at anchor near 
a wharf, receiving on board hogsheads of tobacco and bales 
of cotton, emblematic of the exports of this state — at a small 
distance a boat landing from the interior of the state, with 
hogsheads, etc., on board, representing her internal traffic, 
in the back part of the same side, a man in the act of plow- 
ing and at a small distance a flock of sheep in different pas- 
tures shaded by a flourishing tree, the motto on this side 
agriculture and commerce, 1799 — that the other side contain 
three pillars supporting an arch with the word constitution 
engraved within the same, emblematic of the constitution 
supported by the three departments of the government, viz : 
the legislative, judicial and executive — the first pillar to 
have engraven on its base wisdom, the second justice, and 
the third moderation; on the right of the last pillar a man 
standing with a drawn sword representing the aid of the 
military in defense of the constitution — the motto state of 
Georgia 1799." Provided such drawing be lodged in the 
executive office, at Louisville, on or before the twentieth 
day of April next; the size of the seal two inches and one- 
quarter, and it is further 


Ordered, that proposals be received at the same office 
until the said twentieth day of April for forming, making 
and engraving the same agreeably to such device and draw- 
ing, in a masterly and workmanlike manner, on or before 
the third day of July next. Bond and security to be given 
for the due performance of the work, within the time limited 
in the sum of two thousand dollars. The proposals will 
be sealed up, addressed to the executive, and marked pro- 
posals for forming, making and engraving the great seal of 
the state of Georgia. The drawings will also be sealed up, 
addressed in like manner and marked drawings for the de- 
vice of the great seal and will be examined the twentieth 
day of April aforesaid. 

The cash will be paid for the drawing the moment it is 
decided on as to the best design, and for the seal immediately 
it is completed and delivered, if applied for. 

Taken from the minutes. 



The foregoing was found in The Louisville Gazette 
Tuesday, Feb. 26, 1799. 

In the above newspaper, dated Tuesday, May 7, 1799, 
is the following news item : 

"We understand that the device approved of by the 
governor for the great seal of this state was drawn by Mr. 
Sturges, the state surveyor general. The best drawing sent 
the executive department was performed by Mr. Chas. 
Frazer, of South Carolina, and which we are assured would 
have obtained the premium had he not through mistake 
placed all the figures on one side instead of making a re- 
verse. This young artist is but sixteen years old — his genius 
is great and deserves encouragement. Several of the hand- 
some performances were sent to the executive. " 

In still another issue of the same paper Governor Brown 
completed his research for information about the great seal 
by discovering the full name and title of the designer, "Dan- 
iel Sturges, surveyor general," in a card announcing his 
business. It is doubtful if another person in the state other 
than Governor Brown knew the name of the designer, or 
that it could have been found without months of labor in 
searching old records, even if they are still legible and have 
not been destroyed. Georgia history is, therefore, in debt 
to him for this valuable information. 



Notwithstanding the fact that the two questions to 
which the following paper is devoted were settled through 
the arbitrament of war more than half a century ago, it is 
considered proper to now make public the attitude taken by 
one branch of the Christian Church in Georgia at the time 
when those questions were so prominently in the minds of 
the people of the whole country, and the actual causes of 
the four years' terrible struggle between the North and the 

Before the year 1867, what is now known as the Pres- 
bytery of Savannah was known as the Presbytery of Georgia. 

At a meeting of the Presbytery of Georgia held in the 
month of November, 1861, in Darien, a committee consisting 
of Rev. R.Q. Mallard and Rev. D. L. Buttolph, was appointed 
to consider Presbytery's relations with the Old School Gen- 
eral Assembly, and also the action of said General Assembly 
at its late meeting in reference to the State of the Country, 
which committee brought in the following paper which was 
unanimously adopted: 

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. Whereas, the State of 
Georgia, upon just and necessary grounds, which, as loyal 
citizens, we cordially approve, did, on January 19, 1861, 
withdraw, in the exercise of her own state sovereignty, from 
and forever cast off all political connection with the United 
States of America ; and said State did, on February 8, 1861, 
with other Southern and South-western States, unite in the 
formation of a new government entitled the Confederate 
States of America, wholly independent of the old confedera- 
tion, which action we also cordially approve, and to which 
State and Confederation we hold ourselves loyal citizens 
and pledged to the extent of our utmost ability in dependence 
upon the favor of God to sustain and defend ; and whereas, 
it has been the custom of all Protestant Churches to conform 
their Ecclesiastical connection to the metes and bounds of 
their civil and political, for most satisfactory reasons of 
propriety, expediency, harmony and safety, 

RESOLVED, That the Presbytery of Georgia does 
now dissolve all connection with and separate itself entirely 
from the General Assembly of the Old School Presbyterian 
Church of the United States of America, and is no longer in 
any form or manner subject to the same. 


RESOLVED, further, that the Presbytery of Georgia 
condemns the action of the last General Assembly on the 
political state of the country in resolving to sustain the gov- 
ernment of the United States in its execrable war upon the 
Confederate States, in violation of their own constitution 
and utter disregard of its provisions — in violation of com- 
mon justice and humanity and of the right of a people to 
self-government and of withdrawment from a compact de- 
nied and broken to their political degradation and ruin, and, 
above all, in violation of the principles and spirit of the 
religion of the Prince of Peace, our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ — and the said action forced through the Assembly in 
the face of the solemn protest of the few Southern members 
present and of a minority of Northern members of weight 
and influence, and in the absence of the great body of South- 
ern members which, had they been present, would have cast 
the said action out of the Assembly. This said action the 
Presbytery of Georgia condemns both in letter and spirit 
as unwise, unchristian, and tending to schism, and furnishes 
sufficient ground for our withdrawment, if none other ex- 

RESOLVED, In said withdrawment, That we have a 
just right to our proportion of all property now held by the 
said General Assembly, and shall in due time, upon ground 
of Christian equity, insist upon a division of the same. 

RESOLVED, That we hereby adopt and adhere to our 
former standards, the Confession of Faith, Form of Govern- 
ment and Book of Discipline, with such alterations in phrase- 
ology as our new circumstances shall require and our coming 
General Assembly shall determine. 

RESOLVED, That, we do now appoint, according to 
our right of representation in our former connection, Com- 
missioners to meet Commissioners from all the Southern 
and South-western Presbyteries who will convene in Au- 
gusta, Georgia, December 4, 1861, for the purpose of con- 
stituting a General Assembly of the Confederate States of 
America, and do empower them to act in concert with that 
body in framing all measures necessary to the complete con- 
stitution, organization and efficiency of said Assembly. 

In accordance with the last resolution Dr. Charles C. 
Jones and Mr. A. Mitchell, (Elder from the Darien and Har- 
ris Neck Churches) were appointed principals and Rev. F. 
R. Goulding and Mr. T. S. Mallard (Elder from the Walt- 
hourville church) alternates to represent the Presbytery of 
Georgia in the proposed General Assembly to be held in 


The Presbytery again met on Saturday, November 8, 
1862, at Bryan Neck, when the following resolutions were 
adopted. The Dr. Talmage referred to was the Rev. S. K. 
Talmage, D. D., the second president of Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, which shortly after suspended operations, and has 
just recently been re-organized and located near Atlanta. 
Dr. Talmage was the uncle of Dr. T. DeWitt Talmage of 
Brooklyn Tabernacle fame. The resolutions were as follows : 

RESOLVED, 1st, That Presbytery has read with 
pleasure and approval the recent letter of Dr. Talmage, pub- 
lished in some of the secular papers in relation to the re- 
pealing of the law prohibiting our slaves to read. 

RESOLVED, 2nd, That they rejoice in the belief ex- 
pressed by Dr. Talmage that there will be an application at 
the approaching session of the Georgia Legislature, from a 
source entitled to a distinguished consideration, for a repeal 
of the law prohibiting the right to teach our negroes to read 
the Sacred Scriptures. 

RESOLVED, 3rd, That the Presbytery of Georgia in- 
dulges the pleasing hope that the day is not far distant, if 
indeed it has not already dawned upon us, when the entire 
slave code of our own and other Confederate States shall be 
thoroughly revised, and every Statute inconsistent with our 
character as a Christian nation, with the teachings of God's 
Holy Word, and with the high and solemn obligations of 
God's special providence now renewedly imposed upon us, 
that so nothing may impede us in the diligent and faithful 
discharge of our solemn trust, assured ihat we need fear 
nothing from the full enjoyment on the part of our slaves 
of all the rights and privileges guaranteed to them in the 
Word of God, and that the more fully their minds and 
hearts shall become imbued with its sacred teachings, from 
whence we derive so clearly our sanction and authority for 
the institution itself, the better will our slave population be 
enabled to glorify God, and the more faithful and useful to 
ourselves will they become. 

RESOLVED, 4th, That it is due if only to consistency, 
that, referring as we constantly do to God's Word for our 
sanction and authority in regard to the institution of 
Slavery, we should seek in all respects, as in the sight of 
God, and exposed ever to the full scrutiny of an enlightened, 
discerning and censorious world to limit and regulate the in- 
stitution by the infallible teachings of that Word itself, and 
so remove from ourselves and the institution the most se- 
rious of the allegations it has been customary to employ in 



Muster Roll of the Company Known as the Chestatee Ar- 
tillery, Commanded by Captain Thomas Bomar, 
stationed at Camp Lee, Skidaway Road, 3% Miles 
From Savannah, December 31, 1862. 

The company herein named was formed somewhere in 
the neighborhood north-east of Atlanta, and did service on 
the coast of Georgia during the year 1862. 

1 Thomas H. Bomar, Captain 

2 Samuel E. Taylor, Sr. 1st Lieut. 

3 John C. Hendrix, Jr. 1st. Lieut. 

4 William Hendrix, 2nd Lieut. 

1 John Norrell, 

2 P. S. McDaniel, Q. 

3 Thomas W. Dean, 

4 Robert Mooney, 

5 Hardin Jordan, 

6 Moses C. Cannon, 

7 John Childress, 

1 T. M. Andoe, 

2 R. H. Tatum, 

3 H. G. Smith, 

4 Enoch Patterson, 

5 A. J. Garrett, 

6 J. F. Lane, 

7 J. R. Brice, 

8 E. H. Whitmire, 

1 W. H. Perry, 

1 Joshua Patterson, 

1 L. A. Stephens, 

1 Bennett, E. B. 

2 Jas. S. Bottin, 

3 P. G. Light, 

1st Sergeant 
M. Sergeant 









1 Baxter, J. J. 

2 Brice, D. P. 

3 Boyd, Robert 

4 Boyd, John A. 

5 Bennett, W. J. 

6 Brice, Thos. J. 

7 Childress, Jackson 

8 Crawford, W. A. 

9 Crane, S. F. 

10 Crow, Isaac 

11 Cogburn, G. H. 

12 Cantrell, W. F. 

13 Carver, William 

14 Dacus, P. H. 



15 Daniel, H. T. 

16 Dobbs, W. C. 

17 Dean, E. C. 

18 Garrett, G. W. 

19 Garrett, Hosia 

20 Gibson, J. B. 

21 Hubbard, J. O. 

22 Henderson, E. L. 

23 Hubbard, Early 

24 Hubbard, William 

25 Hardman, A. J. 

26 Hardin, B. T. 

27 Jones, J. L. 

28 Lee, A. J. 

29 Loggins, Ervin 

30 McKinney, J. O. 

31 Massingale, B. D. 

32 Morgan, Simeon 

33 Mason, Merrill 

34 Mason, Bluford 

35 Neal, W. P. 

36 Oshields, Pinkney 

37 Owen, W. J. 

38 Owen, Jesse P. 

39 Owen, W. A. 

40 Owen, G. W. 

41 Owen, I. N. 

42 Owen, Thos. A. 

43 Owen, F. M. 

44 Owen, A. J. 

45 Oliver, L. D. 

46 Owen, J. H. 

47 Patterson, John D. 

48 Phillips, E. W. 

49 Green, John 

50 Pigean, J. F. 

51 Porter, H. W. 

52 Prater, Benjamin 

53 Prater, A. P. 

54 Singleton, P. W. 

55 Stephens, J. R. 

56 Satterfield, J. A. 

57 Stripland, W. B. 

58 Smith, William 

59 Shiflet, Monroe 

60 Taylor, George T. 

61 Taylor, W. H. 

62 Tatum, Moses 

63 Tatum, Silas E. 

64 Taylor, John M. 

65 Watson, George 

66 Watson, Harrison 

67 Wetherford, Alfred 

68 Watson, Richmond 

69 Whitmire, E. E. 

70 Whitmire, W. R. 

71 Whitmire, George C. 

72 Wilson, R. T. 

73 Whitmire, John A. 

74 Wood, W. H. 

75 Westbrooks, Samuel 

76 Robinson, J. H. 

77 McDaniel, V. O. 

78 Wofford, J. D. 

79 Childress, John 

80 Campbell, George S. 

81 Freeman, John 

82 Hutchins, D. B. 

83 Oshields, David 

84 Owens, W. C. 

85 Oshields, Hiram 

86 Patterson, Hiram 

87 Stovall, G. W. 

88 Tatum, Elisha 

89 Wood, Joseph P. 

90 Whitmire, J. C. 

91 Whitmire, R. B. 

92 Brown, John C. 

93 Robinson, W. E. 

94 Sanford, R. B. 

95 Dacus, W. R. 

96 Dacus, James 

97 Mooney, James H. 

98 Mooney, W. O. 



Muster and Pay Roll of Company, Jo Thompson Artillery, 

of Atlanta, at Beaulieu, Below Savannah, From the 

First Day of November, 1862, to the Thirty 

First Day of December, 1862. 

1 Hanleiter, C. R. Captain 

2 Shaw, Augustus 1st Lieut. 

3 Hanleiter, Wm. R., 2nd Lieut. 

4 Kenady, Thomas A., 2nd Lieut. 

1 Bailey, Joseph E., 1st Sergeant 

2 Defoor, James A., 2nd Sergeant 

3 McKemie, William, 3rd Sergeant 

4 Giles, John T., 4th Sergeant 

5 Holmes, Augustus, 5th Sergeant 
1 Trainer, Thomas, Sergeant 

1 Robbins, Algernon S., 

2 Douglas, William A., 

3 Wilson, William, 

4 Roberts, Querlis W., 

5 McDaniel, Greenberry, 

6 Frost, John 

7 Long, William H., 

8 Adams, Edmond R., 
1 Simril, Robert E. 


1st Corporal 

2nd Corporal 

3rd Corporal 

4th Corporal 

5th Corporal 

6th Corporal 

7th Corporal 

8th Corporal 


Boring, George 
Colwell, John 
Carlton, Spencer 
Cash, John 
Chapman, John M. 
Conner, Edward 
Daniel, Jesse F. 

8 Daniel, John 

9 Dansly, William 

10 Englett, Daniel B. 

11 Englett, James J. 

12 Etheridge, Zachariah 

13 Goode, Richard 

14 Holbrook, James G. 

15 Holbrook, William M. 

16 Hornsby, William G. 

17 Horton, William R. 

18 Hornsby, James H. 

19 Hutson, Joseph 

20 Hutson, William 

21 Joice, William H. 

22 Laseter, John L. 

23 Latheridge, Thomas 

24 Lawrence, James B. 

25 Littleton, Benj. F. 

26 Lowe, Aaron 

27 Marlow, John 

28 McDaniel, John 

29 McKennie, Samuel R. 

30 Moore, William P. 

31 Morgan, Matthew R. 

32 Morgan, William M. 


33 Pinion, Sandford V. 42 Smith, Warren F. 

34 Ragan, J. M. 43 Smith, Joseph B. 

35 Robbins, James W. 44 Thrash, William H. 

36 Robbins, Joseph P. 45 Waits, Andrew M. 

37 Roberts, William E. 46 Waits, James M. 

38 Roberts, Willis R. 47 Wallace, Jesse P. 

39 Shaw, Samuel H. 48 Weisterfeld, Peter 

40 Sherling, Hamilton 49 Wooton, Daniel B. 

41 Stevenson, William H. 




Having mentioned the names of Col. John Screven and 
his brother Thomas Forman, sons of Dr. James Proctor 
and Hannah Georgia (Bryan) Screven, we will now give 
some account of the marriages contracted by them and the 
offspring of the same, and then take up the other children 
of Dr. Screven. 

John married first Mary White Footman, daughter of 
Richard Hunter and Elizabeth (Maxwell) Footman. Rich- 
ard Hunter was the son of Richard S. Footman, and Eliza- 
beth B. Maxwell was the daughter of James Benjamin and 
Polly (Habersham) Maxwell — so they were first cousins. 
The children of Colonel John and Mary W. Footman 
Screven who lived beyond infancy were : 

1. Georgia Bryan Screven, died unmarried. 

2. Elizabeth W. Screven, married Thomas C. Arnold, 
and survives her husband. Their daughter, Louise G. is 
the wife of Rev. Frederick W. Jackson, and they have two 
children. The other daughter, Mary S., married Arthur 
Nash, and they have one child. 

3. James Proctor Screven, died unmarried. 

4. Thomas Screven, married Emily, daughter of Dr. 
Wm. S. Lawton and his wife Elizabeth G. Jones, daughter 
of Colonel Augustus Seaborn Jones. Thomas Screven died 
leaving one son, Thomas, and his widow married Col. Wil- 
liam Garrard. 

Col. John Screven married second, Mary Eleanor (Nes- 
bit) Browne, widow of Col. Thomas Browne and daughter 
of Hugh O'Kiefe Nesbit, of Macon, Ga., and had 

1. Lila Mcintosh Screven, married Samuel C. Atkin- 
son, leaving issue; 


2. Martha Berrien Screven, married Alexander C. 
Wylly, leaving issue. 

Dr. James Proctor Screven and his wife Hannah Geor- 
gia Bryan had one daughter, Sarah Ada, who married Rev. 
Matthew H. Henderson by whom she had children; among 
them the following married and left issue : 

1. Ada H. Henderson, married Henry H. Foote; 

2. Maude Bryan Henderson, married George A. 
Cosens, of Savannah. 

A son, Marion Henry Henderson, grew to manhood, but 
died unmarried. 

Captain Thomas Forman Screven, third of the 
children of Dr. Jas. P. and Hannah Georgia, as already 
mentioned, was, like his brother John, an enthusiastic mem- 
ber and officer of the historic military organization known 
as the Savannah Volunteer Guards with which he served 
with honor through the whole of the War Between the 
States in Georgia, South Carolina and Virginia. This is 
not the place to record the incidents which mark the virtues 
and good deeds of the persons whose names hold a place in 
this family register; but the history of these brothers and 
the other one now to be mentioned is written elsewhere and 
should be read by all who are interested in the Screvens and 
their connections. Thomas F. Screven married first, Ad- 
elaide Van Dyke Moore, daughter of Dr. R. D. and Eliza- 
beth (Stockton) Moore, and granddaughter of Major Thomas 
Stockton who served as Major in the United States army 
and was, at the time of his death, Governor of Maryland. 
This couple had two sons, the first of whom died unmar- 
ried. The second, John Screven, married Mary Gallie Bond, 
daughter of Thomas P. Bond and Miss Gallie, daughter of 
Major John B. Gallie, of the Confederate army, who lost his 
life at Fort McAllister, Ga. This John, son of Thos. F. and 
Adelaide Screven, is survived by a widow and child. 

Thomas Forman Screven married second, Sallie Lloyd 
Buchanan, daughter of Admiral Franklin and Ann Catherine 
(Lloyd) Buchanan, her father having been before the War 
of Secession in the United States Navy, and afterwards in 
the Confederate States Navy. To this marriage there was 
no offspring. 

Another son of Dr. Jas. P. and Hannah Georgia Screven 
was George Proctor Screven. He, like the other sons, fol- 
lowed the father in his devotion to the military organiza- 
tion in which all of them at some time in their lives served 
faithfully and long. George P. Screven married Ellen 
Buchanan, sister of the wife of his brother Thomas F., and 


daughter, as before mentioned, of Admiral Franklin and 
Ann C. Buchanan, and had 

1. Franklin B. Screven, married Elizabeth Mackay 
(Stiles) Mills, widow of Charles Mills, leaving a son ; 

2. Murray Lloyd Screven, married Adele Weber, hav- 
ing one son. 

3. Ellen Screven, married Willam W. Gordon, Jr., 
having two children ; Wm. W. Gordon and Margaret Eleanor 

4. Nannie Lloyd Screven, married James Garnett Bas- 
inger, having one child, Anna Lloyd Basinger. 

Let us return now to Major John Screven and his wife 
Hannah Proctor, mentioned in the article in our June num- 
ber. This couple had a daughter Martha who became the 
second wife of Dr. William Coffee Daniell. Dr. Daniell's 
first wife was Elizabeth Mary Screven, sister of Martha his 
second wife. These two ladies were daughters of Proctor 
sisters. Dr. Daniell and his first wife, Martha Screven, had 

Benjamin R. Daniell, married Eleanor Dockery, and 
left issue ; 

Tattnall F. Daniell, married Susan Ann Footman, and 
left issue. 

Dr. Daniell and his second wife, Elizabeth Mary 
Screven, had 

Charles Daniell, married Elizabeth P. Richardson — no 
issue ; 

Sarah E. Daniell, married Dr. J. C. LeHardy, and their 
descendants are with us at this time. 

In giving an account of the Screvens it would be un- 
pardonable to omit the names of members of the Bryan 
family who surely did a large part in shaping the history 
of this State. 

We will begin with Jonathan Bryan, of whom we will 
quote a few words from Captain Thomas F. Screven, one of 
his descendants, to give in brief form some account of his 
active life : 

"Mr. Bryan moved in December, 1752, with his family 
to Savannah, permanently. With a high standing in South 
Carolina, he soon became more prominent in Georgia. One 
of the king's council ; one of the judges of the court of oyer 
and terminer and the general court; treasurer of the pro- 
vince ; captain of a company of horse militia ; prominent in 
the councils of the malcontents with the actions of the Brit- 
ish government in regard to taxation, who desired and finally 
succeeded in a separation of the province and state from the 
control of that government ; resigned from the king's coun- 


cil, because of its threat to expel him, whereupon the Union 
Society bestowed upon him a silver vase, a gift expressive of 
the Society's appreciation of his devotion to the cause of 
his fellow citizens; member of the Council of Safety and 
Executive Council, at one time acting as president of the 
state ; in January, 1779, captured with his son James by the 
British at his 'Union' Plantation, twelve miles north and 
west of Savannah, but on the northern shore of the Savan- 
nah river, both taken to New York and held there in close 
and severe imprisonment for more than two years ; when ex- 
changed they returned to Georgia or South Carolina. Mr. 
Bryan's last effort for the colonists was his fighting with 
General Wayne in the latter's victory over the British and 
Indians near Savannah in the last year of the war." 

Josiah Bryan, sixth child of Jonathan and Mary (Wil- 
liamson) Bryan, married Elizabeth Pendarvis, and a son of 
this couple, Joseph, married Delia Forman, as we have seen, 
and had John Randolph, Thomas Marsh Forman, and Geor- 
gia Hannah Bryan. The last named has had our attention 
in what we have said of Dr. James P. Screven, her son. 
The second, Thos. M. Forman Bryan, married first Florida 
Troup, daughter of Governor George M. Troup, by whom he 
had children, among them Augusta Forman Bryan, who be- 
came the wife of Robert Pooler Wayne, and the mother of 
a family. Mrs. Wayne and her daughter Eliza are now liv- 
ing in Savannah. Her sister, Georgia Bryan Forman (the 
father having dropped the name Bryan in 1846) married 
Holmes Conrad, and this family live outside of Georgia. 
Another daughter of Josiah and Elizabeth (Pendarvis) 
Bryan was named Virginia Sarah, and she married William 
Mackay. She and her two children were lost in the sinking 
of the steamer "Pulaski," off the shore of North Carolina, in 
1838. Joseph Bryan, son of Josiah, married Jane Bourke, 
and a number of children were born to this couple, of whom 
was Major Henry Bryan, and he married Jane Wallace, 
daughter of the Rev. Charles Wallace Howard, leaving at 
his death his widow, a son, and two daughters : 

1. Ella Howard Bryan, writer of short stories, using 
the name, "Clinton Dangerfield." 

2. Howard Bryan. 

3. Virginia Bryan. 

We have departed from our original purpose by fol- 
lowing up to a certain extent the Bryan line of the Screven 
family, and here we must take leave of the subject, at least 
for the present. The other branches and connections are 
worthy of special articles, and we may at some other time 
pay attention to them. 



Dedicated to Theodore Roosevelt, the Greatest Living 
American Patriot. 

Freedoms America ! America ! ! 

The signet of the free : 
The land which gave that wondrous birth — 
A Lincoln and a Lee. 

Patriotism. America ! America ! ! 

The slogan of the brave ; 
For honor, and for liberty, 
Victory, or the grave. 

Leadership. America ! America ! ! 

The beacon of the world, 
Which lights the way to shun the shoals 
Where ships of state are hurled. 

Sympathy. America ! America ! ! 

The synonym of rest, 
As bleeding Belgium lifts her eyes, 
And pillows on thy breast. 

Justice. America ! America ! ! 

The emblem of the Right ; 
;No savage lust can more prevail 

When thou hast shown thy might. 

Peace. America ! America ! ! 

The gentle dove of peace — 
Thou warrest for the only cause, 

That wrongful wars shall cease ! 

A Member of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Savannah, Ga., July 31, 1917, 



We wish to make clear to our readers the fact that the 
Georgia Historical Society is not in politics. 

Certain newspapers and other publications have as- 
serted that this Society has officially criticised the two 
United States Senators from Georgia for their opposition 
to the administration's war policy. One of them, the New 
York Times, said "The Georgia Historical Society, a non- 
political body, finds the conduct of the Georgia Senators ( a 
matter of humiliation and just anger to patriotic Geor- 
gians,' " and quoted more from the article under review 
which we need not repeat. The Nation also made the mis- 
take of attributing to us the action taken by another body. 

The Georgia Historical Society is the publisher of our 
Quarterly, and we take this method of disclaiming any such 
action as that referred to. We are really just what the 
Times called us — "a non-political body" — and we stick 
closely to the specific purposes for which we were founded : 
"To collect, preserve, and diffuse information in relation to 
the history of the State of Georgia in all its various depart- 
ments, and American history generally, and to create an 
historical library for the use of its members and others." 

We have never entered into politics, and never will do 
so. The action in question was taken by a newly organized 
institution, with headquarters in Atlanta, which has un- 
fortunately adopted a name so much like ours as to cause 
all this confusion. It is called the Georgia Historical Asso- 

The Georgia Historical Society — ours — has been in 
existence since 1839, and we regret that certain persons 
have now organized and taken a name so much like it as to 
make this statement necessary. 

We are under obligation to Sir Gilbert Parker and to 
Professor W. Macneile Dixon, of the University of Glas- 
gow, for regular remittances of publications of great in- 
terest in behalf of the cause of Great Britain and the other 
allied powers in the present war. These come at regular 
intervals, and are full of matter bearing on the war, and will 
be very useful in time to come to persons desiring to read 
about the world war from every standpoint. 


From the Hon. James M. Beck we have received a 
complimentary copy of his latest work : "The War and 'Hu- 
manity," published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Since our June number we have received the following 
exchanges : 

Chicago Historical Society Year Book, 1916. 

Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, March, 

Bulletin of the Minnesota Historical Society, February, 

Journal of the Illinois State 'Historical Society, Oc- 
tober, 1916. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Jan- 
uary, April and July, 1917. 

Quarterly of the Louisiana Historical Society, January, 

Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, July, 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
July, 1917. 

Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
Vol. 5, 1905-12. 

Proceedings of 111th Annual Meeting of the New Eng 
land Society in the City of New York. 

Charleston, S. C, Year Book, 1916. 


O. C. ! W. — In your Queries and Answers in the Sep 
tember Quarterly will you please give the derivation of the 
name of our suburban village, Thunderbolt? 

The first time the name Thunderbolt appears in Geor- 
gia history is under the date of March 13th, 1733, when 
acknowledgment was made of the receipt from Mr. Sam- 
uel Baker of "a cask of potash made at Thunderbolt, in 
Georgia." Again, General Oglethorpe, on the 27th of Feb- 
ruary, 1735-36, mentioned the purchase of a cargo of pro- 
visions to be delivered at St. Simon's whither he went after 
having "passed by Skidaway and Thunderbolt. " It is on 
the authority of Oglethorpe that the statement has repeat- 
edly been made that the place received its name "from a 
fall of a thunderbolt, and a spring thereupon arose in that 
place which still smells of the bolt. ,, 


Several attempts have been made to change the name 
to the more dignified one of Warsaw, but in this case the 
old adage "Give a place a bad name, and it will stick to it" 
holds true. The name Warsaw is now the real name of the 
town, given to it in the act of incorporation; but notwith- 
standing all that the people still call it Thunderbolt, and will 
probably always do so. The cars on the trolley line run- 
ning there all bear the name by which the people insist on 
calling it. 

But even though the name of Warsaw should be 
adopted, it would be a misnomer. The reason for the 
change was because the town is on a branch of what is 
wrongfully called Warsaw River. The river and island so 
called should really be the Indian name Wassaw, and so 
they were originally named. It is correctly given in a tract 
published in 1740, called "A State of the Province of Geor- 
gia," by William Stephens, in which the author wrote that 
"To the southward of Tybee are the following enteries, viz : 
Wassaw," etc., and De Brahm, in his "History of the Pro- 
vince of Georgia," always used that name, giving it no less 
than three times on one page. 

T. R. H. — Who was the wife of Oglethorpe? Was she 
ever in Georgia? 

On the 15th of September, 1744, General Oglethorpe 
married Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Nathan Wright, 
Baronet, of Cranham Hall, Essex, England. As he made his 
final departure from Georgia on the 23rd of July, 1743, it will 
be seen that Mrs. Oglethorpe never was here. 

Truth-seeker. — I have been told by some persons that 
General Nathanael Greene died at Mulberry Grove, and by 
others that he died at White Hall, the home of a Mr. Gib- 
bons. What is the truth about this matter? 

Our correspondent is not alone in his desire to be set 
right on this subject. So many writers have made the pos- 
itive statement that General Greene died at his home, Mul- 
berry Grove, that they surely must have had sufficient rea- 
son for so saying; but, on the other hand, many have stated 
that he died at White Hall, the home Mr. William Gibbons, 
among the latter being the Rev. George White, in his 
"Statistics of Georgia." The former statement is correct. 
The General was in Savannah on the 12th of June, 1786, and 
the next day he started early to return to Mulberry Grove, 
intending to spend the day at White Hall. After breakfast 


he and his party went to look over the rice crop of Mr. Gib- 
bons, where it is supposed the heat of the sun was so intense 
as to have afterwards affected him. At any rate, he was 
not at once stricken down, for the best accounts show that 
it was while on his way home in the evening that he com- 
plained of a severe pain in the head. It is needless to re- 
count the facts regarding his last moments and death. It 
is not positively known what was the cause of his death, 
whether it was a sunstroke, according to some, or a conges- 
tive chill, according to others. The fact is, as the weight of 
the evidence shows, that he died at Mulberry Grove. 

W. G. L. — How was Count Pulaski introduced to Gen- 
eral Washington ? 

Benjamin Franklin, minister to France when Pulaski 
was much talked of, gave the following letter to Pulaski, to 
be delivered to Washington: 

"Count Pulaski, of Poland, an officer famous through- 
out Europe for his bravery and conduct in defence of the 
liberties of his country against the great invading powers of 
Russia, Austria, and Prussia, will have the honour of de- 
livering this into your hands. The Court here have en- 
couraged and promoted his voyage, from an opinion that he 
may be useful to our service. ,, 

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Georgia Historical Quarterly, " December, ; 


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Official Letters of Governor John Martin 28ft 

Letter of General Nathanael Greene to Governor vl; 

- Martin. ...;....... .. .. 336 

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Letters of Patrick Carr to Governors John Martin and ^'$3 

Lyman Hall .......... ... . 337; * 

Letter of. Gov. Patrick Tonyn, of East Florida, to 

Gov. Martin, and Report of Georgia Deputies on 

the Same '. , 7 ' 341 1 

Letter of Samuel Stirk to Brig. Gen'l John Twiggs. . . . 344 • ] 

Description of Frederica in 1839, by Rev. T. B. Bartow 347 - 

Queries and Answers __ 350 j | 

Editor's Notes. .;.......:.. 352 

Communication from Joseph B. Cumming 354 


Historical Map of Savannah Frontispiece:' , 

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VOL. 1-No. 4. 

DECEMBER, 1917. 

Printed for the Society 



Savannah. Ga. 

One Dollar a Number. 

Three Dollars a Year 










William W. Mackall, 
Thomas j. Charlton, 
Otis Ashmore, 
Alexander C. King, 
Lawton B. Evans, 
Otis Ashmore, 
Charles F. Groves, 
William Harden, 







Corresponding Secretary. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Librarian and Editor of the Quarterly. 


Otis Ashmore. 

Thomas J. Charlton. 

Henry C. Cunningham* 

Wymberley W. DeRenne. 

Charles Ellis. 

Lawton B. Evans. 

H. R. Goetchius. 

William W. Gordon. 

Alexander C. King. 

Alexander R. Lawton. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Mackall. 

J. Florance Minis. 

William W. Williamson 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman. 

Charles Ellis. 

Benjamin H. Levy. 

William W. Williamson. 

Mrs. Anna B. Karow. 

Died May 9, 1917. 




r 0L. I. 

DECEMBER. 1917. 

No. 4 

MARTIN, 1782-1783. 

John Martin was the Governor of Georgia at a most 
important time in the history of the State, when the British 
government found that all hope of keeping within its grasp 
its rich possessions in America must be thrown away ; when 
Sir James Wright, the royal Governor, seeing the hope- 
lessness of his cause, wrote to England that "appearances 
are very gloomy," and, as a matter of great concern, stated 
that "The rebel Governor Martin, now at Ebenezer, has 
issued three proclamations, one to the King's troops, one 
to the Hessians, and another to the militia, inviting them 
all to revolt and join the virtuous Americans against the ty- 
ranny of the British government," adding that "three hun- 
dred French troops are on their way from Virginia, and yet 
we can get no assistance, and all my letters are disre- 
garded;" and when the British troops actually evacuated 
Savannah, forever liberating the State of Georgia from for- 
eign dominion. It is strange, then, that the letters of this 
man have not before this been published collectively. 
Stranger still is the fact that so little is known of his life. 
Writers state that they do not know where he was born, 
and yet in one of the letters following, to General Greene, 
he says he was a native of Rhode Island. One account 
alleges that nothing is known as to the time or place of his 
death, but the Georgia Gazette of February 2d, 1786, con- 
tained this record: "Last week died on his way westward, 
whither he was bound for the recovery of his health, the 
Hon. John Martin, Esq." 

John Martin represented the town and district of Savan- 
nah in the first Provincial Congress of Georgia, in July, 
1775. He was a member of the Council of Safety until ap- 



pointed first lieutenant of the 7th Company "ordered to be 
raised for the protection and defense ;of the Colony of 
Georgia." He was promoted to the office of Captain July 
11th, 1776, and in 1781 attained the rank of Lieutenants 
Colonel. On the 2d of January, 1782, he was elected Gov-' 
ernor of Georgia, and held the office until January 9th, 1783 
when he was succeeded by Lyman Hall, and then he became 
Treasurer of the State. 

Friends and Brothers, 

Augusta, Jan. 11th, 1782. 

Open your ears wide, and be attentive to what I am now 
going to tell you ; for they are great truths and not lies. 

In our last talk to you by your head men and warriors 
we told you that our great warrior, General Washington, 
had beat the English in Virginia, and had taken their head 
warrior and eight thousand red coats and two thousand 
tories and sailors prisoners, and had also taken a great 
many of their ships of war, which has put an end to the 
war in Virginia ; that our warriors were coming on to Caro- 
lina & Georgia to General Greene, our great warrior in 
Carolina, in order to drive the British from Charleston and 
Savannah, and put an end to the war in Carolina and in 
this Country. 

Our warriors are all arrived in Carolina, and are not now 
more than one hundred miles from Augusta. 

We likewise told you we would wish to live in peace and 
friendship with our old friends and brothers, the Creeks, 
and to keep the chain of friendship as fair and as bright as 
the Sun, and the path plain, clear and open, and that our 
friendship should be united by a chain so strong as never to 
be broken, so that we might live in peace with our good 
old friends and brothers, the Creeks, forever; and that I 
now repeat and tell them the same. 

But, to our great surprise and astonishment, some of 
your mad people and the Tories and bad people who re- 
main among them by the instigation of Brown's lying talks 
and a few trifling presents, have been induced to come 
down and have murdered one of our people, in the back 
settlements, and have carried oft two young women pris- 
oners, and some of our horses and cattle. 

Our great warrior, General Greene, is now lying before 
Chas. Town with a large army of soldiers and horsemen, 
with their long swords and pistols, so that none of the 



tritish dare shew their heads out of Charleston ; — Our good 
tends the French have already taken most all the rum, 
igar and salt islands from the English, and will this winter 
Jce the whole of them, then they will supply us with 
■plenty of rum, sugar, and salt, and we shall be able to sup- 
ply you with these articles. You likewise see that our good 
lends the Spaniards, have already taken Mobile & Pensa- 
)la, and they will very soon take Augustine, as we are 
jld by deserters from Savannah that they are already 
'there with a great many thousand warriors and ships of 
ir, & we shall soon drive the British away from Chas. 
["own and Sav., and then this whole country will be ours 
?again, and the British will never be again able to take it 
Ifrom us, for we have already killed and taken m;ost all of 
^their soldiers. 

Brothers, you are sensible we have desired you to go to 
Carolina to see our great warrior, Gen'l Greene, and his 
army, that you might see them with your own eyes, and be 
convinced we tell you npthing but truth, and that you 
might tell your headmen and warriors that you have seen 
these things with your own eyes, but you have told us you 
are obliged immediately to return and can't undertake the 
journey. However, if you'll inform your headmen and 
warriors if any pi them have a mind to come down and see 
our great warrior, General Greene, and his army in Caro- 
lina, we would be very glad, that they might see with their 
own eyes, and be convinced that what we tell you is true. 
You say our good friends the Spaniards won't give you 
| any ammunition, altho' you say you know they have great 
plenty. I know the reason very well ; it is because you still 
keep Brown's liars, Tories & King's people among you, 
and they are afraid if they supply you with powder and 
ball, that your mad men will use it against their good friends 
the Virginians. But if you drive the Tories, Brown's liars, 
and King's men from among you, and never let them re- 
turn again, then they will supply you with what you want ; 
otherwise they will not. Brothers, we should be very sorry 
to fall out with any of our good old friends, the Creeks, on 
account of their mad people, occasioned by Brown's lying 
talks, but we cannot ; our hearts will not let us put up with 
those injuries, and they may depend we will not put up 
with our people's being cruelly murdered in this manner. 

You tell us you wish to be our friends & to live in 
peace & still let Mr. Mcintosh & Brown's lying people keep 
among you, & let your mad men and them come down and 
murder our peaceable men, women, and children, and steal 



our horses, cattle & negroes. Actions speak louder than 
words. If you wish to live in peace with us, as we sincerely 
do with you, convince us you speak truth, by immediately 
sending down all our white people that you have taken 
prisoners, and all the negroes, horses, and cattle they have 
stole from us, and likewise send us down all those Tories, 
bad people, and King's men that are among you making mis- 
chief, that we may take satisfaction of them ourselves, and 
suffer no more of them to come among you with their lies. 
to deceive you. By doing this you will plainly show that 
you mean to be our fast and firm friends; — for, as I told 
you before, actions speak louder than words ; otherwise we 
are sorry to tell you we shall be obliged to send our war- 
riors up to your towns (that have done the mischief) and 
lay them in ashes and make your women widows, and 
children fatherless. We should be very sorry the innocent 
should suffer with the guilty, which perhaps may be the 
case, which can only be avoided by separating themselves 
from their mad men, & those Tories and liars that are 
among them — it is our enemies we threaten and not our 
friends. But we hope you will be wise and give us the 
satisfaction we ask, and not oblige us to do that which wc 
would not wish to do. 

The British made war upon us because we and our 
women and children would not be their slaves & work for 
them the same as the negroes, and if they could have made 
slaves of us, they would have made you their slaves also; — 
no we would not be their slaves, we had the spirit of men 
and warriors ; we fought them and beat them ; the great 
God above fights for us in our great cause. The British 
have told you all along that they have beat us everywhere, 
and that they had killed almost all of us — they tell you great 
lies — for if they are strong enough to beat us themselves 
why are they sending people among you every day with 
their lies to deceive you, and to endeavor by their trifling 
presents to persuade your madmen to come down and kill 
us. No ; they tell you great lies, and the truth is not in them. 

We never ask you to assist us ; we never ask you to come 
down and kill the British ; — but in all our talks we have de- 
sired you to sit down peaceably and quietly, and mind your 
hunting. No — the reason is very plain. We are strong 
enough to beat them ourselves, and they know it — otherwise 
they would not ask you to help them. They have made our 
men all warriors, and we shall soon drive them from our 
country pver the other side of the great Water. 



We shall then sit down in peace and quietness, every 
man under his own vine and fig tree, and none shall make 
hittl afraid. We shall then begin to build large ships again, 
and trade with all nations, the French, the Spanish, & the 
Dutch; — we shall then have plenty of goods of all kinds. 
It is true, this war has made us poor, and we are not ashamed 
to own it; because our cause is just; but we shall soon be 
rich and happy, as our countrymen at the northward are 
already— and if you are determined to be our good friends 
as you have heretofore been and as willing to be at peace 
with us, and keep the good old chain of friendship bright, 
and the path straight, fair and open — we will then love you 
as friends, and take you to our bosoms; and you shall 
share our riches and happiness with us. 

Friends and brothers, we hope you'll remember all we 
have now told you, and hope you'll give this talk to your 
head men and warriors. Brothers, we have told you all we 
have to say to you now, and wish you a pleasant and an 
agreeable journey, and a happy sight of your friends and 


Augusta, 15th Jan. 1782. 

Agreeable to the enclosed resolution of the honorable the 
House of Assembly, you are hereby required to deliver to 
Mr. Daniel McMurphy all public papers belonging to this 
State, which may be in your hands, taking his receipt for 
the same. You'll please to have the trunks, &c, sealed and 
the keys sent under seal to our Delegates in Cpngress, 

I am sir, 

Your most obt. serv't, 

Edm'd Davies, Esq'r. J. M. 


Augusta, 19th of January, 1782. 

I am happy to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of 
the 14th inst., by Col. Eustace, and am pleased that the 
military operations of this infant and distressed State are, 
by the Honorable Major Gen'l Greene, committed to the 
care of a gentleman whose military talent has already ren- 
dered him so conspicuous both in Europe and America. I 
mean not to flatter, sir, but only to give real merit her just 



due, and doubt not but duty, as well as inclination, will lead 
you to exert every power for the protection of the citizens 
and the total extirpation of the enemy from this State; and 
you may rest assured that I will give you every support, aid 
and assistance, and co-operate with you in every measure 
that will tend to this essential and desirable purpose. 

I have already issued orders to the respective officers 
for one-half of the militia of this State to be immediately 
drafted and imbodied (except the County of Wilkes, they 
being a frontier, and one-third of them are ordered out) and 
to march to camp by the 26th inst., in order to act in con- 
cert with the Continental troops you have now with you. 
They are to do duty for two months, at which period they 
will be relieved by an equal number — I have likewise ordered 
a Commissary and quarter-master, to proceed to camp in 
prder to provide proper provisions & forage for the support 
and maintenance of the whole in the field. I have also col- 
lected and sent down such boats as could be procured to the 
Two Sisters, agreeable to your request, for the immediate 
crossing of the troops on this side. Your observations re- 
specting the opening a wide door for the reception of such 
citizens as have taken protection or joined the enemy are 
in my opinion extremely just and humane, and such as good 
policy at this crisis would undoubtedly dictate. I have more 
than once urged those very measures during the setting of 
the late House of Assembly, which were entirely disre- 
garded, and not the least attention paid to them. Owing to 
the repeated injuries and distresses those very characters 
have brought upon the virtuous citizens of this State, nature 
would not be nature could it immediately forget injuries 
like those, which impressions are only to be erased by time — 
but those very characters among the enemy are of such a na- 
ture (some few excepted) that I am confident the citizens of 
this State would rather meet them in the open field than 
suffer them to remain among them, and think in that situa- 
tion they would be less able to do us mischief. You can- 
not, sir, be sensible of the misery and distress they have 
been a means of bringing on this once flourishing, but now 
unhappy country, nor can you possibly have an idea of the 
feelings of men in this situation. However, I am not yet 
out of hope, and think that something important may still 
be done in this business at a future day. 

I would beg leave to urge the necessity of a body of 
regular Infantry to give support, stability and confidence 
to the militia; you must be sensible what militia are, (tho' 
I flatter myself ours are good or I am much deceived; they 



jave been tried), therefore must be thoroughly convinced 
they never will stand the bayonet, without a support of this 

I imagine we shall be able with the draft of one-half of 
the militia to bring about three hundred effective men into 
the field, exclusive of Col. Jackson's troops and Infantry 
belonging to this State, which I expect will be complete 
in a fortnight, and will consist of about 40 horse & fifty 
foot, Col. McKay's corps of Volunteers consisting of about 
eighty men well mounted, and Maj. Moore's Regmt. of Caro- 
lina State Dragoons, consisting of one hundred and sixty 
J well mounted; the above corps have orders to reconnoiter 
the country, cover your crossing and to join you immediately 
on this side. You will therefore from this estimate be the 
best judge of what number of regular infantry will be suffi- 
cient to carry on your future operations. In the interim 
I have the honor to be with the greatest esteem & respect 
yV honor's obt. and very humble serv't, 

J. M. 

P. S. — I beg leave to hint to you that we have a great 
scarcity of salt and ammunition, likewise of corn & fodder ; 
and the back inhabitants of this State are at this time in the 
greatest distress for grain for the support of themselves 
and families. Whether a supply of those articles could not 
be procured from Carolina to be refunded on a future day? 

The Honorable Brig. Gen. 
Wayne at Camp. 

| Hon'd by Col. Eustace. 

Augusta, 29th Jan'y, 1782. 

Dr. Sir: — It is with pleasure I acknowledge the receipt 
of your favor of the 24 instant, enclosing a duplicate of 
yours of the 14, which I had ree'd. I now have the honor 
of enclosing you a duplicate of a letter I wrote you by Mr. 
Donally, to be delivered to Col. Cooper, by whose hands 
I hope you have ree'd it. It was to have been conveyed to 
you by Col. Eustace who went off and left my dispatches, 
and beg leave to refer you to the same. 

I shall endeavor by every possible means to supply 
you with provisions & forage, but am afraid they will be 
small from this part of the country, as the inhabitants here- 
abouts are greatly distressed for subsistence. Therefore 
am apprehensive we must have recourse to Carolina, where, 
am confident, there is plenty to be had. 



The late House of Assembly have not furnished me 
with the means of supply any otherwise than by certificates, 
redeemable by the sale of the forfeited estates in December 
next; and the inhabitants of Beech Island in Carolina (our 
principal granary at present) have combined together, and 
will not sell a single bushel without the cash, which we have 
not got; and I being possessed of no powers without the 
limits of this State cannot take a single bushel of grain 
fnom them. I must therefore request that (as a Continental 
gen'l officer) you would furnish the Or. Mr. or Com'ys with 
sufficient powers to impress corn & forage in Carolina as 
the only effectual means of supply. 

I am extremely sorry the militia have not been able to 
co-pperate with you sooner, owing to a former draft being 
nearly expired, and being under the absolute necessity of 
ordering a new draft; however, I hope they'll now be able 
shortly to join you, by detachments or otherwise, as every 
exertion on my part is now, and has been making. 

I have given the necessary orders for the immediate 
repair of the bridges between the Sisters and Ebenezer, 
which hope will speedily be effected. I hope to have the 
honor of being with you shortly. Interim, I am with the 
greatest esteem & respect y'r honor's most obedient 

& very hble. servant, 

The hon'ble 

Brig'r Gen'l Wayne, in Camp; 
Per Express. 

J. M. 

Dr. Sir 


Feb. 3rd, 1782. 

I did myself the honor pf writing to you per the return 
of the express, in answer to your favor of the 24th ulto., 
covering a duplicate of a letter I wrote you some time since, 
which I hope has safely reached your hands. 

I flatter'd myself of being with you in this ; but un- 
avoidable delays have retarded the march of the militia 
longer that I expected, and business of a civil nature has 
detained me. However, I hope the militia will now speedily 
join you at Ebenezer. and I shall follow in a few days 
after, myself, as I am extremely anxious to see them in 
forwardness before I leave this. 

The foot militia in field I am apprehensive will fall some- 
thing short of the numbers I mentioned to you in my letter, 
owing to an expedition being formed against the Cherokee 



nation, by the States of North and So. Carolina in which 
> ''this State is called upon for their assistance, to co-operate 
'with them in this undertaking, and Col. Clarke with the 
Wilkes County militia are obliged to proceed upon this 
business, which will for the present deprive us of about 
eighty men in the field; however I am in hopes we shall not 
fall far short, as numbers have turned out and joined the 
volunteer corps now with you, under Cols. McKay and 

I hope you have furnished the different departments 
with sufficient powers for procuring a supply of corn and 
forage from Carolina, as I can see no possibility of effect- 
ing it on this side, the inhabitants of the upper parts of this 
State being so amazingly distressed for those articles, ow- 
ing to their being constantly on duty for this twelve months 
past, and many of them not having it in their power to 
raise a single bushel of grain. 

I am, with the greatest esteem & respect, your honor's 
most obt. & very humble servant, J. M. 

The Honorable Brig. Gen'l Wayne, 
at Camp. 

I must beg the favor of you to endeavor, if possible, 
to effect the liberation of Col. Wylly, now within the enemy's 
lines, at Savannah, a gentleman who has been a long time 
in captivity with his family, and in the greatest distress, not 
having been able to procure any kind of supplies frpm his 
friends. If this business could be effected I should be ex- 
tremely happy. You'll have this handed to you by Col. 
Jackson, of the Georgia State Legion, a friend of mine. He 
is a gentleman and a soldier, I beg leave to introduce him to 
your acquaintance as one worthy of your confidence. 

To the Honorable Brig. Gen'l Wayne. 

Dear Sir : — 

Augusta, Feb. 3rd, 1782. 

If you recollect, when in Augusta, you mentioned to me 
you had some intentions of becoming a citizen of Georgia, 
likewise many of your corps, provided you & they have 
any encouragement from this State. I have the pleasure 
to inform you, that I have consulted Council on this head, 


and find them extremely agreeable, and I am authorized to 
make you the following proposals, that is, provided they en- 
gage for 12 months, or during the war, to allow the privates 
for Continental pay, and two hundred and fifty acres 'of 
land, and the officers in proportion to their rank. If these 
terms should be agreeable, I should be extremely happy. 
In the interim, I am with perfect esteem 

Dr. Sir, Yr. most obt. Servant 

P. S. — I expect to be at camp shortly. Please write me 
on this head as speedily as possible. 

Maj'r John Moore, Com'g the 
State troops of So. Carolina, 

Dr. Sir:— 

Augusta, 9 Feb'y, 1782. 

I was extremely happy in receiving your obliging favor 
of the 9th of Jan., ultimo, wherein you mention you have 
just been informed by the Speaker of our House of Assembly 
of my appointment to the arduous and unthankful office of 
Chief Magistrate of this State ; an office unexpected, unasked 
and unsolicited bv me. It was by the free voice of my coun- 
try. I was therefore, of course, dragged into it unwillingly; 
therefore, if I should not answer their expectations they have 
only themselves to blame. However, I flatter myself they 
have appointed a firm and staunch friend to the independence 
of America, and I can assure them the small share of abili- 
ties I possess are entirely devoted to their service. 

I sincerely wish I may be able to conduct myself through 
this troublesome business with propriety to myself, and satis- 
faction to the public. The moment a man is appointed to 
an elevated station in life, he that moment becomes a target 
for every fool to level his arrows at. I expect many rubs, 
anxieties, and unpleasant moments. If I should not, I shall 
be greatly disappointed; therefore, shall prepare myself for 
their reception and endeavor to plunge through them if pos- 
sible. I may err from the head, but I flatter myself not from 
the heart. I shall endeavor to act with a conscious rectitude, 
and proceed straight forward, without looking partially to 
the right hand or to the left ; therefore, whatever censures 
I may receive during my administration, I flatter myself 
when they come to be investigated by a candid, an impar- 
tial world, they'll at least allow me to be the honest man. 




observe you say in your letter, "if you are the gentleman 
From Rhode Island to whom I had the honor of being intro- 
duced at the Congaree, I am happy in the choice, and beg 
•leave to congratulate you on your appointment, but if you 
lire' not the gentleman I must trust to your good nature to 
pardon the freedom of this familiar introduction, founded 
itipon the supposition of the gentleman's being a country- 
man of mine"— 

I must sir, in the first place inform you that I am the 
gentleman from Rhode Island who had the honor of being 
introduced to you, upon the Congaree, and am also happy 
in the pleasing reflection that I am a countryman of yours. 

The appointment of Gen. Wayne to take command in 
this State is perfectly agreeable. An officer of his distin- 
guished merit, and tried experience, must and does give 
f general satisfaction, and may depend I shall give every sup- 
port, aid and assistance, and will cheerfully co-operate with 
him in any measure that will tend to the total extirpation 
of the enemy from this infant & distressed State. The judi- 
cious appointment of two such officers to command in the 
H Southern Department is, in my humble opinion, a pleasing 
presage of future success and happiness. I heartily con- 
| gratulate you on the late honorable acknowledgments Con- 
gress have been pleased to pay to your merits in the battle 
of the Eutaw. 

I have ordered out one-half of the militia of this State 
for a fixed period (two months), which I believe will amount 
to about three hundred foot, besides Col. Jackson's Legion of 
this State, consisting of about 40 horse & 50 foot, and about 
100 volunteer horse. I should have been able to have turned 
out a few more in the field, had it not been for the frequent 
alarms on the frontiers, by the Indians and Tories, which 
must be protected ; and an expedition against the Cherokee 
nation being now undertaken by the States of North & 
South Carolina, in which this State is called upon for her aid 
and assistance in this business. Col. Clarke has, of course, 
gone with the Wilkes County militia; therefore have not 
been able to draw a single man from thence. 

Your observations respecting the opening a door for 
the reception of the disaffected of our State, with particular 
exceptions, are in my opinion extremely just and humane, 
and such as good policv, at this crisis, w r ould undoubtedly 
dictate. I have more than once urged those very measures 
during the setting of the late House of Assembly, which 
were entirely disregarded and not the least attention paid to 
them. Owing to the repeated injuries and distresses those 



very characters have brpught upon the virtuous citizens of 
this State, nature would not be nature could it immediately 
forget injuries like those which impressions are only to be 
erased by time; but those very characters among the enemy 
are of such a nature (some few excepted) that I am confident 
the citizens of this State would rather meet them in the 
open field than suffer them to remain among them, and think 
in that situation they would be less able to do us mischief. 
You cannot, sir, be sensible of the misery and distress they 
have been a means of bringing on this once flourishing but 
now distressed and unhappy country, nor can you possibly 
have an idea of the feelings of men in their situation ; there- 
fore they have great reason for their implacability. How- 
ever, I am not out of hope, and still think that something im- 
portant may yet be done in this business, on a future day. 
In my letter to General Wayne, I have urged the necessity 
of a body of regular infantry to give support, stability and 
confidence to the militia. You are very sensible what 
militia in general are, tho' I flatter myself ours are good, or 
I am much deceived. They have been tried, therefore must 
be thoroughly convinced they will never stand the bayonet, 
without a support of this kind. Your observations in re- 
spect to plundering are, in my opinion, extremely just and 
politic; it is a diabolical practice, and one that I am deter- 
mined to crush. I have the hpnor to be with the greatest 
esteem, & respect, 

Your Excellency's most obt. serv't, 

His Excel'y Maj. Gen'l Greene. 

J. M. 


Augusta, 6th March, 1782. 

I have received your kind favor of the 3rd Feb'y, ultimo, 
informing of your detaining a number of negroes at the Yad- 
kin Ford, in the possession of Col. McMurphy, and that they 
are suspected to be plundered property, and that they appear 
to belong to one Dill, a tory whose property is confiscated 
by a late act of Assembly. I am extremely obliged to your 
Excellency, for this friendly information, and am therefore 
to request that you'll please give the necessary orders, and 
have the said negroes disposed of as speedily as possible, in 
the most convenient and advantageous manner, for the 
benefit of this State, transmitting an account sales of the 






Sixne to me as early as possible, the proceeds for the present 
to be lodg'd as your Excellency may think proper to direct, 
until you may receive further advice from me. In the mean- 
time, I am with the greatest respect, 

Your Excellency's most obt. and very hble. serv't, 

His Excell'y 

Gov. Martin of No. Carolina. 

J. M. 


Augusta, 14 March, 1782. 
Gentlemen : — 

Your favor of the 3 & 12th Dec, & of the 9th Jan'y, 
three from his Excellency the President of Congress, 
the 24th Sept., 30th Nov. and 17th Dec, four from 
the financier, Rob't Morris, Esq., 17th Nov., 6th, 19th 
& 21st Dec, one from Robert R. Livingston, Esquire, 
of 12th Nov., and one from his Excellency Gen. Wash- 
ington, of the 19th December — all of which I have had 
•the honor of receiving. The many weighty and important 
matters therein contained, wherein the safety and independ- 
ence of this State is so essentially concerned, has, by and 
with the advice and consent of the honorable the Executive 
Council, induced me to convene the House of Assembly of 
this State at a much earlier period than that which it stood 
adjourned to, in order to lay the same before them for their 
consideration, & doubt not but every attention will be paid 
to the respective recommendations therein contained, as far 
as the nature & situation of this country will admit of. The 
various struggles we have had, and which we daily ex- 
perience, and the present distressed situation of this coun- 
try, will admit of but small exertions; our inclinations are 
good, but our abilities are small. We therefore stand in 
great need of every support and assistance which I flatter 
myself Congress will not be unmindful of. The conduct of 
the military operations in this State was, by the Honorable 
Major General Greene, committed to the care of Brig. Gen'l 
Wayne, an officer whose abilities are too well known to 
need a comment, and who is much approved of here. He 
entered this State the beginning of January last, with about 
one hundred and twenty horse, which threw the enemy 
into such a panick that they immediately abandon'd their 
outposts, destroy'd all the provision & forage in the vicinity 
of Savannah, & fled into the town with precipitation, where 
they have ever since been cooped up by that force, with 



the addition of Col. Jackson's Legion of this State, con- 
sisting of about 40 horse, and 50 foot & about 100 militia 

altho' their force, from the best information, is about 1,500 
or 2,000 men, including militia. They doubtless at first 
must have conceived Gen. Wayne's force to have been much 
greater than it really was. Gen. Wayne, I'm informed, has 
been down near the lines of Savannah, and has destroy'd 
all their forage at the Governor's Plantation at Yamacraw 
and at Hutchinson's Island. General Barnwell co-operated 
with Gen'l Wayne from the Carolina side. In this manoeuvre 
about six or eight of the militia of Carolina were either killed 
or taken in this enterprise, which is all the loss we have met 
with, and I believe that was principally occasioned by their 
own imprudence. I have received no official accounts from 
Gen. Wayne as yet, respecting it; but it comes well authen- 
ticated, & I believe is beyond a doubt. Altho' the enemy 
at Savannah are so vastly superior in force to us, yet they 
seldom or ever venture without their lines. I believe the 
principal cause is they are afraid of trusting their own men, 
as desertions from them are very prevalent, which they em- 
brace every opportunity, and numbers of Hessians and 
others have come out from time to time which all their 
vigilance is not able to prevent. The troops in Savannah 
from every information are much dissatisfied. 

The distresses of the inhabitants of this State for the 
want of provisions has prevented my giving that support 
to the operations of Gen. Wayne that I could have wished. 
Many of the inhabitants in the upper part of this State have 
not tasted any thing of bread kind this six weeks past, and it 
is almost impossible to turn out men under these circum- 
stances, for, by the constant duty they were heretofore on, 
they lost their former crops, & if they are now drawn into the 
field they would of course lose the ensuing, and we should be 
obliged to quit the country for want of provisions ; however, 
I'm in great hopes I shall be able to alleviate their distresses 
in some measure by an application to Carolina for a quantity 
of rice for their present support, and if we can possibly rub 
through for a month or two longer, I'm in hopes we shall 
do much better, as we have prospects of fine crops of wheat 
this season. This State is much in want of arms, ammuni- 
tion, clothing and salt. We are without money and no mode 
of supply unless Congress could fall on some plan of doing 
it. We have, it is true, had some temporary supplies of 
ammunition from General Greene, but those are nearly ex- 
hausted. I am requested by the hon'ble the Executive Coun- 
cil to desire you would, without loss of time, inquire into 



Expenditure or appropriation of the 30,000 levies granted 
z use pf this State, and transmit an account of the same 
_ as early as possible. Altho' civil government is estab- 
ied in the States, yet still our unhappy situation is such 
Jwt it is morally impossible to carry the laws fully into 


n Plundering and killing have heretofore been frequent 
K this country. That was a time, perhaps, when it was 
justifiable, but that time is now past, and I am determined 
tl crush those horrid practices in future, as far as lays in 
Sfr power. I have enclosed you three proclamations lately 
bsued: one for the reception of deluded citizens (great num- 
■fcers of which have already come in), one to encourage de- 
sertion from the enemy (this has been published in Ger- 
Stn, as well as English language), and one calling the 
House of Assembly to meet at Augusta the third Tuesday 
April next. For further particulars I beg leave to refer 
>u to Col. Few, by whom you'll receive this & who is corn- 
tent to give you every necessary information. Interim, 
have the honor to be, gen'm'n 

Your most obt. & very humble serv't, 

J. M. 
*0 the Hon. the Delegates for the 

State of Georgia in Congress, Philadelphia. 

Dear Sir :- 

Augusta, 14th March, 1782. 

You'll have this handed you by Mr. Douglass, who has 
leave to visit his friends at Augusta and then return to camp. 
I am sorry to find many of his countrymen are very inveter- 
ate against him, tho' in my (opinion undeservedly. His life, 
I'm informed, has been attempted more than once, and am 
afraid if I had not particularly interfered he would have 
been murdered. 

I am confident it would have been out of my power to 
give him sufficient protection was he at present to stay here 
longer. There was, a few days since, a most notorious in- 
stance of this kind happened ; a citizen was coolly and delib- 
erately killed at noon day, by one of our back inhabitants. I 
immediately took the necessary measures for securing the 
murderer, but my orders were disobeyed, as opposition was 
threatened. The person who killed the man I'm informed 
afterwards gave as a reason that the man killed was the 



means of the death of his father; but if justice is prevented 
and every man to be a judge in his own cause, there will 
shortly be no safety in this country. We should call the mili- 
tary in to our aid, which is a sad alternative. I am very sorry 
the corn has not reached your camp sooner, owing to a neg- 
lect in some of the departments, for which I shall have them 
called to a severe account. 

The inhabitants of the upper part of this State are al- 
most perishing for provisions ; may of them have not eat 
any bread kind for this three weeks past. If you could pos- 
sibly have the boats loaded with rice on their return, it would 
be of infinite advantage to many of the suffering inhabitants 
this way. Mr. Douglass, Captain Cuthbert, & Mr. Glass- 
cock were unfortunately taken prisoners & paroled by a 
small party from Savannah. The principals were Weather- 
ford, Lyons, & Webster. There is a quantity of corn im- 
pressed by Mr. Oates on Beech-Island agreeable to your 
orders. Whether a proportion of it could not be spared for 
this post, as there is no prospect of procuring it on the Geor- 
gia side, for the relief of the inhabitants? I'm confident the 
reason why the people have been so tardy in turning out is 
the present distress of their families and their preparing for 
a future crop. I am informed there are numbers of the 
citizens who have come in from the enemy. I have ordered 
them all for camp immediately. I have, with the advice of 
the Council, thought proper to call the Assembly to meet at 
Augusta the third Tuesday in April next, who will doubtless 
adjourn to Ebenezer. I would be extremely happy in 
hearing from you, and am with the greatest respect and 

Your honor's most obt. & very humble serv't, 

Hon'ble Brig. Gen. Wayne. 

J. M. 


Augusta, 14th March, 1782. 

Nothing but the present deplorable situation of this 
country, & the starving condition of the greatest part of the 
inhabitants, many of whom have not tasted bread kind for 
more than a month past, could have induced me to trouble 
your Excellency on this occasion; but impressed with the 
idea that our distresses, which have been owing to the accum- 
ulated horrors of war this country has experienced for this 



lU r years past, might entitle us to hope for some small 
Jief for the present from our sister State, has encouraged 
nc to make this application. Could your Excellency, either 
a public capacity or by private recommendation, assist 
US in th e procuring about five hundred barrels of clean rice, 
ie favor will be most gratefully acknowledged, and you 
jay depend I shall take the earliest and most effectual 
"method of having it paid for, as soon as the nature of our 
Affairs will admit. Mr. Wereat, a gentleman who I am in- 
formed you are well acquainted with, is the bearer of this, 
■Will be able more fully to inform your Excellency of the ne- 
■Tcessity of this measure, which when you have considered I 
lam fully persuaded you will not in the least wonder at. It 
f was some time in June last, when this country was rescued by 
I its citizens out of the hands of the British, when most of them 
I found only empty houses and barren fields. It was then too 
| late, and our situation by most thought too precarious to at- 
f tempt making a crop. 

The few who stayed at home and made some small 
| effort to raise provisions were too inconsiderable in num- 
I ber to supply those that were obliged in a manner con- 
stantly to keep the field, in order to retain the small and 
desolated part of the country we were possessed of. This 
I is literally the true picture of this country, aggravated by 
: the cries of widows & orphans with which it in all parts 
abound. Fully relying on the goodness and humanity pf 
your heart, to promote this essential business as much as 

I am, with the truest regard, your Excellency's most 
obt. and very humble servant, 

His Excellency the Governor 
of South Carolina. 

Dear Sir 

Augusta, 14th March, 1782. 

I am greatly concerned at not having it in my power to 
furnish you regularly with so large a number of militia, 
as I heretofore intimated; and altho' I have made use of 
every exertion in my power, yet the present unhappy situa- 
tion of this country is such that I find it impossible to draw 
out a larger force at a time than you have with you at present. 
I am to inform you, sir, that it was June, last year, before 
the inhabitant's that were at the retaking of this countrv 



had an opportunity of putting their grain in the ground, and 
being almost constantly on duty at the same time, their I 
fields were neglected, and of course very little made, which 
has brought pn the great scarcity we at present experience 
the inconvenience of; and I can assure you that many families 
in the upper parts have not had a mouthful of bread for more 
than a month past. The planting season is again arrived, 
and if this opportunity is omitted of putting their fields 
in order, and sowing their grain, they and their families 
must inevitably perish, or be obliged to quit the State; not 
to mention the many daily murders committed, in which 
women & children are not excluded, making it absolutely 
necessary that a patrol be kept constantly on duty in every 
settlement for its security. These reasons alone, & not an 
aversion to the service, makes them so backward in turning 
out at this time. Under these melancholy circumstances 
it is very hard to get men into the field. I have been obliged 
lately to apply to the Governor of South Carolina for rice 
for our present support, & if it should be obtained shall have 
it distributed among the necessitous, which will cause the 
men to turn out with more alacrity. If your regular infantry 
are arrived, or a prospect of their coming soon and the 
militia can possibly be spared from camp till their crops 
are in the ground, I'm confident they may then be readily 
drawn into the field, and in the interval a continuance of 
my exertions shall not be wanting to keep you as largely 
supplied as possible. I am fully convinced Gen. Twiggs's 
going to the northward at the time he did was unfortunate 
for this country ; for in his absence there was not an officer 
for the militia to look up to as their chief in the field, or to 
enforce my orders generally, and as Col. Clarke who is next 
in command was at that time engaged on an Indian expedi- 
tion ; for had he remained, thro' his influence a greater num- 
ber might at first have been drawn out, being heretofore 
constantly with them on all occasions. I fully concur with 
you in sentiments respecting volunteer corps and should 
never have suffered either McKay's or Carr's to have gone 
down, if the militia could have been drafted and got out 
time enough to have rendered you any assistance at your 
first coming into this State. I have since reduced them, but 
as they were chiefly composed of Carolinians will not add 
many to our Militia, and have only retained a few under 
proper restrictions as a scout during the present alarm on 
the frontiers of Burke & Effingham Counties. Observing 
when in camp that your troops appeared to be in great want 
of tobacco, I shall purchase some as soon as possible and send 



,^rn for their use, as nothing- contributes more to health 
lit this climate than that plant. I do myself the honor to 
Scljose some letters lately intercepted on their way to the 

Itndian nation, copies of which i have retained. Mr. VVereat, 
Hrho delivers these dispatches, is very intelligent and capable 
Bf giving you every further and necessary information re- 
specting our present situation. He is a very particular 
Mend of mine, and whom I beg leave to introduce to your 
Acquaintance. In the mean time I am with the highest 
Entiments pf respect, your honor's most obt. & very humble 

|Hon'ble Brigadier Geirl Wayne. 

Dear Sir :- 

Augusta, 15th March, 1782. 

I did myself the honor of writing to you on the 9th Feb., 
iimo, in answer to your first letter; since which I have 
received yours of the 2nd covering copies of two letters 
yjou wrote to the Gov. of So. Carolina respecting the raising 
*of black corps. In consequence whereof, and on receipt 
Mpl several other dispatches from Congress of an important 
^ nature, and on consulting with General Wayne, I have by 
the advice and consent of the Executive Council of this State 
issued my proclamation for convening the General Assembly 
at a much earlier period than that which it stood adjourned to 
& shall then lay the several recommendations therein con- 
tained before them and make no doubt but they will be 
attended to as far as our present distressed situation will 
admit. The raising a body of blacks I am sure would answer 
every purpose intended, but am afraid it will not go down 
with the people here. However, it shall not want my 
exertions to carry it into effect. 

Major Habersham of the Georgia Continental troops 
has undertaken to find out the different officers now in this 
State and to ascertain their ranks and dates of commissions; 
their distressed situation will necessarily make it some time 
before he can complete it, but as soon as done will have it 
transmitted to you. Our great want of arms, ammunition,' 
clothing & salt — no money or mode of supply & our very 
great want of grain — render it impossible to make any extra- 
ordinary exertions at this time, & keeps me with regret 
from affording that assistance to Gen. Wayne which my heart 
qould wish. The inhabitants losing their crops generally 



last year by being almost on constant duty and not having 
planted 'till the season was nearly past, makes them appre- 
hensive of the dreadful consequences that must ensue their 
neglecting the present opportunity of getting their grain in 
the ground. This, and their necessitous situation for almost 
every necessity of life, and not an aversion to their country's 
service, makes them so tardy in turning out. I have by this 
opportunity wrote to the Governor of South Carolina, for a 
quantity of rice sufficient for our present support, and if 
it can be obtained shall have it immediately given to the 
proper objects, which I'm in hopes will make those at present 
so anxious for the preservation of their families, many of 
whom have not tasted bread kind for more than a month 
past, turn out with their accustomed alacrity. Indeed, sir, 
it is impossible to get men into the field under such melan- 
choly circumstances. If the infantry General Wayne has 
expected for some time are arrived, and the militia could 
possibly be spared 'till their grain is in the ground, it would 
be of public utility, and a famine thereby prevented, and 
I'm confident one half of them at least & more if there 
should be an occasion, might then be kept constantly in the 
field. General Twiggs's going to the northward at the time 
he did has been attended with very bad consequences, for his 
influence, by having been always on duty with the militia, 
would have induced them cheerfully to turn out when 
drafted. I have now no officer to enforce my orders gen- 
erally, nor the militia any one to look up to in camp as their 
chief. These little circumstances are of great importance 
among them. Mr. Wereat, of this State, who will have the 
honor of handing this to your Excellency, is capable of giv- 
ing you every further information respecting our local situa- 
tion, and one whom I beg leave to introduce to your ac- 
quaintance. I have the honor to be with the highest senti- 
ments of respect & esteem, 

Your Excellency's, &c. 
Honorable Major Gen'l Greene. 

Dear Sir: — 

Augusta, 16th March, 1782. 

I this moment had the honor of receiving your favor of 
the 9th inst., and duly notice the contents. I am extremely 
unhappy in not having been able to give you that support & 
assistance at first expected; for further particulars on that 
head beg leave to refer you to my dispatches of yesterday. 



shall give the necessary orders for the second division of 

tilitia to march within the time but must reiterate my re- 
vest respecting the expediency of their being indulged 'till 

leir corn is planted, if they can posssibly be spared. Apro- 
pos in respect to forming volunteer corps, in your letter of 
Feb. 1st, ultimo, you strongly recommend the raising a vol- 
unteer corps in addition to the militia, to be enlisted for a 

ced period under proper officers and subject to the ar- 
'ticles of war for the government of the army. I have for this 
mrpose ordered Col. McKay & Captain Carr to meet me next 
lifonday and shall propose their again getting their men 
together in the manner you point out. If it should be effected 
I think it will be of infinite advantage to this State, as they 
chiefly belong to Carolina, and I find it impossible to get 
them on duty afoot. I likewise think if it could be con- 
sistently allowed they would serve with more cheerfulness 
under the immediate command of their own officers, who 
are used to their dispositions & manners. I have suspended 
Mr. Oates, & he has my orders to repair to camp immediately 
to answer for his neglect of duty and abuse of your au- 
thority as a purchasing commissary. I heartily congratulate 
you on the success of your late enterprise, and think it 
was an exceeding good plan. I am greatly obliged to you 
for the Chastown paper and shall be glad you would send 
them as often as opportunities offer, for I'm entirely out of 
the circle of news, and seldom get it thro' any other channel. 
I shall be glad to be favored with your sentiments as early 
as possible respecting the militia and raising of McKay's 
& Carr's volunteers in the manner I have mentioned. If I 
can possibly be with you before the meeting of the Assem- 
bly I most assuredly will do myself that pleasure, & am 
glad to find Gen. Marion's affair not so bad as reported. 
Interim, &c. 

P. S. — I have given orders to the Quartermaster Gen- 
eral to send the wagons tp camp, which will be immediately 
done; Mr. Stirk informs that it was your particular desire. 

Hon. Brig. Gen'l Wayne. 


Augusta, 22 March, 17S2. 

I am just informed that the inhabitants of your county 
have drove several gangs of cattle from Burke belonging 
to the inhabitants of that county, into Wilkes, and that 
forty others are daily expected there on the same horrid 



business. You must be sensible of the villainy of such 
practices so destructive of the public tranquillity. I there- 
fore request that you will immediately send orders to the 
different field officers of your county to be vigilant in ap- 
prehending & securing all such parties of men, and to pre- 
vent it in future as much as possible. 

Col. Elijah Clarke, 
Wilkes County. 

I am, &c, 
J. M. 

Augusta, March 23rd, 1782. 

Dear Sir: — 

I had the honor of writing you by my friend, Mr. Wereat, 
the 15th and 16th instant, since which I have had the pleasure 
of receiving yours of the 15th by Captain Bell. You'll have 
this handed you by Col. Clarke who comes to take com- 
mand of the militia in the field, a gentleman whose vigilance 
and activity in the cause pf his country has rendered him 
very conspicuous in the eyes of his countrymen. He has 
requested that Carr's Corps might be permitted to pro- 
ceed to camp with him ; as a Volunteer Corps they are 
broke, and now go under the denomination pf mounted 
militia. I have done my utmost to endeavour to get them 
properly organized, but all to no purpose. It is morally 
impossible to get them to do duty on foot. They will be 
subject to your orders; if you can possibly find employment 
for them for the present either in reconnoitering the enemy, 
or on some separate command to the southward. I am in- 
formed Mr. Girt* and a number of Tories have collected a 
large property belonging to this State consisting of negroes, 
horses, cattle, etc. I think if we can secure the property 
that way it may be a help towards raising our Continental 
quota. I only throw this put as a hint for your further 
consideration, and I think if you should not have an im- 
mediate use for those men at camp they would answer for 
an expedition of that nature. The militia are drafted and 
collecting, and have the pleasure to inform you they will 
march speedily. I am much indebted to the vigilance of 
Col. Clarke in this business. I am very happy to find the 
militia & reclaimed citizens have merited your approbation. 
It must be a pleasing reflection to them and, I hope will 
stimulate others in future. 

I have the honor, &c, 
Hon. Brig. Gen'l Wayne. 

•McGirth (?) 




Augusta, 24th March, 1782. 
?I)ear Sir :— 

I omitted in my letter of yesterday informing you that 
fj have ordered Col. Wade, D'y Quarter Master General, the 
bearer of this, down to your headquarters that he may ar- 
range the business of his department & rectify the abuses 
or mistakes that may have been committed. 

He brings with him all the wagons that can be spared 
from this post. They are inconsiderable in number, but hope 
'will be of service to you. Major Lucas & Captains Glass- 
cock and Booker, who arrived here last night immediately 
r from Virginia, inform that it was confidently reported that 
the homeward bound Jamaica fleet was captured in the 
Channel by the combined fleets, & that scarcely one escaped. 
They likewise bring certain accounts that the Virginia Line 
had marched thro' Charlotte a few days before they got there, 
and General Greene informs me that he intends them for 
this State. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

Hon. Brig. Gen. Wayne. 

Dear Sir :- 

Augusta, 10th April, 1782. 

I sincerely thank you for your very polite and oblig- 
ing favors of the 12th & 26th ultimo. I wish I may merit a 
continuance of the favorable opinion, you are pleased to say, 
people in general, entertain of me. I thank you for your 
good wishes. Your sentiments respecting the policy of 
Legislatures are extremely just, and exactly coincide with 
my own. When I mentioned that nature would not be nature 
if it forgave injuries like theirs, I only meant to account in 
some measure for the implacability of the community at 
large towards those deluded people ; and, not to express my 
own sentiments or feelings on that occasion. The General 
Assembly meet here on Tuesday next. I am confident exer- 
tions will not be wanting to raise as great a proportion of 
our Continental quota of troops as the present weak and 
distressed situation of this State will admit. 

Every encouragement is given by me to the planters; 
but am apprehensive, notwithstanding all my endeavors, 
we shall be much distressed by the militia being kept 
in the 'field at this time. In order to gain a respite for 
them, I am endeavoring to raise a corps of about 200 rifle- 



men enrolled for two months to serve in their stead, and am 

to allow each of them a cow & calf, exclusive of pay. This 
is exceeding the authority allowed me by law, but the 
necessity of the step, and the good consequences that will 
result therefrom I hope will justify it, & plead my excuse. 

I am truly sensible of, & sincerely thank you for your 
friendly assistance to this unhappy country, and do not in 
the least doubt of your future support and exertions in our 
favor. I would be much obliged to you for the news papers, 
occasionally, as I seldom obtain any thro' any other channel. 

This State is much distressed at present for want of 
ammunition, & if you could supply us with 200 or 300 lbs. 
of powder & lead in proportion, it may answer 'till our 
supplies arrive from Philadelphia. One cause of the great 
consumption of ammunition is, that our back inhabitants 
are obliged to support their families almost entirely with 

I am, &c, 
Maj. Gen'l Greene. 

Dear Sir 

Augusta, 10th April, 1782. 

I have been duly honored with your favors of the 26th 
& 31st ultimo. Every exertion has been made to forward 
the second draft of the militia to camp. I hope they are by 
this time with you. They turn out with reluctancy at this 
time, & I am fearful it will be productive of melancholy cir- 
cumstances, as they must suffer in their crops amazingly; 
there is, however, too great a necessity for it. I sincerely 
wish it could have been avoided with safety. Agreeable 
to your requisition I have already given orders, and an 
attempt is now making to raise a corps of rifle-men to be 
enrolled for two months, and their times not to commence 
'till they arrive at camp. In this affair I have exceeded my 
powers in giving each, as a bounty, one cow & calf im- 
mediately upon enrolling, exclusive of pay. I find great 
fault with that part of our Constitution which lodges no 
exclusive power in the executive authority, in cases of 
emergency. The service, however, requires an adoption of 
the present measures, and it is a determined & fixed prin- 
ciple with me to support you in your operations as far as I 
possibly can — the immediate safety of the country demands 
it. I am happy in finding Col. Clarke was much pleased 
with his reception at camp. He is now exerting every nerve 
to raise the rifle corps, and forward the militia. 



I flatter myself I shall very shortly be able to send you 
between 100 & 200 of the former, & doubt not of their ren- 
dering essential service to you. 

I am happy to inform you I have procured a supply of 
rice from the Governor of Carolina, but am afraid it will be 
some time before I get it conveyed to this post, by not having 
a sufficient number of wagons. 

I have the honor to be, &c, 

Hon. Brig. Gen'l Wayne. 

Augusta, Ga., 16th April, 1782. 
Mr. Speaker & Gentlemen : — 

The many weighty & important matters I have to com- 
municate to your honorable House, wherein the safety, 
prosperity & happiness of this country is so essentially 
concerned, has, by the advice of the honorable the Executive 
Council, induced me to call you together at a much earlier 
period than that to which you stood adjourned. 

It is with heartfelt pain I reflect on the misery & dis- 
tress of the poor, suffering, but virtuous inhabitants of this 
State, who, for want of common sustenance, are now re- 
duced to a perishing condition. It has been principally 
occasioned by the wanton waste of grain heretofore ex- 
pended, which, had it been dealt out with the least degree 
of economy, would have been more than sufficient to have 
answered every exigency, & prevented those calamities we 
at present unhappily experience; but those evils I have 
endeavored to remove as far as lay in my power by an appli- 
cation to our sister State for a quantity of rice, to relieve 
us from our present distressed situation, & am happy to 
inform you that I have in part succeeded, which hope may 
be a means of removing those difficulties, and the alarming 
situation we at present labor under, until the return ;of our 
next crops, which I am happy to be informed are promising. 
The raising of our Continental quota of troops, for the de- 
fence and protection of this State, the revision of the militia 
law, whereby the services may be equally borne, and the es- 
tablishment of public faith, are in my opinion matters of 
such an important nature, wherein the well being, safety, 
happiness, and independence of this State is so essentially 
concerned, that I cannot help recommending the same to your 
honorable House in the most earnest and pressing terms, to 
take the same into your serious consideration and fall upon 



such immediate measures, as will best effect those grand 
& desirable purposes. 

I would beg leave to recommend the establishing a 
Court of Claims to determine the right of contested property, 
so essentially necessary at this time to quiet the minds of 
people. I would also most earnestly recommend the subject 
of the boundaries of this State to be taken into your im- 
mediate consideration. I think it would be wise and ex- 
pedient that a shorter & explicit act dp pass ascertaining and 
declaring the same as objects of negotiation may speedily 
take place, & in that case we shall be able to produce this 
act to our aid, on the important subject of boundaries, and 
that instructions on that head be immediately forwarded 
to our delegates at Philadelphia. 

It is with pleasure I can inform you that, from assur- 
ance of our delegates, I have every reason speedily to expect 
a supply of arms, ammunition & clothing for the use of 
this State, which we at present so greatly stand in need of. 

The American cause is now so well supported by the 
sword, the timely arrival of the reinforcement to General 
Wayne, with proper exertions of our own, I flatter myself 
we shall have little to fear from the power of our enemies. 

The enterprising spirit and unremitted perseverance of 
the brave General Wayne, and the intrepidity of the officers 
& men under his command, have, under many difficulties, 
with numbers vastly inferior, happily kept the enemy closely 
confined to very narrow limits. They are now compelled 
to seek refuge within the lines of Savannah, whilst we re- 
main in the full & absolute possession of every other part of 
this State ; and the Legislative, Executive, & Judicial powers 
now enjoy the free exercise of their respective authorities. 
I most heartily congratulate you on the present pleasing 
& happy prospect of our affairs, & do not in the least doubt, 
under the protection of Divine Providence, together with 
our own exertions, we shall be able to terminate this cruel 
& bloody war; and once more thoroughly establish our 
country in peace, liberty and independence. 

I sincerely & ardently wish we may soon be reinstated 
in the full possession and enjoyment of our country, and by 
steadily adhering to principles of economy and decorum 
in our public affairs, there cannot be the least doubt of 
our establishing funds adequate to the support of our in- 
ternal police, and by pursuing our public measures with 
decision and rectitude, we shall recover the ground we have 
lost, and rise superior to the present difficulties and dis- 
tresses that . surround us, & soon equal any State in the 



Union. The extent and fertility of our country are well 
known and well worth contending for. 

The interest & honor, the safety & happiness of this 
Country so much depend on the result of your delibera- 
tions, that I doubt not of your proceeding on the same with 
firmness, temper, unanimity & dispatch. 

J. M. 
Mr. Speaker, & Gen'mn 

of Assembly. 

Dear Sir:- 

Augusta, 29th April, 1782. 

Every step has been taken -to get as many confiscated 
negrpes as will pay Captain Locke for the horses pur- 
chased of him for your Legion ; but they cannot be pro- 
cured up here. He was to have been paid in two months 
at farthest from the day of sale, and relying pn the faith of 
the State pledged to him at the time, has returned and been 
waiting here some time at a great expense, in expectation of 
being paid; and he is willing to assist in collecting the 
negroes and bringing them to this place to be appraised. As 
the purchase was principally for your Legion, I would be 
glad if you will assist Captain Locke in getting as many 
negrpes belonging to the confiscated estates near Savannah 
as will amount to about £400, the sum due him, & furnish 
him with a small guard to convey them here, as they will be 
at the risk of the State 'till they are appraised, and take his 
receipt for them. 

I am, &c. 
Col. Jackson of the 

Georgia State Legion. 

Gentlemen :- 

Augusta, 30th April, 1782. 

Mr. Jones, late Clerk of the Council, has been obliged, 
from the inadequateness of the salary, & for want of many 
necessaries' of support, to resign, & no one can be pro- 
cured capable of discharging that duty for the present 
salary allowed by the public. The former House which 
fixed the salaries of public officers had it in idea that the 
post of Clerk of Council was very lucrative, but I can assure 
you that he scarcely gets a dollar per month by perquisites, 
and that there never will be any thing materially got by it 



'till the land office is opened, so as to induce any person to 
accept it for the present salary; and the House of Assembly 
can, at any time when the perquisites increase, diminish the 

I beg leave further to inform the honorable the Assem- 
bly that I have been obliged to emplov a private secretary, 
to assist me in transacting public business, as I find I can- 
not possibly do without one ; and it never can be expected 
that I can support him out of the trifling salary allowed 
me; I would therefore, be glad if the House would take it 
into consideration, and enable me to provide suitably for 
him. I am sorry to inform you that my family is frequently 
destitute of provisions, & that I have no mode of supplying 
them but thro' the commissary, who has it not in his power 
to prevent it, or is very neglectful, and that, in a fit of ill- 
ness, from which I have not yet recovered, I was obliged 
to send to my neighbors for every article but sugar & coffee 
fit for a weak or sick person to eat ; and it is a well known 
fact that there is not a private family in Augusta that lives 
so wretchedly as mine does, which some of the members of 
your House can testify. 

I have not had since my commencement in office as 
much money as would purchase the most trifling neces- 
saries myself or family stand in need of from time to time. 

My family, such of the members of your body (who 
stay with me for want of public houses) and the Guard 
have been for some time, and are now, supported by grain 
procured on my private credit. I flatter myself it is the 
wish of the House to support the Governor in character, if 
only for the honor & credit of the State; and not suffer him 
to become a butt, a laughing stock, to the Continent; it 
would be a disgrace, a scandal. 

I hope, gentlemen, you will consider of these matters, 
and remedy them as far as the situation of our affairs will 

I have the honor to be, &c, 
To the Honorable the J. M. 

Speaker, &c, of Assembly. 

Dear Sir 

Augusta, 3 May, 1782. 

I have a severe indisposition that has reduced me very 
low; but have been some days on the recovery, and hope 
to be perfectly well in a few weeks. I had the honor receiv- 



Ig-your favor of the 17th, ultimo, during my indisposition, 
^nd a number of public letters yesterday from Philadelphia, 
■tinder a cover of Major Fishburn's, each enclosing Gazettes, 
■ for all which I am much obliged to you. 

The Speaker of the Assembly also writes by this oppor- 
tunity, and will, I make no doubt, fully inform you of every 
[thing material that has been transacted since their meeting. 

^His Honor, Gen'l Wayne. 

2 o'clock. 

P. S. — Lieut. Stallinsfs of Jackson's Legion has this 
moment waited on me. He informs that yesterday evening 
he stopped at a house the other side of Brier Creek to re- 
fresh his horse which was tired, and to get dinner; that 
about 3 o'clock six men made a charge upon the house, and 
the women knew them to be Coopers. It was vain to attempt 
mounting his horse in that tired condition, and he and young 
Lyons, the only person with him, made their escape on foot 
by retiring to a swamp. Your dispatches were in his saddle 
bags and taken with his horse. 

I have the honor to be, &c, 


Dear Sir:- 

Augusta, 6th May, 1782. 

Yours of the 22 ultimo I have had the honor of receiving, 
and sincerely regret that the few militia that have been sent 
y<ou cannot be kept together. I have given the necessary 
orders for apprehending and securing the deserters from the 
different regiments to their commanding officers, and to have 
the militia law put in full force against them. I can with 
pleasure inform you that Col. Clarke has raised part of the 
Rifle Corps and will shortly complete it & bring them to 
your headquarters. He says they are chiefly young men, 
can bear fatigue, & capable of executing the boldest enter- 
prise, numbers of them having been with him from the 
commencement of the war. The Assembly have adjourned 
since my last, for want of provisions, to the first of July, 
then to meet at Ebenezer. They have left undone the most 
material business that induced me to call them together at 
the time I did. They raised the Continental quota of troops, 
& an amendment of the militia law. I most sincerely con- 
gratulate you for the mark of esteem that Georgia has 
paid to your merit, tho' far short of my wishes, by which I 



observe it is their desire to induce you to settle among us 
after a conclusion of the war.* 

Gen'l Wayne. 

I am, &c, 

J. M. 

Whereas, information has been lodged with me that 
sundry negroes belonging to the confiscated estates have 
been feloniously carried out of this State into the State of 
Carolina; in consequence thereof I do hereby authorize and 
appoint Captain John Green to collect the said negroes and 
keep the same in his possession until called upon for them 
by me, or the Commissioners of Forfeited Estates; and all 
officers, both civil and military, are hereby required to aid 
and assist the said Green in procuring the said negroes. 

Given under my hand at Augusta, this 
3rd day of May, 1782. 

Capt. John Green. 

J. M. 

Dear Col. :- 

Augusta, 23rd May, 1782. 

I have received your favor of 21st per express, & am 
happy to find your family were not murdered, as was re- 
ported. Wherever there is an absolute necessity for the 
protection of the good citizens of this State, every measure 
tending to that effect I shall always most cheerfully ap- 
prove of. I have sent you the powder & lead, agreeable 
to your request. I hope you will lose no time in endeavor- 
ing to complete the rifle corps, as speedily as possible, as I 
have received a very pressing letter from General Wayne, 
who mentions he wants to see you very much with the rifle- 
men. I hope you will lose no time in this essential business, 
but be speedily down. 

I am, &c, 
Col. E. Clarke, J. M. 

Wilkes County. 

N. B. — Don't let anv of the rifle-corps be detained by 
any means, as there will be a sufficient number of the in- 
habitants for the protection of the settlement. 

•This refers to the purchase by the State of the confiscated 
plantation of Alexander Wrigrht, at a cost of £3,900, and the presenta- 
tion of the same to General Wayne. 





Augusta, 23rd May, 1782. 

I have had the honor of receiving your favor of 14th 
,_jt, enclosing a copy pf yours of the 1st. The original was 
'taken by the enemy. Captain Alexander, the bearer of this 

[Rim informed by Col. Clarke), is a worthy man and a 
>d soldier. He commands one of the Rifle Companies 

rhich he this morning marched off for your headquarters : 
expect one Company more down this day, and another 
"shortly, when shall send them forward with all the dispatch 
•possible. Captain Carr's corps is entirely upon a new plan. 
lit is to consist of two companies, thirty men each, one of 
Dragoons, the other of Rifle-men, and is called Carr's In- 
dependent Corps, and commanded by two captains, two 
■lieutenants, and a captain commandant, with which com- 
pliment he is not a little pleased. They will shortly proceed 
upon the business intended, agreeable to your orders. I 
think they will be of great service to you, on many occa- 
sions. I am in hopes of procuring you some whisky shortly, 
for the army must, & I am determined shall, be supported 
as far as lays in my power. 

I think appearances on the side of the enemy seem 
to indicate an evacuation. I pray God it may be the case, 
and rid us of such troublesome neighbors. Interim I am, &c, 

Hon. Brig. Gen'l Wayne. 

J. M. 

P. S. — I shortly intend doing myself the pleasure of 
paying you a visit at Ebenezer. 

[The following bears no address, but is indorsed : 
r A flag by Messrs. Wallace & Cecil."] 

My dear Major: — * 


Ebenezer, 27th June, 1782. 

By Major Washington I have wrote Gen. Wayne, and 
inclosed him a list of the names of those persons proscribed 
in our late confiscation Act, together with a clause for your 
government in the recruiting service. 

'Probably Major John Habersham, 



I confess, my dear sir. in many respects the terms there^ 
held out are hard, but as Chief Magistrate of the State (who! 
am sworn to preserve the laws inviolate) am compelled to' 
prevent an infringement of the same, if possible. I therefore^ 
beg leave to refer you to the General's letter, and expect youTI 
conduct yourself accordingly. Interim, I am", my dear sir, 
Your sincere friend and very humble serv't, 


P. S. — My kindest respects to my friend LeConte & 
the gentlemen of the army. Pray let me hear from you, 5c 
write me all the news. 

Dear Sir: — 


Ebenezer, 26th June, 1782. 

Since my leaving you, I have for my further information 
once more perused our Act of Confiscation ; have therefore 
taken liberty of enclosing you a list of the names of those 
persons that are therein proscribed, together with a clause 
of the said Act. My duty, as the Chief Magistrate of this 
State, who am sworn to execute the laws, compels me to 
request that you'll communicate the same to Major Haber- 
sham, for his government in raisins: the Georgia Battalion as 
speedily as possible. Interim, I have the honor to be, with 
the highest sentiments of respect & esteem, dear sir, your 
most obt. and very humb'l servant, 

Copy to Gen'l Wayne. 

N. B. — For God's sake don't forget an express the 
moment you enter Savannah. 

Savannah, 31st July, 1782. 

The certificates you may have remaining are much 
wanted. Therefore would wish you to forward them with 
every possible dispatch. 

I am your most obt. servant, 

Mr. Dunlap, 

Printer, Parker's Ferry. 

J. M. 



Savannah, 19th of July, 1782. 

o the Tallassee King & the Head Men and Warriors of 
the Upper and Lower Creek Nation : — 

Friends and Brothers of the upper & lower Creek nation, 
Kim will remember the talk I gave my good friend & brother 
'the Tallassee King. It was a true and good talk ; it spoke 
nothing but peace and friendship. It spoke the sentiments of 
my heart, & of my beloved men. They are great truths, and 
lot lies. I told you that our Great Warrior General Wash- 
ington had beat the British great warrior in Virginia, had 
killed a great many of his soldiers & taken their great 
warriors and eight thousand prisoners, also many of their 
large ships, several thousand sailors, with all their cannon, 
powder and small arms, which had put an end to the war in 
Virginia. I also told you then that Savannah would soon be 
mrs, and then we should have possession of all this coun- 

once more. You are convinced that what I told you 
then is now true, Savannah is ours once more ; you have seen 
it with your own eyes, & have walked the streets with us 
with your own feet, and we shall soon have Chas. Town 
also, and the Spaniards will soon have possession of Augus- 
tine, then our ports will be open again, and we shall be able 
to supply you as usual with goods. You are fully sensible 
we always spoke peace to you. We never called upon you 
to assist us in our wars, we never asked you to spill your 
blood in our cause as the British have done. No, if we had, 
we should not have basely deserted you by running away, as 
they have done. No, we always desired you to remain at 
home quietly and peaceably, and to mind your hunting & 
support your women & children in peace & happiness. 

But no, your madmen, instigated by the treacherous 
Emistesegoe* and for the sake of a few trifling presents, 
did wantonly fall on our warriors in the night in hopes of 
cutting them off, a people that never wanted to injure you 
but always sought your friendship. And had our warriors 
have seen them the day before, they would have taken them 
by the hand & esteemed them as friends & brothers. But 
happily our people were not asleep ; they were on their 
guard & have amply & fully revenged themselves for the 
few drops of blood we have lost by killing a number of your 
headmen & warriors, whose bodies have been left to the 
ravenous wolves and the birds of the air & whose bones 
now lay white upon the ground. 

•Also called Emitasago and Guristersigo. 



Their women are now widows and their children father- 
less and are now left to mourn the unhappy event. Their? 
blood is upon their own heads. They compelled us to do- 
that which we would not wish to do. Brothers, we hope 
your mad people have seen their error; we hope they will 
repent & be sorry for what they have done, and once more 
be wise like yourselves. 

We therefore hope you'll immediately deliver up all 
the commissaries & traders. Likewise all our negroes 
horses & cattle that are among you. A proceeding like this 
will convince us you mean to be our fast & firm friends. It 
will be the means of burying the hatchet, brightening the 
good old chain of friendship, and make the path straight, 
fair and open, so that we shall live like friends & brothers 
living upon the same land and eating out of the same dish. 

We don't wish to be at peace with you because we are 
afraid. No, you must be convinced it is not the case, for all 
our warriors are now a hardy race of men, and can undergo 
any kind of fatigue & surmount any difficulties. They 
possess sinewy arms & keen cutting swords, and are not 
afraid to die ; & if your madmen should prefer war to peace, 
& should throw away your friendly & brotherly talks which 
I now do & have before given them, then we shall be under 
the disagreeable necessity of going to their towns & lay 
them in ashes, and make their women widows and their 
children fatherless. Their dead bodies will cover the ground 
and be devoured by the wolves of the forest and vultures of 
the air, and their bones will lay white upon the ground. It 
is our enemies we mean to threaten, & not our friends. Now, 
after comparing the horrid & shocking distresses (incident 
to war) with the tranquil & happy effects of a generous peace, 
pray let me ask you seriously, as men of sense, who have 
a regard for their own safety and for the safety of their own 
dear wives and children, men whom I love, & whom I would 
wish to take by the hand as friends & brothers — 

Brothers, I do not hesitate a moment respecting which 
you would prefer — the sword, or olive branch. As I told 
you before, it is not fear that induces us to wish for peace 
with you, but the affection we have for you, your wives and 
children. I hope you will be wise, and consider seriously 
what I have told you, and give us the satisfaction we ask. 
It is true the English have run away & left us peaceable 
possession of our capital once more. Friends and brothers, 
exult and rejoice with me & my people upon this happy 
occasion. But I am sorry to inform you they have carried 
away most of the goods with them. However, trade will 



jw in upon us shortly, and we shall be able to supply you 
jth goods as formerly. 

I For the present we will endeavor to collect such 

tides of goods as we can for you. I shall send some 

Jacco with you as a token of my friendship to the Nation, 

I order that my good friend the Tallassee King, his head 

^ihen & warriors, may smoke together in your great square, 

that the white smoke may ascend to the Master of the 

Ireath & be a witness of the sincerity of my intention. 

Friends & brothers, I doubt not but you'll remember 
1 1 have told you & will repeat in your great square those 
>rds which I have now told you. Brothers, I have noth- 
jg further to say to you at this time. I therefore wish you 
j pleasant journey and a happy sight of your friends and 

J. M. 

Dear Sir:- 

Savannah, 8th August, 1782. 

I had the honor of receiving your favor of the 14th ult., 
and also acknowledge the receipt of two others, the one by 
Dr. Ridgely, a gentleman from Maryland, who I am happy to 
find is likely to become a citizen with us ; the other covering 
copies of letters unto his Excellency Gov. Rutledge, on the 
subject of raising black corps in the States of South Caro- 
lina & Georgia, which I have laid before the Honorable the 
House of Assembly. 

I return your Excellency my sincere thanks for your 
kind congratulations on the total evacuation of this State by 
the British, and doubt not this happy event will be a means 
of restoring tranquillity to every part of the State. I am very 
sorry you have occasion to withdraw the troops from this 
State at so early a period, as the good consequences result- 
ing from their longer stay must appear conspicuous, as they 
would not only have been a means of giving a tone to gov- 
ernment but would have thoroughly established the same. 
I hope we may not soon have occasion for them. As for Col. 
Jackson's Corps, they are at present annihilated. Their 
times have nearly expired; and as for Major Habersham's 
new recruits, they are not to be much depended on at 
present. However, I hope discipline may reform them, if 
principle does not. 

I am happy to inform your Excellency that our worthy 
Gen. Wayne, his brave officers & men, have given universal 



satisfaction in this country, & I do assure you it is with 
the greatest degree of regret that we part with them. I 
thank you for your kind attentions to this little State on all 
occasions, & am confident it will never want your friendly 
aid & assistance. 

The leveling the works 'round the town (which I think 
very essential) has employed my particular attention of late, 
which business is now nearly completed. I think your ob- 
servations on that head extremely just. Rest assured, my 
dear sir, that my endeavors shall not be wanting to soften 
the resentment of parties and correct the abuses which the 
confusion and disorders of the war have given rise to, & 
sincerely pray my efforts may not prove abortive. I am 
directed by the honorable the House of the Assembly to in- 
form your Excellency that they have appointed Frederick 
Rolphs to the office of Deputy Commissary General of Pur- 
chases & Mr. John Strong Deputy Commissary General 
of Issues, and am requested to recommend those gentlemen 
to your Excellency as proper persons to fill those offices, & 
that you would please confirm them in their respective ap- 

I have the honor to be with the highest sentiments of 
esteem and respect, dear sir, 

Your most hble. serv't, 

His Excellency Maj. General Greene, 

Headquarters, So. Carolina. 

Honored by His Honor General Wayne. 

J. M. 

Savannah, 9th August, 1782. 


I am requested by the Honorable the House of Assembly 
to inform your honor of your appointment by them to the 
office of Chief Justice of this State with a salary of five hun- 
dred pounds sterling per annum annexed. I heartily con- 
gratulate your honor on the appointment & should be 
happy it would meet with your approbation. 

I am with sentiments of respect, 

Your honor's most obt. & very humble serv't, 

The Honorable Aedanus Burke, Esq., 

So. Carolina. 

Honored by his Honor General Wayne. 

J. M. 



Savannah, 9th August, 1782. 

I have had the honor of receiving your letter of this 

(by the hands of Captain Cowen) respecting that un- 

jnate young man, Mr. Maxwell, and have submitted 

Sesame to the consideration of the honorable the Executive 

itdtincil. They, I'm confident, would wish to pay every at- 

ltion to any recommendation of Gen. Wayne's, but am re- 

jested to inform your Honor that they have taken the 

latter into consideration, & find that they cannot possibly 

Itcrfere in the business, as it does not come before them — 

ie law being explicit on that head, which says that those 

''characters whose names are mentioned in the Bill of Attainer 

"thall be committed to jail without bail or mainprize — and we 

[being sworn to support those very laws cannot possibly 

deviate from them. 

; I have the honor to be with sentiments of esteem, 
Your most obt. & very humble serv't, 

J. M. 
[on'ble Brig. Gen'l Wayne, 
:., &c, &c. 

Dear Sir : — 

Savannah, 13th August, 1782. 

Having been informed that there is a probability that 
the wagons, that were intended to bring down the public 
arms, ammunition, &c, at Augusta are stopped by Gen. 
Twiggs and of course those articles still remain there, if 
this should be the case, which I sincerely hope is not, you will 
immediately proceed & procure a proper boat & hands & 
have those articles transported by water under a proper 
guard to Savannah, where they are much wanted. I hope 
General Twiggs has not proceeded upon so unjustifiable 
a measure. I wish it may not be the case, upon his own 
account, as well as on account of the State, as in that case I 
shall undoubtedly be under the disagreeable necessity of 
taking proper notice of the same. I am with esteem, sir, 
Your most obt. & very humble serv't, 

J. M. 

P. S. — I believe Col. Hammond's boat may have ar- 
rived at Augusta by this time & I think it would be a proper 
one for that purpose. 

Cornelius Collins, Esq., Maj., &c, Command't at Augusta. 



Gentlemen : — 

Savannah, August 13th, 1782. 

Agreeable to a resolve of the Honorable the House of 
Assembly, I am allowed ten prime negroes from the conJ 
fiscated estates for the support of my family. I wouldf 
therefore request the favor of you gen'n to endeavor (byj 
consent of the Commissioners) to select ten prime slaves^ 
from the confiscated estates agreeable to said resolve; but* 
in case the gent'n Commissioners should not think proper 
to select the negroes, then & in that case you'll please pur--' 
chase in ten prime slaves for me at all events, & if the negroes 
go anything reasonable, you'll also please purchase in about 
six or more for my private account. You'll please observe 
that they are all to be prime slaves. I am informed there's' 
two fine pier glasses, the property of Parson Seymour, at 
his place. I would be glad you'd purchase them in for the 
Government House. Billy Taply can inform where they are, 
& if any good furniture can be purchased in for Government 
House, I would be glad you would oblige me in that partic- | 
ular, as at present you must be sensible, it is very bare of ,| 
those articles & I am confident for the honor of government, 
you would wish a Governor of the State of Georgia to live 
in some degree of character. Your kind compliance in that 
particular will much oblige gentlemen, 

Your most obt. and very humble serv't, 

J. M. 

Messrs. Washington & Odingsell, Commissioners, 
County of Chatham. 

Gentlemen: — 

Savannah, 15th August, 1782. 

I am applyed to by Governor Mathews of the State 
of South Carolina as also by Gen'ls Greene & Pickens for 
the supply of two thousands bushels salt, for the use of the 
back inhabitants of South Carolina, & have sent his letter 
for your inspection on that head. Would therefore be glad 
to know the lowest price and terms in writing that you 
would wish to supply the said quantity upon, that I may 
communicate the same to those gentlemen. 

I am gentlemen, your most obt. serv't, 

J. M. 
Messrs. Mord and Keall & 
Owen & Thompson, Merch'ts, Savannah. 




Savannah, 15th August, 1782. 
;ar Sir :— 

I yesterday received your Excellency's favor of the 8th 
instant, requesting a supply of salt for the use of back in- 
habitants of your State. I should ever think myself extreme- 
ly happy in the opportunity of rendering any assistance in 
my power to our good neighbors, the Carolinians, especially 
on such an occasion as this. But am sorry the application 
had not been earlier made, as in that case we could have con- 
veniently included the quantity mentioned in that already 
procured for th6 use of this State. However, as I would 
wish to give every support on this occasion, we will engage 
to supply your State with five hundred bushels from the 
quantity procured for our own private stock, provided you 
should not be able to comply with the terms of the merchants. 

I have applied to such merchants here as have salt for 
sale, and have requested to know the lowest price and terms 
they would wish to supply that quantity upon (which Gen- 
eral Pickens informed is two thousand bushels) and have 
enclosed your Excellency their terms for your inspection. 

I have the honor to be with sentiments of respect & 

Your excellency's most obt. and humble serv't, 

•His Excellency 
Gov'r John Mathews, 
So. Carolina. 

J. M. 

Dear Sir: — 

Savannah, 16th August, 1782. 

I am honored with your Excellency's favor of the 8th 
inst, respecting a supply of salt for the back inhabitants 
of South Carolina, and am truly sensible of their exertions, 
merit and distresses. You may rely on my attention to 
them on this occasion. 

I have wrote his Excellency General Mathews more 
fully on this head, 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's most obt. 
humble serv't, 

J. M. 
His Excell'y 
Maj. Gen'l Greene, 
So. Carolina. 



Dear Sir 

Savannah, 16th August, 1782. 

I had the honor of receiving your letter of the 9th, inst. 
and return my sincere thanks for your kind congratulation 
on the evacuation of the Capital of this State. My feelings 
for the many distresses & sufferings of the back inhabitants 
of both States are very great but particularly their suf- 
ferings on account of the scarcity of salt. 

You may depend I shall make use of every exertion on 
this occasion for their relief. The quantity may yet be had 
of the merchants, provided the payments are agreeable. I 
have applied to them on the subject, and have received their 
answer, a copy of which I have enclosed to Governor 
Mathews whom I have wrote more fully on this head. 

Your Honor's letter in regard to the Indian Expedition 
I have received, but have been so hurried with business that 
have not had time to answer it. However, I shall do my- 
self that pleasure shortly. 

I have the honor to be with sentiments of esteem, dear 
sir, your most obt. and very humble servant, 

Hon'ble Brig. Gen'l Pickens. 

J. M. 


Savannah, 15th August, 1782. 

In consequence of assurance being given by some of the 
first characters of your province to Col. William Mcintosh 
while at Augustine, that provided it was agreeable to the 
executive authority of this State to put an entire stop to and 
prevent all plundering and marauding parties in future and 
for carrying on the war upon a more liberal plan, that they 
did not doubt it would meet with the approbation and con- 
currence of your Excellency & Council as also of the Legis- 
lature of your Province: 

It is with this presumption I am led to address your 
Excellency on this subject, and should think myself extreme- 
ly happy provided a negotiation of this kind should take 
place. In my opinion, it will mutually prove beneficial & ad- 
vantageous to the industrious inhabitants of your province 
and of this State. 

I have with the advice & consent of the Honorable 
Executive Council of this State thought proper to nominate 
and appoint Col. William Mcintosh, Samuel Stirk and 


[John Wereat, Esquires, Commissioners with full and suffi- 
cient powers to treat for that purpose, and beg leave to in- 
troduce those gentlemen to your Excellency's notice, and 
expect all due faith, credit and protection may be given 
them. Interim— 

I am with respect your Excellency's most obt. and 
very humble serv't, 

J. M. 

His Excell'y Pat'k Tonyn, Esq., Gov., 
& Commander-in-chief of the 
Province of East Florida, &c, &c, &c. 

Savannah, 26th August, 1782. 
Dear Sir : — 

I have received your two letters, one of the 22nd and 
the other of the 23rd inst., and I thank you for the intelli- 
gence contained therein. Sorry am I that there is such a 
parcel of scoundrels infesting our roads and disturbing the 
peaceable inhabitants of this State. However, I hope you'll 
take every precaution and pursue every method in order to 
detect those fellows and put an entire stop to these dia- 
bolical practices in future. Try all you possibly can to 
find put the characters and connections those fellows have 
with our people. I shall send up and apprise the people on 
the Carolina side that the roads are waylaid, and shall also 
give particular directions for the taking up those men in the 
different counties. I hope by your vigilance and activity 
you'll shortly be able to give a good account of those fellows. 
The salt you sent for was supplied by the bearer, by whom 
I send you one quire of paper. I shall communicate the 
contents of those letters to Major Habersham, and meas- 
ures shall be taken accordingly. I hope to hear from you 
shortly, and am, dear sir, your most obt. humble servant, 

J. M. 
Col. Stephen Johnson, 
Effingham County. 

Savannah, 27th August, 1782. 
Dear Sir: — 

I received your favor of the 18th inst., by Mr. Bowie, 
and am much surprised to think the people are dissatisfied 
on account of any idle & ridiculous reports that may have 



been propagated by Mr. Biddle, which you as an assembly- 
man know to be false, and of course should have contra- 
dicted. You'll please inform Mr. Biddle if he or any other 
person shall in future presume to inflame the minds of the 
people by such idle & scandalous reports that they may de- 
pend I shall take proper notice of them. 

In regard to the appointment of a commissary, I shall 
leave to the recommendation of Col. Clarke to be sanctioned 
by me. Therefore I shall refer you to him on that head. I 
believe I shall fall on a plan to prevent all plundering and 
marauding parties from East Florida in future. However, 
in the meantime, be upon your guard. 

In respect to the salt — you as a member of the honorable 
House must be sensible that measures have already been 
taken on that head, & a supply granted to each county, 
which I shall as soon as possible send up to Augusta for 
that purpose, to be delivered to Stephen Heard & Edmund 
Bugg, Esq. I expect a boat from the south'd shortly by 
which I shall send it. 

As for news, the evacuation of Chs. town will take 
place in about three weeks, or a month. It is certain a 
French fleet of sixteen sail of the line have gone to the 
northward ; it is imagined against J\ T ew York. A couple of 
prizes have arrrived here since you left us. I am with 
esteem dear sir, 

Your most obt. & humble serv't, 

Capt. John Hill, J. M. 

Fort Martin, 
Wilkes County. 
Favored bv Mr. Bowie. 

Savannah, 28th August, 1782. 
Dear Sir: — 

Your favor of the 16th, inst., I have had the honor of 
receiving. Your Excellency will have this handed you by 
Col. Wylly, a friend of mine, a gentleman of character and 
one who is much esteemed by his fellow citizens. He has 
been a prisoner with the British at Savannah for some time 
past, and proceeds to Carolina in order to solicit an exchange. 
I beg leave to introduce him to your Excellency's notice 
and attention, as his services are much wanted in this State. 
With sentiments of esteem and regard, I have the honor to 
be your Excellency's most obt. & very humble serv't, 
His Excellency, J. M. 

Gen'l Greene. 



Savannah, 28th August, 1782. 
!j>ear Sir:— 

I received your esteemed favor of the 11th, inst. I am 
Exceeding sorry to find you have been so very unwell, but 
hope by this time you are thoroughly recovered. In regard 
to the fellows who have made their escape from Savannah 
and are lurking about the country, I would be glad you 
would endeavor to collect them as speedily as possible and 
have them sent to Savannah and delivered to Major Haber- 

I am sorry our roads have been of late so much infested 
by that fellow Moore and his gang. However, I hope you'll 
soon be able to clear the country of those scoundrels. If 
you find any women that harbour those fellows, I would 
be glad you'd have them sent to Savannah, where they 
shall be taken care of. 

In regard to those bad characters who are waiting to 
do mischief and then slip off, I must leave to your own 
discretion to take such methods as will be most conducive 
to the welfare and interest of this country, I doubt not of 
your taking every necessary step on this occasion for the 
benefit of this State. It is impossible for me to give you 
necessary instructions on every particular head. Therefore, 
I must in many respects leave it to yourself. I am, dear 
sir, wishing success and happiness may attend you in your 

Your most obt. and very humble serv't, 

Capt. Patrick Carr, 
Commanding Carr's Legion. 

J. M. 

Dear Sir 

Savannah, 28th August, 1782. 

I saw a letter lately from you directed to Mr. Rolfes, re- 
specting the appointment of a commissary. After the stores, 
&c, are shipped to Savannah, I think there will be no occa- 
sion for a commissary. I hope the stores are forwarded on, 
but I have received no certain accounts of its being done. In 
regard to the powder & lead to be left for the defence of the 
upper counties, it may be lodged in a private manner 
under the direction of some gentleman, in some private 
place. There is a quantity of sheet lead that was thrown in 
the edge of the river just down by the water fence — towards 
the Indian house. The lead was thrown in on the side of the 



fence next the dwelling house. By getting a sharp piece of 
iron & striking for it, it may be found. 

I wish you would endeavor to get it up as soon as 
possible. I was informed you intended leaving shortly for 
Savannah, where I should be glad to see you. 

Interim, I am dear sir, your most obt. & very humble 

Cornelius Collins, Esq., J. M. 

Major Commanding at Augusta. 

P. S. — Compliments to all my Augusta friends. 

Dear Sir:- 

Savannah, 4th September, 1782. 

Your favor of the 1st, inst., whereby I find you are still 
interrupted by those horse thieves, &c, which I hope you 
will pay proper attention to, and do all in your power to 
prevent their parties marauding among you. 

Agreeable to your request have sent ten pounds of 
gun powder and twenty pounds of lead, which hope may 
be of infinite service to your intended expedition, and a 
great means of preventing their further inroads to your 

With respect to John Lee I shall take particular care 
that he is properly secured. 

I am, &c, 
Lt. Colo'l John Cooper, J. M. 


Dear Sin- 

Savannah, 4th Sept., 1782. 

Your esteemed favor of the 16th, ultimo, per Mr. Lamar, 
I have received. In my last to your honor of the 16th 
August I informed it was not in my power to furnish the 
quantity of two thousand bushels salt agreeable to your 
request, but that I did not doubt that it might be pro- 
cured from the merchants of this town, and wrote very 
fully on that head to Governor Mathews, enclosing the 
terms the merchants would supply that quantity upon & 
take produce in payment. I expect Governor Mathews has 
informed you of those particulars ere this. 

Have received no answer from him as yet on that head. 
However, I engaged to supply your state with five hundred 




bushels out of our own stock we had provided for the use 
of the public, four hundred bushels of which Mr. Lamar now 
takes up with him, being all he can possibly carry at present, 
as the flat he applied for is very much out of repair. The 
other hundred bushels shall at any time be delivered to your 

Interim, I have the honor to be your most obt. & 
humble serv't, 
Hon'ble Brig. Gen'l Pickens. J. M. 

P. S. — Mr. Lamar can inform your honor more fully 
on this matter. 

J. M. 

Dear Sin- 

Savannah, 5th Sept., 1782. 

Permit me to introduce to your acquaintance the bearer 
of this, Col. Adlai Osborn, a gentleman of the State of North 
Carolina who means to become a settler among us. He, 1 
do assure you, comes highly recommended from the first 
characters of that State. You'll find him to be a man of 
sense, an agreeable companion, a firm & staunch friend to 
our glorious independence. 

Any attention or civilities shown him shall be grate- 
fully acknowledged by, dear sir, 

Your honor's most obt. & very humble serv't, 

Brig. Gen'l Mcintosh, J. M. 


P. S.— Comp'ts to Mrs. & Miss Wereat & the ladies at 
Augusta. For news I refer to the Colo'l. 


Savannah, 7th Sept., 1782. 

I had the honor of writing your Excellency the 15th, 
ulto., in answer to your letter of the 8th respecting a supply 
of two thousand bushels salt for the use of your State, en- 
closing a copy of a letter from the merchants of this town 
with the terms that they would supply that quantity upon, 
to which I have not been honored with your answer as yet, 
and the merchants are very pressing to know of me whether 
they are at liberty to dispose of their salt, it being in very 
great demand. Please favor me with an early answer on this 




business, that I may detain the salt or release the said mer- 
chants from the terms they proposed. By application from 
General Pickens have already delivered four hundred bushels 
out of our private stock which was all the boats could carry 
of the five hundred promised by me, in case the said terms 
could not be complied with. 

I have the honor to be with sentiments of esteem, your 
Excellency's most obt. and very humble serv't, 

His Excellency, John Mathews, Esq. 
Gov'r, &c, &c, &c. 
So. Carolina. 

J. M. 

Dear Sir: — 

Savannah, 7th Sept., 1782. 

I received your very polite letter of the 25th July re- 
specting your worthy friend Mr. Bowman, a gentleman 
with whom I have the pleasure of being acquainted, and 
whose conduct and sentiments I have the highest opinion 
of. You need be under no apprehensions with respect to 
Mr. Bowman or his property. The good people of this 
State entertain a very great respect for his person & char- 
acter. I am exceeding sorry he has of late been so much 
indisposed, however, I hope his jaunt to the northward 
will be a means of fully restoring his health once more. I 
have inclosed my permission for that purpose, agreeable to 
your request, which doubt not you will immediately for- 
ward him. Please make my compliments acceptable to 

I requested the favor of Col. Wylly who has a few 
days since proceeded to General Green's headquarters to 
wait on you and inform you of those particulars. Your 
letter should with pleasure have been answered much 
earlier, but hurry of business prevented me. 

I am with sentiments of esteem, dear sir, your most 
obt. & humble serv't, 

J. M. 
Col. C. C. Pinckney. 

Dear Sir: — 

Savannah, 7th Sept., 1782. 

I had the honor of receiving your letter of the 30th 
ulto., together with the enclosure, & thank you for the 




[Intelligence they contained. The British policy in with- 
drawing their troops is doubtless to lull us into a state of 
security until their particular purposes are answered in the 
West Indies and then to return with redoubled fury. How- 
ever, I hope we shall be on our guard. 

I am sorry to find those damn'd fellows are likely to 
become such near neighbors of ours. I'm afraid they will 
be rather troublesome to us with their skulking, marauding 
parties. You doubtless will watch their motions narrowly, 
'and if any thing material should happen, am confident you'll 
immediately fly to the assistance of poor Georgia. We are 
preparing a couple of galleys and look-out boats, as speedily 
[as possible, for-the protection of this town and harbor. 

The negroes that were employed in levelling the works 
around the town, I was under the necessity of discharging, 
on account of the crops. Therefore, that essential business 
is not as yet effected, but you may rely it shall be done as 
speedily as possible. My respectful compliments attend 
the worthy gentlemen of your family. 

I have the honor to be your Honor's most obedient & 
most humble serv't, 

J. M. 
Hon'ble B. General Wayne. 


Savannah, 9th August, 1782. 

Mr. Lindsay, the gentleman who will have the honor 
of delivering this letter to your Excellency, is appointed by 
the Commissioners of our Forfeited Estates agent for col- 
lecting the public property of this State which has been 
illegally and eventually carried into the States of Virginia, 
the North and South Carolinas. I have therefore to request 
your Excellency's support and countenance, to be admin- 
istered in such manner as may consist with local circum- 
stances and the purport of Air. Lindsay's agency. 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's most humble 
and obt. serv't, 

To the Governors of Virginia, 
North & South Carolina. 




Savannah, 16th Sept., 1782. 

You'll please proceed immediately from this with the 

schooner and the men on board, under your direction, 

to the Bar of Tybee, & endeavor to get the cannon from 
on board the ship Defiance (a wreck now on the North 
Breaker Head) for the use of this garrison; and in effecting 
this essential business you'll immediately return to Savan- 
nah. Captain Findly, who has been kind enough to offer 
his. vessel and sea-men for this purpose, and who has the 
charge of navigating the said schooner, you'll consult on 
every occasion, and advise with him for the more effectual 
prosecution of this business. 

I doubt not every precaution will be taken to prevent 
your being captured by the enemy, and of course bringing 
a heavy expense on the State. Confident of your making 
every dispatch possible, I wish you success. 

I am sir, your humble serv't, 

J. M. 
Capt. Robert Greer. 

Dear Sir: — 

Savannah, 17th Sept., 1782. 

I am informed that one Captain Fulton with his conv 
pany has been to the southward, & has distressed Mrs. Mc- 
intosh very much by robbing her of her property, as also 
several others of the inhabitants of this State. I would be 
glad you would see into this matter, & have her property re- 
stored to her again if possible ; likewise to have the offenders 
brought to justice, and prevent such abuses in future, as I 
am resolved to put a stop to all plundering parties. 

There has lately been an agreement entered into be- 
tween Governor Tonyn & myself, to prevent and put an 
entire stop to all plundering and marauding parties of either 
side, from molesting the peaceable and industrious inhabi- 
tants of each country; and the River St. Mary's being the 
boundary between this State and that province, in conse- 
quence thereof, it is my express orders that no parties from 
this State be suffered to pass the said river on any pretense 

But I am informed that there is a set of banditti both in 
this and on the other side of St. Mary's that make a point of 
plundering both sides indiscriminately. These are a set of 
fellows that it becomes our duty to disperse on this side, and 



Governor Tonyn will give directions to have them dis- 
persed on the other side of St. Mary's, so that the industrious 
Jfc peaceable inhabitants of both countries may once more 
quietly sit down in their plantations and enjoy the fruits of 
their labour. I would be glad to see you as soon as possible, 
in order to concert proper measures to put the foregoing plan 
into immediate execution. Interim, 

I am sir, with esteem, your most humble serv't, 

Colo'l Cooper. 

J. M. 

Savannah, 1st Oct., 1782. 

Dear Sir: — 

As Mr. Burke, who was appointed Chief Justice for this 
State, has not as yet arrived, and there is at present a great 
necessity for a court, in order to try at a number of felons 
now under confinement, it is therefore my particular request 
you would be so kind as to accept of the appointment of 
Chief Justice pro tempore on this occasion ; & you will much 

Dear sir, your most obt. serv't, 

Richard Howly, Esq. 

J. M. 

Savannah, Oct. 2nd, 1782. 


I received your esteemed favors of the 11th and 17th 
Sept., on the subject of such supplies of forage as may have 
been furnished by this State for subsisting the horses of the 
army commanded by Brig. Gen. Wayne during the time 
they were serving here you are pleased to inform are to be 
settled by you. 

I shall take the most speedy method for procuring the 
different returns of forage, and shall transmit them to you 
as early as possible, in order to be sanctioned by the neces- 
sary signatures. I believe there was no great quantity of 
£rain regularly supplied the army from this State, but there 
has been several rice and corn fields into which the horses 
of the army were at first turned in, and of course the fields 
were destroyed, after which many others followed the ex- 
ample, which must be valued by indifferent persons, in order 
to ascertain the same, to do justice to the proprietors. 



I should have been exceedingly happy in the pleasure 
of seeing you at Savannah. 

I am sir, with sentiments of esteem, your most obt. and 
very humble serv't, 

J. M. 

Lieut. Col. Edw'd Carrington, D. Q. So. Army. 

By return of express from headquarters South Carolina. 

Copy of Col. McMurphy's instructions, and sent by 
him to Mr. Richard Henderson, Ass't Dep. Supt. Indian 


Savannah, 4th Oct., 1782. 

As the Creek Indians are arrived at Augusta I find it 
an impossibility for me to attend their talk there, not only 
on account of my indisposition, but on account of the As- 
sembly's being so near sitting. If four or five of their prin- 
cipal Head Warriors, my friend the Tallassee King, his 
father, Hicot, &c, can come to Savannah I should be very 
glad to see them & hear their talk here; but unless these 
four or five head men can come here by themselves, by no 
means to come down, as I have no new talk to give them at 
present. I could only repeat the old talk which I have al- 
ready given them and which they have by no means complied 
with. If the four or five head men can not come down, 
without bringing the rest with them, they are by no means 
to come here, but you are to receive the talk there which 
they may have to give me, and transmit the same to me 
as early as possible. If the few head men think of coming 
to Savannah, you'll send off the remainder of the Indians 
to the nation with all dispatch imaginable. I hope you'll 
take every precaution to send them away in as peaceable 
and quiet a manner as you possibly can, and bv all means 
take care that the talks are not interrupted by any disputes, 
riots, or drunkenness, but observe that decency and decorum 
be observed in all your transactions with them. 

Inform them I hope we shall soon be able to have a 
trade open with them, and when we are in a situation for it, 
we will inform them. At present we have no goods, and 
therefore can't supply them as we would wish. 

I am sir, your most obt. serv't, 

J. M. 



Savannah, 5th Oct., 1782. 
Sir:- . 

If you cannot procure cattle sufficient for the support 
of the army, upon the faith of the State, nor upon such 
terms as you are able to offer, then and in that case you are 
to impress cattle where they are to be most conveniently 
spared, taking particular care to distress individuals as little 
as possible in such a proceeding. You are to observe that 
these orders are not to be put in execution unless you find 
it an impossibility to supply the troops in any other mode. 

By order of the Governor, 

Frederick Rolfes, Esq., 

Agent f,or the State of Georgia. 

J. CLARKE, Sec. 


Savannah, 7th Oct., 1782. 

I wrote you by Col. McMurphy which is in fact nearly 
a copy of the instructions I gave him to which I now refer 
and enclose you. I should be exceeding happy in seeing 
four or five of their principal head men down here to have 
their talk. I mean my good old friend the Tallassee King, 
his father, the fat King, Hicot, and one or two more. If 
these could come it might do very well, but not suffer more 
to come down by any means, as we have neither provisions 
nor presents to give them. If it can't be managed in this 
manner you must receive their talk there, and send the same 
to me by the earliest opportunity. I trust you will take 
every care and precaution to send them away as well satis- 
fied and in as peaceable and quiet a manner as you possibly 
can, and be particularly careful that the talks are not inter- 
rupted by any riots, disputes or drunkenness that may inter- 
rupt the friendship that subsists between us. I think it 
would not be amiss to apply to the commanding officer of 
the militia to procure a body of men to escort the Indians 
safely out of the settlements, and to prevent their doing 
mischief to the inhabitants. 

I am sir, wishing you success & happiness, your most 
obt. serv't, 

J. M. 
Mr. Rich'd Henderson, 
D. S. I. Affairs at Augusta. 




Savannah, 18th Oct., 1782. 

Having been informed that Mr. Johnston, the printer 
who has returned to this State under the faith of the same 
(in full expectation of meeting with ample protection) is 
likely to be turned out of doors with his family into the 
streets, altho' he has undertaken to print for the public, and 
his press already prepared for that purpose. It is true his 
house was sold to Doctor Waudin previous to his being 
taken off the bill, and of course optional with the purchaser. 
But in this particular case, gentlemen, I would wish your 
friendly mediation, as the matter in my opinion may be easily 
settled, provided the parties are inclinable. There is now 

several houses to be disposed of on account of the public 

Quere, whether one of those cannot be reserved by you gen- 
tlemen for the reception of Doctor Waudin & family, and 
sold on a future day? 

I think this matter might be easily done, and to the 
satisfaction of both parties. 

Your compliance in this will much oblige, gentlemen, 
your most obed't serv't, 

J. M. 
The Gent 'n Commissioners 
of Forfeited Estates. 


Savannah, 18th Oct., 1782. 

I am sorry to be informed that your family is in town 
and at present destitute of a house, altho' one was pur- 
chased by you at the late sales and that Mr. Johnston's was 
the house you purchased. Unfortunate for him it was sold 
previous to his being taken off the bill. He has now re- 
turned to this State, under the faith and protection of the 
same, in order to print for the public, and his press already 
prepared in that house. If he should be turned out of 
doors, he and his little family would also be destitute for a 
place to put their heads in. Now, as the commissioners 
have several houses for sale on the public account, I think 
one of those houses might be reserved for your family until 
the meeting of the House of Assembly, who will doubtless 
settle the matter to your mutual satisfaction. I have wrote 
the gentlemen commissioners on this head, and beg leave 
to refer you to them on this business, and doubt not but it 
may be settled amicably, provided gentlemen are inclinable. 



hope you'll endeavor to compromise this matter, and en- 
'deavor to make it as easy as possible. I have no other mo- 
tive upon my honor, than that harmony and good will 
Should exist between the contending parties. 

I am with esteem, sir, your most obt. serv't, 

Doctor John Waudin. 



Savannah, 19th Oct., 1782. 

I had the honor of receiving your letter of the 28th 
Aug., in answer to mine of the 15th by the gentlemen com- 
missioners who were appointed by me to negotiate con- 
cerning the mode of carrying on the war in future, upon 
liberal principles, in order to prevent plundering and ma- 
rauding parties from disturbing the peaceable and indus- 
trious inhabitants on the frontiers of Florida and of this 

Happy am I to find that your Excellency's opinion ex- 
actly coincides with mine on that head, as cruel predatory 
incursions never will be a means of answering any good 
purpose towards procuring that great and desirable object — 
Peace; but rather serves to irritate and embitter the minds 
of the contending parties. Anxious to promote those sen- 
timents of moderation, I had, previous to the receipt of 
your letter, given strict and positive instructions to the 
commanding officer acting under my authority in the South- 
ern parts of this State not to pass the St. Mary's River, it 
being the boundary between Florida & Georgia, and by no 
means to suiter those horrid scenes of murder & plunder 
to be permitted in future, which I am sorry to say has been 
hitherto but too much encouraged by both parties. I shall 
be particularly careful and give positive instructions that 
no depredations or hostilities shall be committed on the 
plantations in Florida, and if, contrary to my orders and 
instructions, any irregularity should be committed by any 
parties acting under my authority, that I do promise that 
every satisfaction in my power shall be given, and that every 
step shall be taken by me to promote and establish those 
desirable objects, and make them of equal weight and effi- 
ciency in this State as in Florida. In regard to the unfor- 
tunate characters hinted at in your letter, I truly & sin- 
cerely feel for their situation, many of whom I know to be 
men of worth and integrity. 



Happy should I be to see the blesssings of peace oncc^ 
more restored not only to this country, but all Europe; and 
until that wished for period arrives, I hope the war may be 
conducted with that becoming moderation that may reflect 
honor, and add to the luster and dignity of both nations. 

I return you my sincere thanks for your kind offers of 
supplies & may rely nothing shall be wanting on my part 
to promote & carry on a friendly intercourse between the 
two countries consistent with my duty and the laws of 

The genteel and polite reception the gentlemen com- 
missioners met with at St. Augustine, and while there, 
merits my particular thanks. There is one Samuel Moore 
(who was formerly in the service of the British when they 
had possession of Savannah, and now pretends to act under 
a commission from them) has of late, in company with five 
or six others of his associates, waylaid some of our roads, has 
cruelly murdered one Sellers, a subject of this State, and 
has plundered a number of our worthy & peaceable inhabi- 
tants of their money — 600 guineas in cash from a Mr. Wal- 
thour, together with several horses and negroes & has since 
gone off to Florida, by the information of a party I sent 
after them. I would wish for your interposition in this 
matter, & endeavor if possible to secure the property, and 
have the fellow & his party apprehended & sent into this 
State where they may be dealt with agreeable to the laws 
of this country. Information has also just come to hand 
that a Captain Scallions, in a galley from St. Augustine, did 
last evening secretly come into one of the inlets of Ossabaw 
in this State, & burnt a new vessel on the stocks, nearly 
finished, taken off thirty negroes & two thousand weight of 
indigo belonging to the estate of Mr. John Morel, & three 
negroes belonging to the estate of Thomas Netherclift, Esq. 

I confess these are violations I by no means expected, & 
contrary to those good intentions aimed at between us. 
However, I hope the property may be secured for their 
proper owners, & such other measures taken as may be 
deemed necessary on this occasion. 

This will be handed you by Col. Cooper who goes with 
a flag for that express purpose. He is a gentleman I would 
wish to recommend to your notice and attention. 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's most obt. & 
most humble serv't, 

J. M. 
His Excell'y 
Patrick Tonyn, Esq., 
per Col. Cooper. 


Savannah, Oct. 22nd, 1782. 
After my dispatches for Governor Tonyn were closed, I 
heard that it was uncertain what boat or vessel it was from 
Florida that did the mischief at the Southward in burning 
the vessel, carrying off the negroes & indigo of Mr. Morel 
belonging to an undivided estate, in which misfortune a 
number of helpless children are involved ; also those negroes 
of Mr. Netherclift's. Inclosed is a memorandum of sundry 
negroes, horses, &c, the property of General & Col. Mc- 
intosh, which has been lately plundered by people who have 
taken asylum in Florida. I would be glad you would apply 
to his Excellency, Governor Tonyn, for his interposition in 
the several matters here contained, in order to secure the 
property for their rightful owners, agreeable to certain 
stipulations entered into between us, & request that his 
Excellency would take such other measures as may be 
deemed necessary in this essential business. 

I am with esteem, sir, your most obt. & very humble 

J. M. 
Lieut. Col. Cooper. 





Dear Sir: — 

Head Quarters, January 7th, 1782. 

I am this moment informed by the Speaker of your 
House of Assembly that you are elected Governor of the 
State of Georgia. If you are the gentleman from Rhode 
Island to whom I had the honor of being introduced at 
the Congaree, I am happy in the choice & beg leave to con- 
gratulate you on your appointment. But if you are not the 
gentleman I must trust to your good nature to pardon the 
freedom of this familiar introduction, founded upon the 
supposition of the gentleman's being a countryman of mine. 

General Wayne marches tomorrow with a considerable 
body of horse, some artillery & a quantity of ammunition, 
to take command in your State. He is an officer for whom 
I have the highest esteem, & whose military talents have 
made him conspicuous both in Europe and America. I 
flatter myself his appointment will be perfectly agreeable to 
your State, and that under his direction the inhabitants, if 
they afford him the aid and support they are able to give, 
will find great relief from the further ravages of the enemy. 

The General is directed to make application to the Gov- 
ernor for such orders of Militia as he may find requisite for 
the purposes of his command, and I flatter myself the State 
will find it to her interest to concur in the measures he may 

I cannot help recommending to your Excellency to open 
a door for the disabled of your State to come in with par- 
ticular exceptions. It is better to save than destroy, espe- 
cially when we are obliged to expose good men to destroy 
bad. It is always dangerous to push people to a state of 
desperation, & the satisfaction of revenge has but a momen- 
tary existence and is commonly succeeded by pity & re- 
morse. The practice of plundering which I am told has 
been too much indulged with you, is very destructive to 
the morals & manners of people; habits & dispositions 
founded on this practice soon grow obstinate & are diffi- 
cult to restrain. Indeed it is the most direct way of under- 
mining all Government, & never fails to bring the laws into 
contempt, for people will not stop at the barriers which 
were first intended to bound them after having tasted the 



sweets of possessing property by the easy modes of plunder. 
The preservation of morals and an encouragement to honest 
industry should be the first objects of Government; plunder- 
ing is the destruction of both. I wish the cause of liberty 
may never be tarnished with inhumanity, nor the morals of 
people bartered in exchange for wealth. 
I have the honor to be, &c, &c. 




During the American Revolution there was in Georgia 
a man who w r as most active in hunting down and punish- 
ing the enemies of the cause of the colonies, and his special 
efforts were directed against the Tories, of whom it is said 
that, with his own hands, he killed one hundred. He was 
an Irishman, and, when provoked, let his temper run high. 
His name was Patrick Carr, and he was a citizen of Jefferson 
County after the War, and there he is said to have lived 
many years, and met his death at the hands of some de- 
scendants of Tories whom he had offended. It is recorded 
that when once praised for his courage he replied that he 
would have made a good soldier, but God had given him too 
merciful a heart. 

The letters which follow r show the spirit in which he 
carried out his purpose of standing by the American cause. 
They are given just as they were written, without any cor- 

Letter From Capt. Patrick Carr to Governor Martin. 

Dear Sir: — 

Silver Bluff, 11th Aug., 1782. 

This is to acquaint your honor with the situation of 
affairs in this part of the country, and to desire your direc- 
tions how I shall act. There is a number of fellows about 

some gave up to the Militia officers, & numbers still 

sculking about their homes. They are, chiefly, persons who 
stole out of Savannah before and about the fall of the town. 



I have got the copy of the Oaths & the enlistment from the 
Honorable Gen. Wayne, but I have been so exceedingly ill 
since I got home, that I have been obliged to keep my bed. 
I am now upon the recovery, and I hope will be able to put 
in execution your orders as soon as I receive them. 

It was with the greatest grief that I have been 
laid up sick, while poor travelers have been annoyed by 
Sam Moore with that infernal set of outlaws, I have sent 
parties out without success. But your honor may depend 
upon it, as soon as I get able to ride I will make them shy 
or catch them. They all have wives who harbour them and 
their plundered property; and without the men are killed, 
or the women secured, there will be no end to the robberies 
& murders committed in Georgia; but your honor may be 
assured that my best exertions shall be used in suppressing 
those troublesome villains who are a pest to society; & to 
fulfill & put in force whatever orders I may receive from 
you from time to time. There are now among us some of 
the worst of men, I dare say, waiting only for an oppor- 
tunity to do mischief & slip off. But you have power to issue 
orders by which I shall be able to stop them. Ogeechee set- 
tlement in Burke, is entirely abandoned, the Indians coming 
in now and then and picking off a Tory (though they have 
never as yet killed a Whig) has so alarmed them that they 
have all fled to Buck head. 

Mr. Galphin's Settlement at the Old Town still stands, 
by my persuasion; if that settlement is broke up, Burke 
county will certainly follow. There are several designing 
men who wish to see it done, that they may see the ruin of 
the county; in order to which they are attempting to 
frighten the people from their settlements. 

I have got some half breeds to live there who have given 
themselves up to me. As soon as I get able to ride and as- 
sist the people on the line, I hope I shall be able to persuade 
them to return to their former places of abode by the order 
I formerly received from your honor. 

I remain, Dear Sir, with great respect your honor's most 
Ob't & Humble Serv't, 


P. S. — I have just received intelligence of a party of the 
Traders coming in to give themselves up, chiefly from the 
lower Towns; after which I hope in a few days to wait 
upon you in person to give you an account of my proceed- 
ings with them. 



Letter From Patrick Carr to Governor Martin. 

Silver Bluff, August 22nd, 1782. 
Dr. Sir: — 

I informed you in my last that I was going out to meet 
some of the lower town traders. I accordingly went, but 
there came none but John Anderson, who went up with 
Philip Scott, Joseph Cornels & some others. As for the 
report about Cornel's giving bad talks to the Indians and 
gathering them to come down, it is entirely false, for the 
talks he received from Gen'l Wayne he gave to the Indians. 

Anderson was confined in the upper towns for near 
two months and he attempted to come down but was stopped 
by the commissary. The reason the traders did not come 
was this : After Mr. Barnard told them Savannah vvas 
taken they were all for coming; but an express from St. 
Augustine informed them that they were going to hold that 
place; and the having such a vast propertv belonging to 
those two States gave them still hopes of holding it. They 
keep continually sending Negroes to West Florida. Your 
Honor may with all ease have them stopped there by send- 
ing a letter to the Spanish Governor who they say had a great 
regard for the Americans. I can any time send your letters 
with safety and dispatch. It must do an essential service 
to those two States, as it will be the means of keeping the 
Negroes in the nation till we can get them, but your honor 
knows best how to proceed. 

The Indians that escaped that night from Gen'l Wayne 
(ten in number) went straight to Thomas Graham's house 
in the upper Towns, & killed him. He was the most active 
man in tarring and feathering Brown, and the first white 
man afterwards that headed a party of Indians to kill 
women and children on our frontier, and done great mis- 
chief. The Tories keep dropping in every day. Their num- 
ber increases up here and is very large. If I once received 
your Honor's orders, I could recruit this regiment down 
there with a great many men ; for the truth is I believe the 
Militia officers are afraid to concern (consort?) with them. 
I would be glad to know your pleasure in regard to those 
men who have come from the Nation, as I can make them 
of great service; and it will be the means of making the 
settlers go back to their Plantations on the Ogeechee, as I 
intend myself in a very little time. 

No more from your Honor's most obt. & humble 
serv't to command, 




Rockey Ford, Ogeechy, September 13th, 1783. 
To Governor Lyman Hall. 
Dr. Sir, 

I have got up as high as here. After leaving Mr. 
George Galphin I made no discoveries in respect of what I 
went after, but when I got to this place I met Ben Leenear 
who informed me that his Brother in Law, Henry Cooper, 
wanted to go off peaceably to Florida with his wife. I 
realy think it would be for the good of this country if he is 
suffered to go in peace, if he concerns with no person's 
property but his own. But your Honor must be the best 
judge in this affair. Mr. leenear likewise informs me that 
the last Boats that were robed, Cooper tells him if I would go 
and search the Widow Grine's loft, between the loft and 
ceiling, I would find a great many goods, and take two 
Negroes belonging to the plantation and whip them I would 
find the chief of the Rum and Sugar. But I shall not pro- 
cede 'till I receive your Honor's orders on that head. Cooper 
declares to his Brother in law he had no hand in it. If you 
think proper to give Cooper a pass, I would be glad if you 
would send me word, as I intend to keep scouts constantly 
out 'till those fellows that infests the Road is either killed 
or dispersed. We have kept ourselves peacible as long 
as possible ; but to see those fellows committing such depre- 
dations dayly on the peacable inhabitants is insufferable. 
Please to send your order for me to Silver Bluff by safe 
hands, and I shall willingly put them in execution on sight 
if in my power. 

I remain with respect your Honor's most obedient hum- 
ble servant to command. 


Old Town, 10th December, 1783. 
To Governor Lyman Hall. 
Dr. Sir, 

I take this opportunity to inform your Honor of my 
great success since I received your last letter in pursuing 
those plunderers who infest this State from Florida. 

I have taken a good many horses & considerable other 
property which I have restored to our citizens agreeably to 
your orders to Colo. Johnson, a copy of which he sent to me. 



When Henry Cooper went off he sent me word that he 
should take care & not let a single stolen horse go in his 
company; but notwithstanding Col. Johnson went in the 
same company, he, or his gang, carried off several. Ben 
Lanier tried to take the horses from him, but was near 
loosing his life in the attempt. As soon as I heard of it, 
which was not for several days after I received the first in- 
telligence from Esquire Lanier, (whose letter I enclose to 
your honor), I followed Cooper to St. Mary's, but was 
afraid of creating a misunderstanding between this State & 
that Province. Had I crossed the river I believe I could 
have the chief of all the rogues that infests this State, as 
St. Mary's is their principal harbour; but I was afraid of 

The people, generally, seem determined to pursue those 
fellows to St. John's if there is not a stop put to their robing 
& plundering. For my part, I, nor my people, will not at- 
tempt it without orders. I have lived on the frontiers for 
more than seven months, and there has been but two horses 
stolen in that time within twenty miles pi me, either by 
Indians or by Tories ; & those two have both been restored, 
for those rogues are afraid to come into this settlement. 
There are people coming from Florida, every day, especially 
Colo. Brown's core, & no body has as yet interrupted them. 

I would be obliged to your honor if your honor would 
let me have the ammunition you promised me when in 
Augusta. & send it by the bearer, Peter Benson, also a few 
flints, as thev are very scarce with us. 

I remain with great respect, your Honor's most 
obedient & humbl serv't, 


Copy of a letter from Patrick Tonyn, Governor of 
East Florida, to his Excellency, John Martin, Governor of 

St. Augustine, 28th August, '82. 

I have the honor of receiving your letter of the 15th 
instant, by the Flag of Truce, the Hepsebeth, and papers 
relative thereto in which you nominate William Mcintosh, 
Samuel Stirk & John W r ereat, Esquires, Commissioners to 
negotiate concerning the mode of carrying on the War in 
future upon liberal principles so as to prevent plundering & 
marauding parties from disturbing the settlements in Geor- 



gia and in this province, that industrious inhabitants of both 
countries may unmolested pursue their occupations. 

From the commencement of this unnatural and per. 
nicious War the temper of East Florida had ever discoun- 
tenanced cruel predatory incursions, as answering no good 
purpose for procuring the great object of War, Peace and 
accommodation ; and until impelled from the sufferings of 
the people by depredations & excesses, no hostilities, sir 
on our parts had been made which was then necessary in our 

Desirous of preserving the same moderation previous 
to the receipt of your letter, strict orders were given to the 
military acting under my authority not to pass the bound- 
ary of this Province, and by no means to be guilty of cruelty 
or plunder; and the Provincial Legislature has framed no 
laws to authorize such proceedings. The officers of law and 
justice in this Province have the laws of Great Britain 
alone to direct their decisions. 

A distinguishing mark of civilization is to conduct War 
with humanity, to avoid whatever is cruel, and does not 
answer good purposes to the community. Provided there- 
fore your people commit no depredations and hostilities 
upon the plantations in this Province, of which I shall be 
happy to have assurances from you by letter, I shall 
and do engage that the most positive and express orders 
shall be given that no plunder or depredations be com- 
mitted by any marauding parties, acting under my au- 
thority, and if contrary to these orders and intentions any 
irregularities should be done, that every satisfaction in 
my power shall be made. 

As I have, by virtue of my Royal Master, sufficient 
power to effectuate these purposes, it is not necessary on my 
part to negotiate with Commissioners, and I trust on yours 
every effectual step will be taken to establish these meas- 
ures of equal force, weight, and efficacy in Georgia as in 
East Florida. 

When a prevailing spirit of moderation and a re- 
gard to the property of individuals are manifest, I take 
the liberty of mentioning the circumstance of depriving per- 
sons of their estates who were respectable inhabitants of 
Georgia. If a firm and manly conduct in vicissitude, so much 
the admiration of all ages, and a fixed adherence to prin- 
ciples openly, and uniformly avowed by men deemed hon- 
orable characters become a crime, they are certainly highly 
culpable. Convinced however I am that upon cool, dis- 
passionate consideration, such conduct must command 



the esteem and respect of all good men, nothing can give 
me so great pleasure as an accommodation settled and 
established between Great Britain and America conducive 
to the interest of both, that the United Nation may increase 
its pristine lustre and glory. I hope until that happy period 
we shall conduct the contest with becoming moderation 
and as little as possible to the disadvantage of industrious, 
peaceable inhabitants of both countries; and I trust, sir, 
that this spirit in your Government will show itself by pav- 
ing the way to such desirable end, and I shall take care that 
no Provincial laws be sanctioned here to clog such recon- 
ciliations, and every countenance in my power, consistent 
with my duty to the best of Sovereigns, shall be given to 
proceedings founded upon humane and beneficial principles. 

I have therefore directed Mr. Forbes to supply you with 
such necessaries as are proper in our situation & shall in 
future study to carry on an intercourse not inconsistent 
with my duty and the law of nations. 

It was my particular care that the gentlemen sent in 
your flag were lodged in the most respectable families, and 
that proper attention was shown them. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

Representation of the Deputies to Governor Martin. 

Savannah, 5th December, 1782. 

As your Excellency has applied to us for the substance 
of what passed between us as your deputies & his Excel- 
lency, Governor Tonyn, of the Province of East Florida, we 
beg leave that his Excellency's dispatches were made up 
& sealed for transmission before we were called upon, but 
this we well remember, when we had an audience with his 
Excellency he informed us that every thing necessary 
was mentioned in his letter which he delivered us, but at 
the same time said that altho' this State would not make 
incursions upon the Province of East Florida, yet if people 
from other States were permitted to come through this for 
that purpose, or to proceed by the inland passage it might 
be a means of frustrating the intentions of both countries. 
To this we replied that no predatory parties should be per- 
mitted to pass through our country by land for any such 
purpose, also that as far as it was in the power of this State, 
the inland passage should secure that if any property was 


taken by boats and brought here the same should be se- 
cured, but that we could not be answerable for those who 
might come from other States, and carry off any of the 
property of East Florida to any other part of the Continent 
as our State was not competent to take notice of or punish 
them. His Excellency, Governor Tonyn, also expressed some 
apprehensions of a set of men who set themselves down 
between the two countrys and pay no obedience to the laws 
of either, that notwithstanding the good intentions of that 
government and our own some disorders might be com- 
mitted by such a lawless banditti, and that should this 
happen every step should be taken to secure & punish such 


Samuel Stirk, the author of the following letter, was a 
Georgian of distinction, but it is a matter of regret that very 
little is known of his life. He is supposed to have been born 
in Georgia, but of this we are not certain. The records show 
that besides Samuel there was a John as well as a Benjamin 
Stirk, and the name of Mrs. Hannah Stirk also appears. 

When the Excutive Council was chosen for 1777, John 
Adam Treutlen having defeated Button Gwinnett for the 
office of Governor, Mr. Stirk was appointed the clerk of 
that body. 

The Assembly which convened in Augusta on the 16th 
day of August, 1781, elected him a delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress. We find in the Journals of the Conti- 
nental Congress that his credentials were twice read, show- 
ing that he was certainly entitled to a seat, but there is no 
evidence of his ever having been seated. 

The same Legislature appointing him to the Conti- 
nental Congress later elected him Attorney General of 
Georgia in January, 1783 ; and about the same time he was 
appointed a Commissioner from Georgia to treat with Gov- 
ernor Patrick Tonyn, of East Florida, for the settlement of 
the differences and the prevention of future difficulties along 
the line of the St. Mary's river. 

He was a Lieutenant Colonel in 1778 and 1779 in the 
service of the State, and was with Gwinnett in the disastrous 
expedition against East Florida. 



He was one of the Justices for Chatham County in 1786 
a s well as in 1789. In the last mentioned year he was Presi- 
dent of the Board of Wardens of Savannah. 

We do not know under what circumstances the fol- 
lowing letter was written, but we venture to reproduce it 
from the original, deeming it worthy of preservation. 

Augusta, Nov'r 1st, 1781. 
The Honorable 
Brigadier General Twiggs, 

Dear General: — 

I shall proceed for camp with your dispatches this 

Immediately on my arrival in Town, I waited on the 
Governor & informed him I was honor'd with a letter 
of a public nature from you to General Greene, the con- 
tents of which I delivered him; he immediately spoke on the 
subject with great agitation, and seem'd much dissatisfied; 
the next morning I attended when he gave his objections to 
the measure on a large scale, & told me that the proceeding 
was contrary to order, as all applications w r ere to be made 
thro' him as being the superior officer in command, and that 
it could only be meant to him as a direct affront. I told 
him that no such thing was meant or intended, but that the 
officers seem'd much distressed that an application on the 
same business had not been made (altho' long talked of by 
him & his Council) before that period, and assured him in 
plain terms that they could not, and would not, keep the 
field if some aid did not soon arrive ; that however some 
men might talk lightly of the sufferings that the people 
of this country underwent, over a good fire & a warm bed 
to repose in, that the practical part, without a shoe, stock- 
ing, or a blanket, w?.s of so serious a nature to them that 
I should not be surprised if they quit the field & leave to 
him & his Council to combat the enemy; he then repeated 
his old story of having already made application to Gen- 
eral Greene, by letter, & that his friend Mr. Few was going to 
headquarters to urge it again. From the whole tenor of his 
conversation, your letter on the subject hurts him prodigi- 
ously, & I am confident would do anything in his power to 
stop it, but I gave him to understand I had ree'd your express 
order to proceed & that I should do it at all hazard. 



Yesterday Dannally arrived from Philadelphia with 
letters & news papers ; those of a public nature I have not 
seen ; from what I can learn Howly & Walton were much 
astonished at their not being re-elected; the former means 
to return here immediately, but it is not known when the 
latter means to make his appearance. Telfair & Jones have 
taken their seats in Congress; they have sent us our pub- 
lic account of the monies advanced the State. I am told 
our delegates have been very liberal on the score of drawing. 
I could wish for the sake of this injured country that the 
same could be circulated among the people, that the real 
conduct of our gentry might be properly inquired into & the 
people in future know how their affairs are conducted. 
Messrs. Telfair & Jones mean to bring on cloathing for 
our troops immediately. 

It is reported from very good authority, as well as by 
letter from Mr. Samuel Miller, that Cornwallis surrendered 
last month to General Washington; the person who came 
last from Camden & brought Miller's letter says he heard 
the guns which were fired at General Greene's camp on the 
occasion. In a day pr two official accounts I expect will be 

I have rec'd some letters from our delegates which I 
shall bring to camp with me. 

Inclosed is a packet from your friends in Virginia. 

Remember me kindly to Majors Demere & Collins, & 
believe me to be dr. General, with every sentiment of regard, 
vour friend & servant, 


Excuse haste, as I am now on the wing. 




Chaplain in the U. S. Navy. 

Read Before the Georgia Historical Society, 
September 9, 1839. 

Although the early history of Frederica reaches back 
knt a century, it is involved in the obscurity of a remote 
antiquity by a disregard to dates in its first chronicles, and 
by a spirit of exaggeration on the part of its friends, and 
Ot depreciation on the part of those who were dissatisfied 
irith the military government of General Oglethorpe. For 
Instance, we do not know with certainty when the city was 
founded. On the authority of McCall, the centennial an- 
niversary was celebrated in 1836; but the township was 
hid out by the Council of South Carolina in 1733, and in 
their memorial to Parliament, April 9, 1734, they mention 
Oglethorpe's having fortified the southern part of the Colony 
against the Spaniards of Florida. John and Charles Wesley, 
who left England with Oglethorpe in October, 1735, found 
Frederica settled on their arrival in the following February. 
The probability is, therefore, that the town was commenced 
before Oglethorpe left Georgia the first time. 

We find the following entry in Wesley's journal ten 
days after his arrival at Tybee : "On Monday, the 16th of 
February, Mr. Oglethorpe set out for the new settlement on 
the Altamaha river. He took with him 52 men and three 
Indians,'' and three weeks after, on the 9th of March, Charles 
Wesley entered on his duties as chaplain at Frederica. Mar- 
•hall, in his History of the American Colonies, says that 
Frederica was settled in 1734. Bartram, whose information 
was accurate, though often colored by the rosy light of a 
poetic imagination, says it was the first town built by the 
English in Georgia. 

When John Wesley left Georgia in December, 1737, 
the soldiers were stationed at Fort St. Simon, on the sea 
point, since washed away, but even then the Fort of Fred- 
erica better deserved to be the stronghold, "being encom- 
passed with regular ramparts of earth and a palisaded 
ditch, and mounted with cannon which entirely command 
the river." It was not until after the retreat from Augus- 
tine that it answered the amiable botanist's description : 
"The fortress was regular and beautiful, constructed chiefly 
with brick, and was the largest, most regular, and per- 
haps most costly of any in North America of British con- 



struction." McCall says the Fort was built of tabby. Both 
accounts are partly true. The magazines of brick still re- 
main, as well as the flanking wall, which is of tabby, and the 
light house was entirely built from the tabby of the Fort 
at Frederica. 

An uncertainty rests, too, upon the victory of Bloody 
Marsh, where Montiano was defeated in 1742. McCall 
states that 500 Spaniards were left dead upon the field. 
Other historians record that the Spaniards lost one Cap- 
tain, two lieutenants, and one hundred men made prisoners.* 
Tradition adds that General Oglethorpe knew by the very 
reports of the muskets that they were fired by his own 
victorious troops, and hastened to the field, ordering a 
wagon-load of porter to be brought to refresh his soldiers 
after their fatigue. The bottles which contained the liquor 
were broken in a heap upon the battle-field as a monument 
which envious time could not destroy, but, not to be de- 
feated in effacing the records of earthly glory, he has at 
length buried them in the sand ; but not till they had been 
seen by the present generation. 

The size of Frederica at the zenith of its prosperity 
is likewise a matter of dispute. Air. Spalding, who was 
born there, thinks it once contained two hundred houses 
and nearly a thousand inhabitants, exclusive of the garrison; 
that it held a direct commerce with London, and ships of the 
largest size brought every luxury that Europe could supply 
to its wharves. This prosperity must have happened sub- 
sequently to the year 1763, for Oglethorpe's regiment was 
disbanded, except for one company, in 1749, when the Col- 
ony languished from its state of insecurity. The resumption 
of the government by the King, on the resignation of the 
Trustees in 1752, effected little change for the better, and 
Georgia did not prosper until the peace of Paris in 1763, when 
Florida was ceded to England. Then, having got rid of 
her troublesome neighbors, who, more than her unwise 
legislators, had retarded her growth, and being taught by 
Governor Wright to cultivate her swamps, emigration into 
the Colony was rapid, and in ten years her exports had in- 
creased fourfold. Then houses might safely have been con- 
structed without the ramparts of Frederica, and many were. 
Yet, when Bartram visited the town in March, 1774, "The 
Fortress, " he says, "is now in ruins, yet occupied by a small 
garrison, the ruins also of the town only remain; peach 

•Information not available when this account was written showi 
that the loss of the Spaniards was about five hundred in killed, wound- 
ed and prisoners. 



trees, pomegranates, fig trees, and other shrubs grow out 
of the ruinous walls pf former spacious and expensive 
w u jldings, not only in the town, but at a distance, in va- 
rious parts of the island; yet there are a few neat houses in 
pood repair, and inhabited. It seems now recovering again, 
owing to the public and liberal spirit and exertions of Mr. 
Tames Spalding who is president of the island, and en- 
raged in very extensive mercantile concerns." (Bartram's 
Travels, Part 2, Chap. 1.) 

The fort was dismantled and most of the garrison with- 
drawn to St. Augustine soon after 1763. In 1833 I con- 
versed with an old lady, then eighty-one years of age, and 
since dead, whose father belonged to Oglethorpe's regiment 
(and it was one peculiarity of that regiment that almost every 
soldier brought his wife with him from England). Mrs. 
Baisden told me that when she was thirteen years of age 
the guard house was burned, the cannon dismounted, and 
the troops removed in a vessel to St. Augustine where she 
remained until after the revolution. She spoke of the ex- 
treme beauty and neatness of Frederica and of its parades, 
of which her father, Mr. Grant, had the charge ; of the 
strict discipline observed; of its land post, or gate, sur- 
mounted by a huge bell which apprised the garrison when- 
ever it was opened; and of the cantonment, full of officers; 
but she was then too young to know the number of houses 
or inhabitants. 

Colonel Burr thus describes Frederica in 1804: 
"Frederica, now known as Old Town, was about fifty 
years ago a very gay place, consisting perhaps of twenty- 
five or thirty houses. The walls of several of them still 
remain. Three or four families only now reside there. In 
the vicinity of the town several ruins were pointed out to 
me as having been formerly country seats of the Governor 
and officers of the garrison, and gentlemen of the town. At 
present nothing can be more gloomy than what was once 
Frederica. The few families now remaining, or rather resid- 
ing there, for they are all new comers, have a sickly, melan- 
choly appearance, well assorted with the ruins which sur- 
round them." 

■ The present aspect of Frederica differs a little from that 
which it presented to Colonel Burr. But three families 
reside there, and they are quite healthy. The unsightly 
ruins have fallen down. One very pretty one, which was 
Oglethorpe's headquarters, remains, overgrown with w.ild 
ivy, a sketch of which I beg leave to. present to the Histori- 

•This sketch cannot now be found. 




Ernest S. — In my search recently for facts in connection 
with the life of Aaron Burr, I was told that he visited 
Savannah more than once. Is that statement true? 

Aaron Burr came to Georgia twice, but the record does 
not show that he stopped in Savannah on his second visit. 
The accounts of his trips to this State are not without in- 
terest, and we will now give the details for the information 
of our correspondent and others who may not know them. 

After his election as Vice President he traveled through 
the South, reaching Savannah May 20th, 1802, and a week 
after the Georgia Gazette said : 

"On Thursday last the Vice President of the United 
States arrived here from Charleston. About six miles from 
town he was received by a number of gentlemen and the 
troop of horse; on his approaching Spring Hill he was 
saluted by discharges of cannon from the artillery company; 
at Spring Hill the Chatham rangers and Savannah Volun- 
teer Guards joined the troop, and escorted him to lodgings 
fitted up for him in the city, where he was again saluted by 
the artillery. On Monday he partook of an elegant dinner 
at the City Hall in company with a numerous and most 
respectable assemblage of citizens. And on Tuesday fore- 
noon he left the city on his return to the Northward, being 
saluted by the guns of the revenue cutter on his departure." 

Some time in the month of August, 1804, after the duel 
with Alexander Hamilton and the death of that gentleman, 
Burr secretly sailed from Philadelphia and made his way 
as speedily as possible to St. Simon's island, on the Georgia 
coast, where he was warmly welcomed by his friend Mr. 
Butler. In this number of the Quarterly his description of 
the island is embraced in the account of Frederica, by Mr. 
T. B. Bartow. That all the people did not hail his landing 
on Georgia soil with such pleasure as did Mr. Butler is 
shown by the announcement of the event by the Columbian 
Museum and Savannah Advertiser of Wednesday, August 
29th, 1804: 

"The Vice President of the United States arrived, we 
understand, a few days since at St. Simon's in a vessel from 
Philadelphia, in perfect health, and entirely relieved from 
the hydrocephalus which afflicted him in the neighborhood 
of that city. If his distance from the scene of guilt has re- 
moved the distraction of his brain, shall we presume also that 
it has quieted the unwelcome suggestions of his conscience?" 


It is a surprising fact that both of the newspaper notices 
of the two visits of Burr to Georgia omit entirely to mention 
his name. # < 

In this connection we deem it appropriate to quote 
parron's account of the visit to St. Simon's in his Life of 
| Aaron Burr: 

"About the middle of August, 1804, Colonel Burr, accom- 
panied by Samuel Swartwout (a younger brother of the 
indomitable John), and attended by his favorite slave, Peter, 
a good-humored blunderer of fifteen, secretly embarked for 
St. Simon's, an island off the coast of Georgia, then the 
residence of a few wealthy planters. He had old friends upon 
this island, and the arrival of a Vice President was itself an 
event to excite the few inhabitants of a place so remote 
from the great world. He was welcomed, on his arrival, to 
a mansion luxurious and hospitable, and the resources of the 
bland were placed at his disposal. He was serenaded by the 
island's only band of music. He saw no more averted faces 
and lowering brows, and heard no more muttered execrations 
as he passed. His Southern friends, he found, had very 
different feelings with regard to the duel from the people at 
the North, and the society of St. Simon's bestowed every 
mark of consideration upon him that hospitable minds could 
suggest. 'You have no idea,' he wrote to Theodosia, 'of the 
xeal and animation of the intrepidity and frankness, with 
which Major Butler (his host) avowed and maintained — but 
I forget that this letter goes to Savannah by a negro who 
has to swim half a dozen creeks, in one of which, at least, it 
is probable he may drown, and that, if he escapes drowning, 
various other accidents may bring it to you through the 
newspapers, and then how many enemies might my indis- 
cretion create for a man who had the sensibility and the 
honor to feel and to judge, and the firmness to avow — ' " 

"After a month's detention at St. Simon's by the de- 
vastation of a hurricane, he crossed to the main land and 
made his way, with immense difficulties, to his daugh- 
ter's home in South Carolina." 

An admirer of James Jackson. — I would like to know 
where Governor James Jackson is buried. I am told that his 
remains are not resting on Georgia soil where, it seems to 
me, his grave should be, and that it should be well cared for. 

General James Jackson died in Washington City, March 
19, 1S06, and he is buried in the Congressional burying 
ground there, by order of Congress. At the time of his 



death he was serving as United States Senator. On the 
front of his tombstone is this inscription : 

"To the memory of Major General James Jackson, of 
Georgia, who deserved and enjoyed the confidence of a 
grateful country — a soldier of the Revolution." 

On the reverse of the monument these words are 

"He was the determined foe of foreign tyranny, the 
scourge and terror of corruption at home. Died 19th of 
March, 1806, in the 49th year of his age." 


During the late summer a volume, compiled by one of 
our members, on "The Beville Family of Virginia, Georgia, 
and Florida, and Several Allied Families North and South" 
appeared in a small edition, limited to two hundred and fifty 
copies. It was privately printed, and makes a fine appear- 
ance. The compiler is Mrs. Agnes Beville Vaughan Ted- 
castle, of Hyde Park, Massachusetts. The book will be of 
interest to members of the families whose record is so fully 
given, and the information contained must have been se- 
cured through much labor, pains and expense. We believe a 
mistake was made in so strictly limiting the number of 
copies, as it is certain that many persons bearing the names 
of families represented will seek information which is not 
to be found elsewhere without considerable research. Mrs. 
Tedcastle has done a good work, and has done it well. We 
like the way in which she has put together the records of 
the several families. 

The nature of this periodical is such that we cannot 
devote much space to reviews of books. We must, however, 
take up a portion of this department of the Quarterly to 
say a few words in commendation of the work of Dr. Dunbar 
Rowland, Director of the Department of Archives and His- 
tory, of the State of Mississippi, in editing and publishing 
the six volumes of "Official Letter Books of W. C. C. Clai- 
borne, 1801-1816." The editor's task in handling this great 
mass of material, preparing it for the printer, and writing the 
many notes of interest and historical value, was no easy one, 
and the value of the work to historians engaged in the in- 


vestigation of matters relating to the Northwest cannot be 
computed. The editor truly says, in his endeavor to relate 
the scope of the work : "In a brief editorial note like this it is 
not possible to give a satisfactory summing up of the Clai- 
borne letter books. They include hitherto unknown and 
unpublished material of first importance concerning very 
many really great events in the history of the United States." 
As an instance of the variety of subjects included in 
the letters, we find information which we hardly expected to 
find on the subject of the short-lived Bourbon County of 
Georgia. While that matter is very lightly touched upon, 
there is much information on many points in these volumes 
that will be useful to students of American history. There 
is a full index to the contents, and a glance through it shows 
that information may be gathered on topics which would 
not generally be sought for in such a collection. 

Through the generosity of Mrs. Elizabeth Millar Bul- 
lard we are pleased to include in this number of the Quar- 
terly, as a frontispiece, the interesting and instructive His- 
torical Map of Savannah, compiled by Mr. Harry A. Chand- 
ler. The map was submitted, before printing, to a com- 
mittee of gentlemen thoroughly acquainted with the history 
of the City and well qualified to pass upon its correctness. 
They are satisfied that it is remarkably free from errors, 
and believe it to be on the whole as reliable as it is possible 
for a work of the kind to be. Mrs. Bullard, realizing the 
importance and value of such a production, has placed us 
under great obligation by donating a sum sufficient to cover 
the expense of supplying the map to every reader of this 
number of our periodical. 




Mr. Jos. B. Cumming writes concerning the Great Seals 
of Georgia, correcting some mistakes in the article in the 
September Quarterly, and adding some interesting facts. 

November 13, 1917. 
William Harden, Esq., Editor, 

Georgia Historical Quarterly, 
Savannah, Ga. 

Dear Sir: — 

I read with great pleasure and much instruction Mr. 
Henry R. Goetchius' article on the great seals of Georgia, 
published in the September number of the Quarterly. It 
may possibly add a little to the great value of this con- 
tribution to Georgia history if I correct one or two minor 
mistakes in the article. 

The seal, which Governor Jenkins took with him when 
he was ejected from the office of Governor by the Federal 
General Ruger, the Military Governor, under the recon- 
struction Act of Congress, was the seal kept in the Gov- 
ernor's office and used by him to impress purely executive 
documents. Some persons, though evidently not Mr. 
Goetchius, have confused this seal with the great seal of the 

Mr. Goetchius represents Governor Jenkins as appear- 
ing before the General Assembly of Georgia and delivering a 
speech on the occasion of the return of the seal. This is a 
mistake. Governor Jenkins did not address the Legisla- 
ture in person. He wrote what he considered a message 
to the first legal Legislature after his deposition and en- 
trusted it to me to be delivered to his first legal successor, 
Governor James M. Smith. It was transmitted by Governor 
Smith to the Legislature. I had the honor at that time to be 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and on the re- 
ception of the message by the House, I left the Chair and 
offered the enclosed Resolution. (Enclosed on separate 

The Resolution was adopted with practical unanimity, 
though I am not able to say now — 45 years after the event — 
whether the twelve or fifteen Republican members of the 
House, all but two or three being negroes, voted for or 
against the Resolution or simply abstained from voting. 



When the fac simile seal, provided for by the Resolution, 
was completed, Governor Smith kindly delegated to me the 
privilege of making manual delivery of it to Governor 

Jenkins. In his will, of which the late Col. Chas. Colcock 
ones and I were executors, he bequeathed the seal to Dr. 
Chas. Jenkins Montgomery of Augusta, Ga., the son of 
his adopted daughter, Mrs. James Gardner Montgomery, 
and that original seal, and not a fac simile of it, is the one 
now in the possession of the Georgia Historical Society, 
having been presented to it by Dr. Montgomery. 

There was a period of anxiety and distress on the part 
of Governor Jenkins in connection with the return of the 
seal to the State. He had written out his message on the 
subject and then went to the receptacle where he supposed 
the seal was to be found. It was missing, and for several 
days he was in great distress lest it should have finally dis- 
appeared. After much thought and searching of his memory, 
he recalled the place of deposit and on resorting to it found 
the seal intact. 

Very truly yours, 


WHEREAS, The Honorable Charles J. Jenkins, when 
expelled by usurpers from the office of Governor of this 
State, had the firmness and the courage to save the public 
treasure from the plunderers, and applied it to the obliga- 
tions of the State, and also removed the archives of the 
State Treasury, and saved from desecration the Seal of 
the Executive Department ; and whereas, his efforts to save 
the people of Georgia from oppression relaxed not with his 
hold upon the Executive ofrlce, but in the midst of discour- 
agement were continued before the Supreme Court of the 
United States so long as there was any hope of success ; and 
whereas, preserving the archives and the seal until, in better 
times, he might restore them to his first rightful successor, 
he has delivered them to his Excellency the Governor ; and 
whereas, gratitude to a great and good man, deference to 
the feelings of the people of Georgia, and the encourage- 
ment of patriotism and virtue in the generations to come, 
alike render it good that we should make and put in im- 
perishable form a recognition of his fidelity to his trust: 
therefore be it — 

THE STATE OF GEORGIA, That his Excellency the 



Governor be authorized and instructed to have prepared, and 
in the name of the people of Georgia to present to the Honor- 
able Charles J. Jenkins, a seal to be the fac simile of the one 
preserved and restored by him, except that, in addition to 
the other devices, it shall have this inscription : "Presented to 
Charles J. Jenkins by the State of Georgia ;" and this legend : 
"In arduis fidelis." 

Approved August 22, 1872. 



Adams, Edmund II 268 

-idams,J.S 106 

| Addison, Joseph 214 

SAinsworth, H. B 57 

'"Alexander, Dr. Adam 218 

|; Alexander, Adam L 66 

"Alexander, Alice 67 

Alexander, Capt 311 

Alexander, Chas. A 67 

se Alexander, Edward Porter .. 66 

7 Alexander Family 66,67 

If Alexander, Harriet 67 

Alexander, Louisa 67 

I Alexander, Marion 67 

Alexander, Mary Clifford ... 67 

Alexander, Sarah 67 

"Alexandria (Va.) Academy 

: 199, 200, 201, 202 

Allen, J. H 58 

Aman-Jcan, Edmond 22 

America, Attributes of, Poem. 273 

^Anderson, Eugene 175 

Anderson, John 339 

Anderson, W. T 175 

Andoc, T. M 266 

Andrews, Miss Fanny, 64, 68, 69 
Andrews, Judq-e Garnett.... 64 
Arnold, Richard D., M. D..6, 7 
Artists represented in Tel- 
fair Academy 22, 23 

fUbury, T. B 106 

Athmore, Otis .59, 170, 253, 254 
Attributes of America, 

. Poem 273 

Augusta (Ga.) Municipal 
Centennial 220-235 

Balccr, Col. John 202, 289 

Bailey, Henry Turner... 21, 171 
gailey, Joseph E 268 

g*H c >'' - T - F 58 

gailhe. Geo 28 

ganfield. R 106 

Barclay, Anthony 10 

Barflcld, P 106 

Barnard, Maj 41 

Barnard, John 7^39 

games. Elias 106 

!g rnctt : ,*• C 253, 254 

Harnwcll, Geo 294 


Barnwell, J. M 58 

Barnwell, W. T. C 58 

Bartow, Francis S 99 

Bartow, Rev. T. B., Article 

on Frederica 347-349, 350 

Bartram, Wm 347, 348 

Barwick, W. B 58 

Baxter, J. J 266 

Beck, Tohn 126, 127 

Bell, Mr 302 

Bell, W. J 58 

Bellows, Geo. W 22, 23 

Bennett, E. B 266 

Bennett, John W 175 

Bennett, W. J 266 

Benson, Peter 341 

Bentley, J. N 58 

Benton, Hugh J 175 

Berckmans, P. J 140 

Berrien, John McPherson 

7, 251 

Berrien, John 152 

Besnard, Paul Albert 22, 23 

Bethesda (Ga.) Orphan 

Home 108-134 

Beville Family 352 

Biddle, Absalom 322 

Bigham, B. H 258 

Birmingham, England 208 

Blain, Frank 102 

Bland, F. S 58 

Bland, R. H 57 

Blizzard, C 58 

Bloody, Marsh, Battle of 348 

Blow, "John H 106 

Bodiford, D. W 58 

Bodiford, W. H 58 

Boggs, Rev. Wm. E., D. D.. . 67 

Bolton, Robert 206 

Bomar, Thos. H 266 

Bonifazio, Veronese 22 

Bonvin, Francois 22 

Booker, Capt 303 

Borgognone, II, 

See Courtois, Jacques 

Boring, Geo 268 

Bottin, James S 266 

Boughton, Geo. H 22 

Bourbon County (Ga.) 353 

Bowen, Eliza A 68, 69 

Bowie. James 321. 322 




Bowles, J. D 106 

Bowman, John 41 

Bowman, Mr 326 

Boyd, John A 266 

Boyd, Robt 266 

Bradley, Jos. P 14 

Braith, Anton 22 

Brandt, Carl L 18, 19, 22, 23 

Brangwyn, Frank 22, 23 

Brantley, W.J 106 

Braswell, J. J 58 

Braswell, L. S 58 

Brice, J. R 266 

Brier Creek 309 

Brickell, Dr. John 118 

Bridges, James 106 

Bridges, W. J 106 

Brooks, J. F 58 

Brooks, R. M 106 

Brooks, T. J 58 

Brooks, W. J 58 

Brown, John C 267 

Brown, Gov. Joseph E 98 

Brown, Gov. Joseph M. 

253, 254, 260, 262 

Brown, Thos 283, 341 

Brown, U. A 58 

Brownson, Gov. Nathan ....172 

Bryan, Shephard 174 

Bryan Family 271, 272 

Buerg, Edmund 322 

Bullard, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Millar 353 

Bulloch, Archibald 26 

Bulloch, Wm. B 7 

Burke, Aedanus 316, 329 

Burr, Aaron 349, 350, 351 

Butler, Pierce 158, 351 

Buttolph. D. L 263 

Bynum, B. L 58 

Cahusac, Thos Ill 

Campbell, Duncan G 66 

Campbell, Geo. S 267 

Campbell, John A 66 

Campbell. R. L 58 

Canda, Madame. .. 1S4, 185, 193 

Candell, A. E 5S 

Cannon, Moses C 266 

Cantrell, W. F 266 

Carlton, Spencer 268 

Caro-Delvaille, Henry 22 

Caroline, Queen, Trial of 

213, 214 

Carr, Patrick 

....298, 301, 311, 323. 337-341 


Carrington, Lt. Col. Edward 

329, 330 

Caruthers, Dr. Wm. A g 

Carver, Jonathan, Travels. . .199 

Carver, Wm 266 

Cecil, Leonard 49 

Chalmers, Dr. Thos. 207, 215,218 

Chambers, D. F 53 

Chandler, Harry A 353 

Chapman, John M 268 

Charlton, Robert M 7 t 9 

Chatham Artillery 10, 99 

Chavannes, Puvis de 21 

Cheltenham. England ..207-212 

Cherokee Indians 147-154 

Cherokee Indian Alphabet. .172 
Chestatee Artillery, Muster 

Roll of 266, 267 

Chicago 179 

Chickasaw Indians 147-154 

Childress, Jackson 266 

Childress, John 266, 267 

Chipley, Hunt 174 

Choctaw Indians 147-154 

Claghorn, Jos. S 99 

Claiborne, W. C. C, Official 

Letter Books 352,353 

Clark, Hueh 97 

Clarke, Elijah 

60, 62, 65, 152. 289, 291, 298. 

301, 302, 304, 309, 310, 311, 322 
Clarke, John ....60, 63, 65, 331 

Clay, Henrv 251, 252 

Clay, Tos..l2, 26, 109 et s.eq., 141 

Clay, R. Habersham 94 

Clinton, De Witt 205 

Cloud, Elijah 10S 

Cobb, Andrew J 174 

Cobb, Howell 159 

Cogburn. G. H 266 

Cohen, Anna M 49 

Cohen, Solomon 9 

Coleman, J. H 58 

Collins, Cornelius 

317, 323, 324, 346 

Colwell, John 268 

Conner, Edward 268 

Commissioners of Forfeited 

Estates 33- 

Cook, Philip ?j3 

Cook, Miss Marv Elvira.... J/4 

Coolidge. Mrs. T. J., Jr 1/4 

Cooper, Lt. Col. 

328, 329, 334, 335 

Cooper, Henry 340,341 




Cooper, John 287,324 

Cooper, L. J. 175 

Cooper Family 3U9 

Cord, H. A 58 

Cornell, Jos 339 

••Corn planter," Indian Chief. 180 

Cornwallis, Lord 346 

Cotton Cultivation in Geor- 

g ia 39,45 

Courtois, Jacques (II Bor- 

gognone) 22 

Cowen, Capt 317 

Cowper, Basil 24-35 

Cowper & Telfairs 25 et seq. 

Cox, C. H 106 

Cox, J. H 57 

Cox, M. B 58 

Cox, S. B. . . . . 58 

Cox, Will Henry 106 

Cox, W. M 57 

Crane, S. F 266 

Crawford, Geo. W 140 

Crawford, W. A 266 

Crawford, W. C 101 

Crawley, J. L 175 

Creek Indians, 147, 152, 281 

et seq., 313 et seq., 330, 331 

Crow, Isaac 266 

Cullens, E. W 58 

Cullens, I. D 58 

Cullens, J. E 57 

Cullens, R. W 58 

Cummins:, Alfred 139 

dimming, Joseph B. 

3, 220, 354, 355 

dimming, Thos 135, 227 

dimming, Wallace 67 

Cunningham, Henry C 176 

Curry, I. A 58 

Curry, J 58 

Cuthbert, Capt 296 

Dacus, James 267 

Dacus, P. H 266 

Dacus, W. R 267 

Danforth. A. A 106 

Daniel, H. T 267 

Daniel, Jesse F 268 

Daniel, John 268 

Dansley, Wm 268 

Dartmouth, Earl of 10 

Daughters of Am. Revolu- 
tion 12 

Davenport, Wm 150 

Davies, Edmund 285 

Davis, Jefferson 16 


Dean, E. C 267 

Dean, Thos. W 266 

Dearth, Henry Golden 22 

"Defiance," ship 328 

Defoor, Jas. A 268 

Demere, Raymond 346 

De Renne, G. W.J 10, 12, 17 

De Veaux, Col 40, 43 

De Veaux, Maj 44 

De Vos, Cornelius 22 

Dinkins, J. M 106 

Dinwiddie, Robt., Gov. of 

Va 84 et seq. 

Dixon, A 58 

Dixon, R 58 

Dixon, Robt. ..145, 147, 149, 151 

Dixon, W. Macneile 274 

Dobbs, W. C 267 

Donnally, Mr 287, 346 

Doolittle, T. C 58 

Doolittle, W. E 58 

Douglass, Wm. A 268 

Douglass, Mr 295, 296 

Drummond, E. W 101 

Du Bose, Dudley M 68 

Duche, Rev. Jacob 161 

Dudley, J. E. Q 58 

Dudley, W. H 57 

Ducker, Eugen 22 

Duffy, J. W 106 

Du Gardier, Raoul 22 

Duncan, J. W^ 106 

Dunlap, 312 

Du Plessis, Chevalier 154 

Duran, Carolus 21 

Durham, T. C 58 

Earle, John 40, 42, 43 

Early, Gov. Peter 65 

Ebenezer 309, 311, 312 

Edge, A. B 106 

Elbert, Gen. Samuel 12, 141, 154 

Elliott, Stephen 9, 11 

Ellis, J 58 

Emistesegoe (see Emitasago 

and Guristersigo) 313 

Emitasago (see Emistesegoe 

and Guristersigo) 313 

Ena-lett, Daniel B 268 

Englett, James J 268 

Erskine, Lady Ann 133 

Ervin, E. W 57 

Erwin, Robt 101 

Estes, Charles 231 

Etheridge, Zach 263 

Eustace, Col. John Skey 285. 287 
Evans, Lawton B 135, 257 




Feay, Wm. T 252 

Felton, W. H 175 

Few, Wm 146, 147, 152. 295 

Field, H 58 

Findlay, Capt 328 

Fishbourne, Benj 309 

Fisher, Wm., anecdote of 

187. 188 

Florance, Lavania 49 

Forbes, 343 

Ford, E. T 58 

Ford, H 58 

Forfeited Estates, Commrs. 

of 332 

Forsyth, Gov. John 66,137 

Fort Dearborn 179 

Fort Moosa 82 

Fort Pulaski 9S-105. 169 

Francis, Wm 50 

Franklin, B. 58 

Franklin, G. T 58 

Frazer, Chas 262 

Frederica 347-350 

Freeman, John 267 

Frieseke, Frederick Carl .... 22 

Frost, John 268 

Fry, Col. Joshua 84-89 

Fulford, S. D 57 

Fulton, Capt 328 

Gaines, A. J 106 

Gallaudet. J 244 

Galphin, George 338,340 

Gardner, Thos 136 

Garner, B 5S 

Garrett, A. J 266 

Garret, G. W 267 

Garrett, Hosea 267 

Gatlin, A. J 106 

Gatlin, H. C 106 

Gaudy, Peter 51 

Gebhardt, Edw'd K. F. von . . 22 
Genesis Point (see Jennys's 

Point) 172 

Georgia Delegates to Contl 

Cong 293-295 

Georgia Gazette 49 

Georgia, Great Seals of ..253-262 
Georgia Historical Society 

3, 6, 13-24, 255, 256, 260, 274, 355 
Georgia House of Assembly 


Georgia Presbyterian Church 

on Slavery and Secession 


Georgia State Dept. of Ar- 
chives and History pro- 
prosed yd 

Georgia and South Carolina 

Boundary Line 141, 155-160, 169 

German Volunteers jqj 

Gibbons, Thos 110, 125,' 126 

Gibbons, Wm. 

....26, 51, 109, et seq., 276, 277 

Gibbons, Wm., Jr 109 

Gibson, J. B 267 

Gibson, R. T 57 

Gilbert, Sarah Hillhouse 66 

Giles, Jno. T 263 

Gilmer, Gov. Geo. R 60, 65 

Gilmer, Gen'l Jeremy F. 


Gilmer, Louisa Porter 49 

Gilmon, M. B 106 

Gilmore, E. T 58 

Gilmore, Gen'l Q. A. 103, 104, 105 

Gilmore, S. M 58 

Gilmore, T. J 58 

Gilmore, W 58 

Glascock, Thos 296,303 

Glen, Jas„ Gov. of S. C 84 

Glouchester, England ..212,213 

Glover, J. R 106 

Goetchius, Henry R. 253.354,355 

Goode, Richard 268 

Goodown, J. S 58 

Goodown, S. A 58 

Gordon, Eleanor Kinzie. 179-197 

Gordon, Eliza 185 

Gordon, Geo. A 188,189 

Gordon, George Arthur ....179 
Gordon, Wm. W. 

186,187, 188,190 

Goulding, F. R 264 

Grady, Henry W 57 

Graham, Thos 339 

Grantham, W. J 106 

Green, John 267,310 

Green, Mrs. T. M. ...62,69,175 
Greene, Gen'l Nathanael ...276 

277, 281, 282, 283, 285, 290-292, 

293, 294, 299, 300, 303. 304, 316. 

318, 319, 322, 326, 336, 337 

Greer, Capt. Robt 328 

Grine, Widow 340 

Guerry, Dupont 175 

Guess, George 172, 223 

Guilmartin, L. J 101 

Guristersigo, (see Emistese- 

goe and Emitasago) 313 

Gwinnett, Button 69, 344 




Habersham, James 12 

Habersham, John 151, 154, 158, 
299, 311, 312, 321, 323 

Habersham, Joseph 109 

Habersham, Wm. Xeyle 29, 257 

Hacker, Arthur 22 

Haddon, J. F 58 

Haddon, J. J 58 

Hagen. Theodore 22 

Hall, Jos. Hill 175 

Hall, Gov. Lyman 340, 341 

Hall, R. H 58 

Hall, Wilev 106 

Hall, W. K 57 

Hall, Z. W 106 

Hamilton, Alexander 350 

Hamilton, S. Prioleau 99 

Hammond, Col. Samuel ....317 

Hancock, John 142 

Hangabook, W. D 106 

Hankinson, R. H 105 

Hanleiter, C. K 268 

Hanleiter, C. R 268 

Hanlieter, W. R 268 

Hanson, John, Pres. of Con- 
gress 293 

Hardedge, J. S 5S 

Harden, Edward, J. 


Harden, Wm 5, 24, 197, 354 

Hardin, R. T 267 

Hardman, A. T 267 

Harman. W. N 58 

Harris, Thaddeus M 9 

Hart, Nancy 63, 68 

Haskell, Col Alex. C 67 

Hassam, Childe 22,23 

Hatcher, M. Felton 175 

Haweis, Rev. Thos Ill 

Hawkins, Benj 8, 12 

Hawthorne, Chas. W 22 

Hayne, Paul Hamilton 138 

Heard, Stephen ... .60, 62, 64, 322 

Heath, A. P 58 

Helm, Mrs 180 

Henderson, E. L 267 

Henderson, Richard ....330,331 

Hcndrix, John C 226 

Hendrix Wm 265 

Henry, Chas. 1 49 

Henry, Chas. S 7, 11 

Henry, Mabel A 49 

Herman, 1 57 

Herrmann, Hans 22, 23 

Herschel, Sir Win 214 

Hicot, Indian 330,331 


Hill, John 322 

Hillhouse, David 61, 66 

Hillyer, Geo. ...141,155,160,169 

Hilton, J. L 106 

Hines, A. C 58 

Hines, W. H 57 

Hitchcock, Geo 22 

Hoar, Geo. F 197 

Hobby, W. M 170,174 

Hodgson, Margaret Telfair 


Hodgson, Wm. B. ..8,11,13,14 
Hodgson Hall, Home of 
Georgia Historical Society 


Holbrook, James G 268 

Holbrook, Wm. M 268 

Holhan, Thos 106 

Holland, S. R 106 

Holmes, Augustus 268 

Holt, J. W 106 

Hopkins, Edward 101 

Hopkins, Matthew H 101 

Hornsby, James H 268 

Hornsby, Wm. G 268 

Horse-racing in Georgia, in 

1763 70 

Horton, J. W 58 

Horton, V. A. S 58 

Horton, W. H 58 

Horton, Wm. R 268 

Houstoun, Geo 109, et seq 

Houstoun. Wm. ..146, 147, 153 

Howard, C. W 7, 58 

Howard, J. T 58 

Howard, John 136 

Howell. Evan P 52-57 

Howell's (Evan P.) Bat- . 

tery, Roll of 57, 58, 59 

Howley, Richard 329, 346 

Hubbard, Early 267 

Hubbard, J. 267 

Hubbard, Wm 267 

Hull, Geo. Gilmer 67 

Hull, Rev. Hope 67 

Husley, A 58 

Hunter, David 168 

Hunter, Geo. W. 7 

Huntingdon, Selina, Count- 
ess of 108, et seq 

Hutchins. D. B 267 

Hutson, Joseph 268 

Hutson, Wm 268 

Jackson, Henry R. .11, 12, 17, 99 
Jackson, J 58 



Pa. ere 
Jackson, James 109, 111, 128, 287, 

....289, 291, 294, 309, 351, 352 

Jackson, R. E 58 

James, Berry 149, 151 

Jay, John 144 

Jenkins, Chas. J. 

....137, 140, 259, 260, 354-356 

Jennys's Point 172 

Jett, Stephen 147, 151 

Johnson, Rev. John ....108-134 

Johnson, J. E 58 

Johnson, Col. Stephen ..321.341 

Johnston, James 49, 332 

Johnston and Roberston ... 41 

Joice, Wm. H 268 

Jones, B 58 

Jones, Chas. C, D. D 264 

Jones, Chas. C, Jr. 

9, 10, 140, 225. 226, 355 

Jones, Geo 109, et seq 

Jones, J. L 267 

Jones, K 58 

Jones, Malcolm D 175 

Jones, Noble Wymberley ...346 

Jones, Seaborn 307 

Jordan, Hardin 266 

Jo Thompson Artillcrv. 

Muster Roll of 268. 269 

Karow, Mrs. Anna Belle 170-171 
Kaulbach, Wilhelm, von .... 22 

Kelsall, Roger 39, 97 

Kenadv, Thos. A 268 

Kettle Creek, Battle of 61 

King, Alex. C 72,169.173 

King, C. R. H 105 

King, Mitchell 9 

King. Roswell 218 

Kinzie, John 179, et seq 

Kinzie, John Harris 181 

Kipling, Rudyard 195 

Kittrell, G 58 

Klickly, D. H 106 

Klicklv, Daniel 106 

Knight, A. M., Sr 175 

Knight, Lucian L 62 

Kuhl, Gotthardt 22 

Lamar, Chas. A. L 106 

Lamar, Jos. R 139, 140 

Lamar, Thomas 324, 325 

Lane, J. F 266 

Langmade, J. S 58 

Lanier, Ben 340, 341 

Laseter, John L 268 

Latheridge, Thos 268 


LaTouche, Gaston 22 

Laurenti, Cesare 22 

Law, Wm 7,9,217 

Lawrence, Alex. A 175 

Lawrence, James B 268 

Lawson, Ernest 22, 23 

Lawton, Alexander Robt. 

11, 14, 67, 98, 99 

Lawton, Alexander Rudolf 

12, 13, 168 

LeConte, Wm 312 

Lee, A. J 267 

Lee, John 324 

Lee, Robt. E 102, 185 

Legget, Abraham 44 

Leigh, Mrs. Mabel Gordon .174 

Lester, G. N 258 

Le Vert, Octavia W 67, 139 

Levett, Francis, (Frazer?) 

41, 43, 44 

Lewden, Wm 126, 127 

Lewis, Harvey 101 

Lewis, John N 244 

Lewis, Robert H 101 

Light, P. G 266 

Lindsay, John 327 

Littleton, Benj. F 268 

Liverpool, England ....206,207 

Livingston, Robert R 293 

Livingston, Walter 143 

Locke, Capt 307 

Lockman, I. N 58 

Loden, F. M._ 58 

Loggins, Ervin 267 

Long, Wm. H 268 

Lord, E. K 58 

Lord, F. M 58 

Lord, H. C 58 

Lord, N. A 58 

Lowe, Aaron 268 

Lowe, A. A 106 

Loyer, Adrian 51 

Lucas, Maj 303 

Lumpkin, Gov. Wilson ...48. 65 
Lytle, Eleanor 180,181 

McAllister, Matthew 127, et seq 
McAllister, Matthew Hall .. 7 

McCall, Hugh 347,348 

McCoy, D. G 58 

McCoy, F. A 58 

McCoy, J. N 58 

McDaniel, Greenberry 2(>8 

McDaniel, John 268 

McDaniel, P. S 266 

McDaniel, V. 267 




MacEwen, Walter 22 

McFarland, Dr. Jas. T 101 

McGillivray, Wm 95 

McGirth, Daniel 302 

McGlamery, Rufus 106 

Mcintosh, Lachlan 158, 325, 335 
Mcintosh, Roderick 

* ("Rory") 283 

Mcintosh, Wm. 

320, 335,341,343-344 

Mcintosh, Wm. J 218 

Mcintosh, Mrs 328 

Mackall, Leonard L 174 

Mackall, Wm. W 12, 39 

Mackay, James 77-98 

Mackay Clan 77-81 

Mackay, Patrick 40 

McKay, Col 287-289, 298, 301 

McKean, Thos., Pres. of 

Cong 293 

McKennie, Samuel R 268 

McKennie, Wm 268 

McKillip, Major 181 

McKinley, Wm 190 

McKinney, J. 267 

McMullan, M. J 106 

McMurphy, Daniel 

285, 292, 330, 331 

McWhir, Wm 197-219 

Madison. Dolly 185 

Magill, Juliette 181,182 

Mallard, R. Q 263 

Mallard, T. S 264 

Marion, Gen. Francis 301 

Marlow, John 268 

Marshall, John 347 

Martin, Alexander, Gov. of 

X. C 292, 293 

Martin, Henri Jean Guil- 

laume 22,23 

Martin, John, Gov. of Geor- 
gia, Letters of. &c. 

281-335, 336-339, 341-343 

Martin, Joseph 150 

Martin, J. H 106 

Martin, R 57 

Martin, (R) Battery, Roll of, 
see also Howell's Battery 

57, 58 

Martin, W. A 57 

Macon, Bluford 267 

Macon, Merrill 267 

Massey, W. J 58 

Massingale, B. D 267 

Mather, Cotton 206 

Matthews, Geo 60, 64 

Matthews, John 

318, 319, 320, 324, 325,326 

Matthews, J. W 58 

Maxwell, James 97 

Maxwell, John Butler 317 

May and Hills 44 

Melchers, Gari 21, 22, 23 

Melton, John 106 

Mercer, Geo. Anderson 12 

Mercer, Hugh W 188 

Mercer, Jesse 67 

Milledge, John 

..43, 109, et seq., 135, 136, 140 

Miller, A. G 175 

Miller, J. H 106 

Miller, Samuel 346 

Minis, Esther 45 

Minis, Isaac 49 

Minis, J. Florance 49 

Minis, Dr. Philip 48 

Minis, Philip 46 

Minis, Abram 49 

Minis, Abraham 45 

Minis, Abigail 45 

Minis, Lavinia F 49 

Minis, Leah 45 

Minis Family 45-49 

Mitchell. A 264 

Montford, T. W 106 

Montgomery, Dr. Chas. 

Jenkins 355, 356 

Montgomery Guards 101 

Montiano, Don Manuel de 

12, 348 

Monvel, Boutet de 21 

Mooney, James. H 267 

Mooney, Robt 266 

Mooney. W. 267 

Moore, E. G 106 

Moore, Wm. P 268 

Moore, Maj 287, 289, 290 

Moore, Samuel 334, 338 

Mord and Keall 318 

Morel, John 109, et seq., 334, 335 

Morgan, Matthew R 26S 

Morgan, Simeon 267 

Morgan, Wm. M 268 

Morris, Tames E 217 

Morris, Robt 293 

Moulton, F. M 106 

Moulton, T. J 106 

Moultrie, Wm 142, 145, 146 

Mulberrv Grove 276-277 

Mulling, J. E 58 

Mullryme. John 50 

Murphy, James 106 





Murphy, Dr. Murdock 204 

Myers, Eugenia P 49 

Napier, Jos. H 174 

Neal, W. P 267 

Negro Troops in South 

Carolina and Georgia. 

question raised 315 

Nesbett, Hugh 136 

Netherclift, Thos. 

113, et seq.. 334, 335 

Newsome, H. K 57 

Nicoll, John C 7 

Noel, John Y 30 

Norrell, John 266 

Norris, A. W 105 

Norris, S. J 106 

North Carolina, Gov. of 

(Martin, Alex.) 327 

Oates, 295, 301 

Odingsell, Chas 318 

Oglethorpe, James E. 10, 45, 81, 

82, 83, 255, 276, 347, 34S, 349 
Oglethorpe, Mrs. Elizabeth .276 

Oglethorpe Monument 12 

Oglethorpe's Regiment 

70, 71, 171 

Oglethorpe Light Infantrv 

99, 101 

Oglethorpe University 265 

Ohshields, David 267 

Ohshields, Hiram 267 

Oliver, L. D 267 

Olmstead, Chas. H. 

98 et seq., 169. 243 

Oquin, J. J 58 

Oquin, W. B 57 

Osborn, Adlai 325 

Osgood, Samuel 143 

Overstreet, Mrs. E. K. ..170. 174 
Overstreet, Dr. G. M. ..170. 174 

Overstreet, Judge 170 

Owen, A. J 267 

Owen, F. M 267 

Owen, G. W 267 

Owen, I. N 267 

Owen, J. H 267 

Owen, Jessie P 267 

Owen, Thos. A 267 

Owen, W. A 267 

Owen, W. J 267 

Owen and Thompson 318 

Owens, W. C 267 

Oxford, J. R 58 


Palmer, Col 82 

Parker, Dr ng 

Parker, Sir Gilbert 274 

Parker, Thos. A 175 

Parks, M. W 174 

Patterson, Enoch 265 

Patterson, Hiram 267 

Patterson, John D 267 

Patterson, Joshua 266 

Peace, Isaac 44 

Pearce, S. A 105 

Penfield, Josiah 68 

Perry, W. H 266 

Phillips, E. W 267 

Phinizy, John 228 

Pickens, Andrew 


Pigean, J. F 267 

Pinckney, Chas. C 158, 326 

Pinion, Sandford V 269 

Pittman, J. H 58 

Pool, B. F 58 

Porter, H. W 267 

Posey, F 58 

Prater, A. P 267 

Prater, Benj 267 

Presbyterian Church of Ga. 

on Slavery and Secession 


Preston, Wm. B 185 

Preston, Henry Kirk 7,252 

Preston, James 252 

Priestley, Jos 207 

Priestley, 207 

Pulaski, Count Casimir 277 

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre 

Cecile 22 

Rabun, Gov. Wm 65 

Raftaelli, Jean Francois ..22,23 

Raffles, Rev. Thos 207 

Ragan, T. B 58 

Ragan, J. M 269 

Rayfield, N 58 

Redfield, Edward W 22 

Reed, Harrv D 175 

Reese, Rt. Rev. F. F 174 

Reese, Wm. M 68 

Ricks, W. W 105 

Ridgely, Dr. 315 

Robbins, Algernon S 268 

Robbins, James W 269 

Robbins, Tos. P 269 

Roberts, Querlis W 268 

Roberts. Wm. E 269 

Roberts. Wilis R 269 




Robinson, J. H 267 

Robinson WE 267 

Robson, W G 57 

Ropers, J. r So 

Rolfcs, Fred, (see Rolphs) 

*. 316,323,331 

Rolphs, Fred, (see Rolfes) 


Roll, Alfred Phillipe 21,22 

Roosevelt, Theodore, poem 

dedicated to 273 

Rowland, Dunbar 352-353 

Ruper, Gen'l Thos. H 354 

Rutledge, Gov. John 315 

St. Augustine, Siege of 12 

Salter, J. F 59 

Sandwich, Mr. 136 

Sanford. R. B 267 

Satterfield, J. A 267 

Savannah, Ga., Map of (front 

of Dec. No.) 353 

Savannah, Ga., in the 40s 243-252 
Savannah, Ga., Library So- 
ciety 7,9 

Savannah, Ga., Seige of men- 
tioned 70 

Savannah, Ga., Topography 

of 236-242 

Savannah Volunteer Guards . 99 

Scallions, Capt 334 

Schley, Winfield S 190 

Scott, Philip 339 

Screven, Bridget 166 

Screven, Chas. 167 

Screven, Dr. Jas. P. 


Screven, Elizabeth 166 

Screven, Elizabeth M 271 

Screven, Elizabeth W 269 

Screven Family .166-167,269-272 

Screven, Franklin B 271 

Screven, Geo. P 270 

Screven, Georgia B 269 

Screven, Hannah 166, 167 

Screven, James 166,167 

Screven, James 167 

Screven, John 

r 12,17,99,166,167,269 

Screven, Lila M. 269 

Screven, Martha 271 

Screven, Martha B 270 

Screven, Mary 166 

Screven, Murray L 271 

Screven, Nannie L 271 

Screven, Samuel 166 


Screven, Thos 269 

Screven, Thos. F. ..167,269,270 

Screven, Wm 166 

Scrimger, Chas 126,127 

Seagrove, James 4.1 

Seals of Georgia 253-262 

Sevier, John 148 

Shannon, James J 22 

Shaw, Augustus 268 

Shaw, Samuel H 269 

Shealy, M. L 106 

Sheffield Family of New 

Haven 185 

Sheftall, Sheftall 250-251 

Shappard, J. F 59 

Sheppard, W. D 59 

Sheppard, W. F 59 

Sherling, Hamilton 269 

Sherman, Gen'l W. T 185 

Shifter, Monroe 267 

Sibley, 154 

Silva, Wm. P 21 

Simons, Abram 68 

Simril, Robt. E 268 

Sims, F. W 101,103 

Sinclair, Sir John 218 

Sinclair, Robt 97 

Singleton, P. W 267 

Skelly, H 59 

Slavery, Presbyterian Church 

of Ga., on 263-265 

Smith, Archibald 175 

Smith, C. Shaler 140 

Smith, D. H 106 

Smith, H. G 266 

Smith, Gov. Jas. M 260,354 

Smith, Jos. B 269 

Smith, T. P 59 

Smith, Roger 110,129 

Smith, S. B 106 

Smith, W. A 59 

Smith, Warren F 269 

Smith, Wm 267 

Smyser, 139 

Snyders, Franz 22 

Sorrel, Dr. Francis 36-39 

Sorrel, Gen'l G. Moxley .... 17 
South Carolina, Gov. of 


South Carolina and Ga. 

Boundary Line 141, 155-160, 169 

Sowter, J. A 106 

Spalding, James 39, 349 

Spalding. Thos 39,83,348 

Speer, Emory 244 

Spiers, McLeod & Co 44 




Spencer, Ambrose 205 

Stafford, S. S 253 

Stallings, Lieut. — 309 

Stanton, C. V 175 

Siarnes, Ebenezer 140 

Stegin, John H 101 

Stephens, Gov. Alex. H. . . .66, 67 

Stephens, J. R 267 

Stephens, L. A 266 

Stevens, Alfred E. L. J. V. B. 22 

Stevens, A. L 59 

Stevens, (Stephens?) Wm. ..109 

Stevens, Wm. Bacon 6,7,9 

Stevenson, Wm. H 269 

Stewart, Dugald 207 

Stirk, Benjamin 344 

Stirk, Hannah 344 

Stirk, Samuel 


Stoddard, John 11 

Stovall, G. W 267 

Strathy Hall, Home of Jas. 

Mackay 77, et seq, 94. 95 

Stripland, W. B 267 

Strong, John 316 

Stubbs, E. W 106 

Sturges, Daniel 262 

Summerall, J. 1 175 

Summerville, Ga 135-141 

Sumner, Job 141 

Sunbury, Ga., Academy 


Sweat, J. L 175 

Swartwout, John 351 

Swartwout, Samuel 351 

Szymanowski, Wincelas .... 22 

Talbot, Grv. Matthew 60, 65 

Tallassee King 

317, et seq., 330, 331 

Talmage, Samuel K 9, 265 

Talmage, T. DeWitt 265 

Tanner, D. B 59 

Taply, Billy 318 

Tarrer, H. F 106 

Tattnall, Josiah 

39,42,43,44, 109, et seq. 

Tatum, Elisha 267 

Tatum, Moses 267 

Tatum, R. H 266 

Tatum, Silas E 267 

Tavlor, Betty 185 

Taylor, C. W 106 

Taylor, Geo. T 267 

Taylor, John M 267 

Taylor, W. H 267 



Taylor, L 

Taylor, Samuel E 

Taylor, W. J 

Taylor, Zachary 

Teclcastle, Agnes B. V. . 
Tefft, Israel Keech .. 
Telfair, Edward 

13,25, 141-154.34$ 

Telfair, Margaret 8, 10, 1J 

Telfair, Mary 1114 

Telfair, Wm < • • 25, 29 ^ 

Telfair Academy of Arts and' j 

Sciences 13-24, 170, 17| 

Telfair Art Association of 

Sav'h 17Q 

Thomas, J. B 59 

Thomas, W. C 59 

Thompson, H. S $9 

Thompson, J. W 10$ 

Thomson, Chas 14J 

Thrash, Wm. H 269 

Thunderbolt, Ga., origin of 

name 27$ 

Tompkins, J. F 59 

Tompkins, R 59 

Tompkins, S. F 59 

Tonyn, Patrick, Gov. of East 

Florida ..320,321-328,329,351 

334, 335, 341-343 

Toombs, Robert 68 

Tculson, W. H 59 

Towns, Gov. Geo. W 65 

Trainer, Thos 268 

Treutlen, John Adam 344 

Triboudett, John Francis ... 51 

Troup, Gov. George M 172 

Turnbull, Nichol 39,40,45 

Turner, Julius 106 

Twiggs, John 

151,298, 300,317,344-346 

Twitty, J. E 170,174 

Union Society 51 

Van Hoose, A. W 174 

Veal, J. H 59 

Veal, J. W 59 

Virginia, Governor of ..145,327 

Waddel, Moses 
Waddill, Pat. . 
Wade, Col. 


Waits, Andrew M. . . . 

WVts, James M 

Waldburger, Jacob ..109, et seq. 
Walden, J. M 59 




Walker, Robert D 101 

Walker, Gen. W. H. F 67 

Walker, W.J 170,174 

Wallace, Jesse P 269 

Wallace & Cecil 311 

Waller, J. A 59 

Waller, J. J. • 59 

Waller, R. T 59 

Waller, W 59 

Walthour, Andrew I^'IH 

Walton, Geo 139,346 

Ward, John E 9 

Ware, Nicholas 67 

Waring, J. Frederick 187 

Warthen, J. B ^7 

Warsaw, see Wassaw 276 

Washington, Geo 77-97, 


Washington, Thos 318 

Washington Volunteers 101 

Wassaw, see Warsaw 276 

Watson, Geo 267 

Watson, Harrison 267 

Waudin, Dr. John 332,333 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony 128, 

287-289, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 
296, 297, 259, 300, 301, 302, 303, 
304, 305, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 
315, 316, 317, 326, 327, 329, 336, 

Wayne, James, M 7 

Webster, Daniel 185, 252 

Webster, G. W 59 

Webster, J. W 59 

Webster, W. F 57 

Weisterfeld, Peter 269 

Wereat, John 297, 

299, 300, 302, 321, 341, 343, 344 

Wereat, Mrs. & Miss 325 

Vt'esley, Chas 347 

Wesley, John 347 

Westbrooks, Samuel ..267 

Whalen, Rev. Peter 101 


Wheeler, Jos 139 

White, Rev. Geo 252, 276 

White, Dr. J. E 236 

Whitefield, Rev. Geo. .109, et seq. 

Whitefield, James 109, et seq. 

White Hall. Georgia ....276-277 

Whitmire, E. E 267 

Whitmire, E. H 266 

Whitmire, Geo. C 267 

Whitmire, John A 267 

Whitmire, J. C 267 

Whitmire, R. B 267 

Whitmire, W. R 267 

Whitney, Eli 64 

Whittington, G. W 106 

Wicker, James 106 

Wilde, Richard Henry ..10,138 

Wilkes County 59-69 

Williams, Chas. J 100 

Williams, H 106 

Williams, W. S 106 

Williams, Wm. Thorne .... 7 
Williamson, Col. Micajah .. 66 
Wilson, Gen'l Claudius C. ..101 

Wilson, R. T 267 

Wilson, Wm 268 

Wise Guards 101,106 

Wofford, J. D 267 

Wood, J 59 

Wood, Joseph P 267 

Wood, W. H 267 

Wooton, Daniel B 269 

Worcester, England 208 

Wright, Sir James 10, 16, 28, 

40, 46, 50, 94, 95, 96, 281, 348 

Wright, Sir Nathan 276 

Wylly, Richard ..40,289,322,326 
Yorktown, Surrender at ....346 

Zubly, David 26 

Zubly, Rev. John J. ..27, 161-165 

Zucchero, Federiga 22 

Zugel, Heinrich J 22 



OCT 95